Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "The Hebrews in America. A series of historical and biographical sketches"

See other formats



























































>\- 






\ 



s\ X > 









V ^ \ ^ 






^'^ 

Vn" 


















\ 






Ns\N 



^♦^ 













fyxmll Hmvmitg JihtMg 




THE GIFT OF 



.d..Oird,.. 



AJApsL 



Cornell University Library 
E184.J5 M34 

The Hebrews in America. 



olin 



3 1924 032 763 207 




The original of tliis bool< is in 
tlie Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http ://www. arch i ve . o rg/detai Is/cu31 924032763207 



THE 



Hebrews in America. 



A SERIES OF HISTORICAL AND 
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



ISAAC MARKENS. 



PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR, 
No. 234 Broadway, 

NEW YORK. 

less. 



Copyrighted, 1888, 

By 

ISAAC MARKENS. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Preface , v 

Historical i 

In the Army and Navy . . . . . . 126 

In Commercial Life 139 

In Public Office 174 

Biographical 196 

In the Pulpit 275 

Institutions and Associations .... 309 

Addenda .■ . 335 

Index . 347 



PREFACE. 



THE design of this volume is to show the degree of 
prominence and influence attained by the Hebrews 
of the United States. The preparation of the work was 
undertaken at the suggestion of the numerous readers of a 
less elaborate series of sketches upon the same subject which 
appeared in the " New York Mail and Express " about one 
year since. In the course of his earlier researches the author 
brought to light a vast amount of interesting material regard- 
ing the Hebrews in this country, the publication of which, in 
the secular press was, for obvious reasons, found impractic- 
able. The material then secured, which has been supple- 
mented by further investigation, constitutes the present 
volume. In preparing this work the author has con- 
sulted various State and Municipal histories and the 
collections of various Hi.storical Societies, including 
" Colonial History of New York," " Westcott's Philadelphia." 
" Historical Collections of Rhode Island," " Daly's Jewish 
Settlements in North America," " Steven's History of 
(jeorgia," "Historical Collections of Georgia," "Arnold's 



VI PREFACE. 

History of Rhode Island," " Historical Collections of Rhode 
Island," Rosenbach's "Jews of Philadelphia, prior to 1800," 
New York newspapers of the last century, Valentine's 
" Manual of the City of New York," " Legislative Records 
of Maryland," and files of the various Hebrew periodicals 
and newspapers published during the past forty years. 
Besides this, the author has put himself in correspondence 
with prominent gentlemen in the principal cities with 
a view of securing data pertaining to the early settle- 
ments, the organization of synagogues and the biographies 
of persons of note, from most of whom valuable inform- 
ation has been secured. It is to be regretted, however, 
that repeated requests for important material have been 
peremptorily declined in some instances and ignored in 
others. 

The writer desires to tender his acknowledgments to the 
following gentlemen, who have kindly complied with re- 
quests for material and otherwise aided in the preparation 
of this volume : Rev. Drs. Berkowitz, of Mobile ; Bloch, 
of Portland, Oregon ; Felsenthal, of Chicago ; Grossman, of 
Detroit; Landsberg, of Rochester, N.Y.; Machol, of Cleve- 
land; Mendes, of Savannah ; Naumburg, of Pittsburg; Stern, 
of Washington, D. C; Wintner, of Brooklyn ; Wise, of Cin- 
cinnati, and Messrs. Hyman Blum, S. N. Carvalho, Max 
Cohen, Daniel P. Hays, Myer S. Isaacs, P. J. Joachimsen, 
Isidore Osorio, Benjamin F. Peixotto and Willy Salomon, of 
New York; Paul Weil, of New Haven ; William B. Hacken- 



PREPACfi. Vll 

burg, of Philadelphia; Joseph Abraham, Jacob Ezekiel and 
Lewis Seasongood, of Cincinnati; H. Krakauer, of Boston; 
Samuel Evans, of Columbia, Penn.; A. Weill, of Wilmington, 
N. C; Sol Marx, of New Orleans; C. B. Feibleman, of 
Indianapolis; William Horgan, of Memphis; Nathaniel 
Levin, of Charleston ; Rev. Uzal Condit, Easton, Penn.; 
L C. Levy, Augusta, Ga. .The biographical sketch of Isidor 
Bush, Esq., of St. Louis, is partly taken from the United 
States Encyclopedia. 

L M. 

New York, April, 1888. . 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 



HISTORICAL 



MARVELOUS prosperity and steady progress mark 
the history of the Hebrev/s in the United States. 
In every department of commercial and intellectual activity 
they are continually making headway. Subjected to no 
restrictions and accorded the privilege enjoyed by all citizens 
of the Republic, they are enjoying unexampled prosperity. 
With. a population of only 400,000 in the entire country, of 
which number 125,000 are credited to New York, the 
Hebrews have made themselves felt throughout the land to 
an extent far greater than any other like number of people. 
Not only have they shown surprising growth and amassed 
immense fortunes, but they are recognized as among the 
most useful of our citizens. Enterprising and foremost in 
all public movements looking to the welfare of the entire 
community, patriotic and law-abiding, cosmopolitan in their 
charities, and permitting none of their own people to become 
a burden on the State or city, their presence is welcomed 
and their power is extending year after year. Close observers 
of the times are of the opinion that within half a century the 
Hebrews of this country will control the balance of trade. 
This appears quite likely if the recent increase in population 
is maintained. During the year 1886 over 30,000 Hebrew 



2 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

emigrants were landed in New York, of whom more than 
two-thirds remained there. During the six years previous, 
upwards of SS.OOO came from Russia, Poland, Germany and 
Roumania, 1 14,000 being landed in the United States from 
1 88 1 to 1886. There are no indications that this influx will 
be soon checked. On the contrary, Hon. Penjamin F. Peix- 
otto, our late consul to Roumania, estimates that by the 
end of the second decade of the coming century Russia will 
have driven at least half of her 2,500,000 Hebrews to this 
country, and other countries where Draconic laws and insen- 
sate persecution are hardly less terrible, will contribute pro- 
portionately. Over 50,000 are already settled on the Western 
plains. Inasmuch as the great majority of the most pros- 
perous Hebrew merchants of to-day landed on these shores 
under conditions not dissimilar to the later comers, it is rea- 
sonable to expect that the latter will experience equal pro- 
gression. The story of the Hebrews in this country, which 
dates back 235 years, forms an interesting chapter. The 
conditions under which they first came here, the manner of 
men composing the early colonists, what they have accom- 
plished in the commercial and intellectual world, what part 
they have taken in the affairs of the nation, the extent of 
their charities, their remarkable accumulation of wealth, 
and how they already control numerous branches of busi- 
ness, is shown in the following pages. 

NEW YORK. 

The expulsion of the Hebrews from Spain and Portugal, 
beginning in the year 1492, caused many to seek refuge in 
Holland. In 1624, the Dutch having secured a foothold in 
Brazil, numbers of Hebrews found their way to that country. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 3 

The formation of the West India Company of Amsterdam 
in 1638, which had for its object the opening up of trade 
with Brazil, was followed by a large emigration of He- 
brews to that country, 600 having left Amsterdam in the 
autumn of 1642 alone. Moses Raphael de Aguilar and 
Isaac Aboab accompanied the latter. Numerous congre- 
gations were organized in Brazil. While the Hebrews in 
Mexico, Lima and Carthagena were subjected to indignities 
similar to those experienced in the Old World, Brazil, Dr. 
Kayserling says, was the only portion of the New .World 
where they were not burned at the stake. In the City of 
Mexico, according to the same authority, the celebration of 
the Passover, in 1554, had been marked by the erection of 
large tribunes and eighty unfortunate Judaizers died at the 
stake, amid festive music, the ringing of bells and the wild 
rejoicings of the populace. The restoration of Portuguese 
power in Brazil led to the removal of many of the Hebrews 
from that country, and in 1654 a party of twenty-seven men, 
women and children set sail from the port of Cape St. Ann, 
near Bahia, Brazil, on board the barque St. Catarina, com- 
manded by Jaques De La Motthe, bound for New Amsterdam. 
The party included Abram De Lucena, David Israel, Moses 
Ambrasias, Abram De La Simon, Salvator D'Andrada, Joseph 
De Costa, David Fiera, Jacob Barsunson, Jacob C. Henrique, 
Isaac Mesa and Isaac Levy. On their arrival at their des- 
tination their baggage was seized and sold at public auction 
as payment for their passage. The amount thus realized 
was insufficient to defray the charges and Israel and Am- 
brasias were arrested and held as hostages until the full 
amount was liquidated. 

The official record of this transaction shows that an 



4 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

" extraordinary meeting of the Dutch magnates was con- 
vened at the City Hall on Wednesday, September i6, 1654, 
to consider Captain De La Motthe's complaint, at which 
were present : ' The Heeren,' Arent Van Hatten, M. Krigier, 
P. L. Van Dergrist, Peter Wolfertsen, Oloff Stevenson and 
Cornelius Van Trenhoven." The defendants are recorded as 
" David Israel and the other Jews." The session was held to 
consider " the ballance of the payment of the passage of the 
said Jews, for which each is bound in solidum" and the 
minutas further read that "whereas, their goods sold thus far 
by residue do not amount to the payment of their obligation, 
it is therefore requested that one or two of the said Jews be 
taken as principal, which according to the aforesaid obliga- 
tion cannot be refused. Therefore, he hath taken David 
Israel and Moses Ambrasias as principal debtors for the 
remaining ballance, with request that the same be placed in 
confinement until the account be paid. The Court having 
weighed the petition of the plaintiff and seen the obligation, 
wherein each is bound in solidum for the full payment, have 
consented to the plaintiff's request to place the aforesaid 
defendants under Civil arrest, namely, with the provost- 
marshal, until they shall have made satisfaction ; provided, 
that De La Motthe shall provisionally answer for the board, 
which is fixed at sixteen stivers per diem for each person, 
and it is ordered that for this purpose forty to fifty guilders 
proceeding from the goods sold shall remain in the hands of 
the Secretary, together with the expense of this special court. 
Done in New Amsterdam, New Netherland." 

The arrival of the first Hebrew colony excited the wrath 
of Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch Governor, who notified his 
Government of their presence and suggested that " none 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 5 

of the Jewish nation be permitted to infest New Netherland." 
The home authorities, however, took a different view of the 
matter and the testy Governor was informed that their pro- 
posed exclusion from New Amsterdam was " inconsistent 
with reason and justice." This decision is presumed to have 
been in a measure, owing to the fact that several Hebrews 
were directors of the West India Company. Incensed at 
Stuyvesant's unwarranted assumption of authority, an act 
was passed permitting the Hebrews to reside and trade in New 
Netherland, so long as they cared for the poor of their race. 

In 1655, D'Andrada having expressed a desire to purchase 
a house and lot, objection was raised as to the competency 
of Hebrews to hold real estate and his application to the 
Governor and Council was denied. During the same year, De 
Lucena applied for permission to prepare a burial ground for 
Hebrews. This too, was refused on the ground that there 
was " no need for it." The death of one of his co-religionists 
a few months later, caused a revocation of this decision. 

It was also during the same year that Abram De La Simon 
was in the meshes of the law for a violation of the Sabbath. 
His offense being brought to the attention of the authorities, 
"TheHeeren," Allart Anthon, Oloff Stevenson, Cornelius 
Van Trenhoven, Johannes Verbrugge, Johannes Nevius, 
Johannes de Peyster, Jacob Striker and Jan Vinge, proceeded 
on Monday, March first, to deliberate what punishment 
should be meted out to the offender. Here is the ofiScial 
entry of this episode : 

Cornelius Von Trenhoven, in quality of Sheriff of this City, Plaintiff, 
vs. Abram De La Simon, a Jew, Defendant. 

Plaintiff, rendering his demand in writing, says that the defendant 
hath kept his store open during the sermon and sold by retail, as 



6 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

proved by affidavit. Concluding, therefore, that he shall be de- 
prived of his trade and condemned in a fine of six hundred guilders, 
and the charge having been read, and he, not understanding the 
same, it was ordered that copy thereof, be given him to answer the 
same before next Court day. 

Stuyvesant appears, by Colonial records, to have been 
engaged in frequent correspondence with Amsterdam relative 
to the status of the Hebrew settlers, and was involved in 
numerous quarrels on their account. Jacob Barsunson and 
Asser Levy, for expressing an unwillingness to " stand 
guard," and a readiness to pay a fine in consideration of their 
exemption from military duty, were notified to depart at 
once. On August 28, 1654, eight months previous to this 
episode, Stuyvesant and his colleagues decided that " the 
captains and officers of the trainbands of this City, having 
asked the Director-General and Council, whether the Jewish 
people, who reside in this city, should also train and mount 
guard with the citizens' bands, this was taken into consider- 
ation and deliberated upon. First, the disgust and unwilling- 
ness of these trainbands to be associated with the aforesaid 
nation, and to be on guard with them in the same guard- 
house, and on the other side, that the said nation was not 
admitted of account among the citizens, as regards train- 
bands or common citizens' guards, neither in the illustrious 
city of Amsterdam, nor (to knowledge) in any city in the 
Netherland, but in order that the said nation may pay a tax, 
for their freedom in that respect, it is directed by the 
Director-General and Council, to prevent further discontent 
that the aforesaid nation shall, according to the usages of the 
renowned city of Amsterdam, remain exempt from the 
general training and guard duty, on condition that each male 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 7 

person over sixteen and under sixty years, contribute for the 
aforesaid freedom towards the relief of the general municipal 
tax, sixty-five stivers [equal to $i.20 gold] every month." 

Abram de Lucena and others, on November 29, 1655, 
wishing to extend their field of operations, addressed a 
petition to the " Honorable Worshipful Director-General 
and Council of New Netherland " for permission to trade in 
other directions. Their address " shows, with due reverence, 
Abraham de Lucena, Salvador D'Andrada and Jacob Coen, 
residing in this city, that under date of 15th of February, 
1655, they petitioned through the honorable Lords Directors 
of the Incorporated West India Company, Masters and Pa- 
troons of this province, for permission and consent to travel, 
reside and trade like the other inhabitants and enjoy the 
same liberty. They request, therefore, respectfully, that your 
Noble Worships will not prevent or hinder them herein, but 
will allow and consent that they may with other inhabitants 
of this province, travel to and trade on the South River of 
New Netherland, at Fort Orange and other places situated 
within the jurisdiction of this Government of New Nether- 
land." Stuyvesant's opinion was that " the petition is to 
be denied for weighty reasons." Nicasuss de Sille's decision 
was that he " did not like to act herein contrary to the 
orders of the Lords Directors, but that at present, as they 
have put on board ship goods for the South River, permis- 
sion might be given them and further orders in answer to 
the Lords Directors should be awaited." One Lamon- 
tagne's, a third member of the Council, reply was, that " for 
weighty reasons the petition is denied." Cornelius Van 
Trenhoven believed that " to grant the petition of the Jews 
for permission to go to the South River at Fort Orange, 



8 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

although the Noble Lords Mayors had allowed this Nation 
to live and trade in New Netherland, is nevertheless very 
injurious to the community and population of this place, 
and therefore the petition must be denied for the coming 
winter, and ample report made thereon to the Lords Direc- 
tors, to say also that for this time a young man of that 
nation may be allowed to go to the South River with some 
goods without establishing thereby a precedent." 

Stuyvesant's persistent hostility led to the removal of 
many Hebrews to other localities, while the Directors at 
Amsterdam took occasion to remind him of the privileges 
they had accorded them and his refusal to comply. " We 
have observed with displeasure," was the language of one of 
these rebukes, " that, contrary to our concessions granted on 
July 15, 1655, to the Jews or Portuguese nation, you have 
forbidden them to trade to Fort Orange and to the South 
River, or to purchase real estate which is here allowed with- 
out any difficulty. The Jews or Portuguese nation are not, 
however, to be at liberty to exercise any handicraft or to 
keep any open retail store which they cannot do in this city, 
[Amsterdam]. But they shall pursue, peaceably and quietly, 
their commerce as aforesaid and be at liberty to exercise 
their religious worship within their houses." Thereupon, one 
Asser Levy, a former burgher in Amsterdam, and Salvator 
D'Andrada, made application for the rights of citizenship. 
The petition was denied, but the decision was subsequently 
reversed by the authorities in Amsterdam. 

In 1665 the authorities levied an assessment upon each 
citizen, to be paid weekly, in order to quarter 100 
soldiers. Asser Levy's contribution for that purpose was 
fixed at two florins. David Frere, a co-religionist, during 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 9 

the same year, was " charged with removing from the Bailiff's 
house, contrary to express prohibition, a certain chest 
which was brought by order to the Bailiff's house, in order 
to obtain five beavers due him." The penalty imposed upon 
Frere was the confiscation of the beavers, a public whip- 
ping at the stake and banishment, together with a fine of 
800 guilders, with cost of suits and imprisonment until 
the fine was paid. Asser Levy, whose name frequently 
appears in the records of Colonial times, soon acquired, evi- 
dently with an eye to business, title to a house on " Hoogh 
Straat," the first house within the city gates, which had been 
for some time used as an inn, and was the resort of the 
country people entering the town from Long Island. These 
people he intercepted, no doubt with profitable results. 
Thefe he lived for some years, his farhily removing to Long 
Island on his decease in 1682. That the credit system was 
in vogue in those days, and that Levy conducted his busi- 
ness upon that plan, is shown by the following transcript of 
the proceedings at a Court of " Schout and Burgomasters 
held September 11, 1673 : 

Asser Levy appears as plaintiff against Edward Smith, defendant. 
Plaintiff demands from the defendant the sum of 125 florins, the 
balance of account for trusted goods. Defendant's wife appears in 
court, admits the debt, but requests a little delay, as her husband is 
on his return home. The worshipful Court orders that the goods 
now in the defendant's house shall be delivered into the hands of 
the plaintiff, so that they may not be diminished, and there remain 
until further orders from the Court. 

In 1674 the name of Mary Jacobs appears in the list of 
property holders on Pearl Street, between Broad and White- 
hall, the value of the property being estimated at $1,000. 
In 1664 the city boundary was defined by stockades in the 



10 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

vicinity of the present Wall Street, and among the inhabi- 
tants residing close by was one Henry Brazier, who from the 
names of his three sons, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, is pre- 
sumed to have been a Hebrew, while Jacob Israel owned 
property on William Street, near the present Hanover Square. 

Little progress was made by the Hebrews remaining in 
New Amsterdam after the withdrawal of the Dutch in 1664, 
and numerous restrictions imposed by the English Governors 
checked their growth. In 1685 Saul Brown, subsequently 
a prominent merchant and minister of the synagogue, was 
not allowed to trade at retail. Two years before a provision 
was incorporated in the charter restricting its religious privi- 
leges to those " professing faith in God by Jesus Christ," and 
when, therefore, the Hebrews in 1685 petitioned for liberty 
to exercise their religion, answer was returned that "nO pub- 
lic worship is tolerated by act of Assembly but to those that 
profess faith ii\ Christ.'' 

In 1695 a temporary synagogue was established in Beaver 
Street, near Broadway, and twenty families held regular ser- 
vices under the direction of Mr. Brown. 

In 1703 we find enrolled among the inhabitants the names 
of Joseph Isaacs, with a household of " one female, four 
children, and four negroes," while Messrs. Solomons are 
credited with two females and two children to one household, 
and one female and two children to another. 

Lord Bellamont at this time, appears to have entertained 
a high opinion of the judgment of one Simon Bonave, in 
one respect at least, for in transmitting a report to the 
Lords of Trade respecting the capture of a band of pirates 
near Boston, together with their booty, his Lordship encloses 
the deposition of " Bonave, a Jew," who " understanding 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. II 

Jewells well," he had employed for the purpose of apprais- 
ing a lot which he admits he " at first sight thought were 
valued at ^lo.ooo, but upon Bonave's inspection proved to 
be counterfeit." . 

The prosperous condition of some of the Hebrew colonists 
■ at this period is attested by a report of Lord Bellamont, who 
in October, 1700, advised the English Government that he 
had experienced much trouble in the method he had adopted 
of "paying the soldiers' subsistence in money weekly." The 
merchants of the town, he complained, finding that they 
were forced to take money and draw bills on the agent in 
London, had combined together to " traverse him " all they 
could. At first they lowered the exchange of the money con- 
siderably, and what he claims was still worse " would ad- 
vance no money whatever on his orders" so that "were it 
not for one Dutch merchant and two or three Jews that had 
lent me money I should have been undone." 

In the early part of the Eighteenth Century Abram De 
Lucena and Louis Gomez were engaged in the shipping 
business with the West India Islands, and attracted atten- 
tion by heavy exportation of wheat to Lisbon. 

Abram De Lucena addressed a petition to Governor Hun- 
ter in 1 710 for exemption from certain duties on account 
of his office in the synagogue. It read that " your peti- 
tioner's predecessors, Ministers of the Jewish nation, residing 
at the city of New York, by reason of their ministerial func- 
tions have from time to time been exempted by ye Govern- 
ment in New York from bearing any office, civil or military, 
within this city, but likewise been excused from several 
duties and services incumbent upon the inhabitants of this 
city. Wherefore your petitioner most humbly begs your 



12 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Excellency's care of him (in consideration of his ministerial 
functions) that he may likewise be excused from all such 
offices, duties and services and be allowed the like privilege 
and advantage within this city as have formerly been granted 
to his said predecessors, his ministers aforesaid." The petition 
is endorsed, " Read in council, and referred to Capt. Walters - 
and Mr. Mompessen to examine and make their report." 

Moses Levy, recognizing the value of printer's ink, 
announces in the columns of the New York "Gazette" on 
Monday, April 14, 1726, that he wishes to dispose of " a house 
in the town of Rye, with about sixty or seventy acres of up- 
land and about five acres of meadow, together with part of 
mansion, formerly belonging to John Heward and now to 
Moses Levy, in New York, or any part thereof, on reason- 
able terms to any person that has a mind to purchase the 
same." He adds that he may be found " over against the 
Post-office." In the same newspaper, in June, 1728, appears 
this advertisement : 

Whereas, a scandalous report is spread abroad by some malicious 
persons that Asher Levy of London, merchant, is greatly indebted 
to sundry persons in this city, which report is entirely groundless. 
However, if any person has any just demand on the said Asher 
Levy the same shall be duly paid by Nathan Levy. 

Whether the circulation of this malicious report in any 
wise affected the credit or standing of the advertiser does 
not transpire. At all events announcement is made, four 
months later, through the same medium, that " all persons 
that have had any dealings with Nathan Levy of this city, 
merchant, are desired to come and settle their accounts with 
him, he designing to depart this province in two months at 
farthest." 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 3 

Louis Gomez's queer occupation appears by the following 
advertisement, published March 3, 1729: 

Louis Gomez Hath brought a Parcel of very fine Pier Glasses 
with fine brass arms. Gold framed, Japanned Walnut and Olive 
Frames. He is likewise in readiness to new Quicksilver and take 
the stain out of Old Looking Glasses, which will render them as 
good as ever. He also undertakes to square Diamond, cut and 
polish all looking glasses and converts them to the best use. All of 
which he performs at reasonable charge. 

During the administration of Gov. Clinton, in 1749, a riot 
broke out in New York, which, according to the language 
used in the Governor's report to London, was directed 
"against a Jew and his wife," whose names are not given. 
These unfortunates, the Governor said, had but recently 
arrived from Holland, where they had lived in handsome 
style, " even to keeping their coach," but had been reduced 
by misfortune. A Mr. Delancey appears to have been the 
leader in the assault, and he with several others, " with their 
faces blackened, and otherwise disguised, smashed all the 
windows, broke open the door, tore everything to pieces." 
The outcome appears to have been more satisfactory to 
several members of the Bar than to the unfortunate Hebrew, 
for Gov. Clinton avers that " the Jew was advised to go to 
Mr. Murray, the Attorney, for his opinion, who took a fee, and 
advised him not to take up the case, as the persons concerned 
were related to the principal people of the town. Mr. 
Chambers advised the like and told him he would be ruined 
if he proceeded against them. Mr. Smith advised the same." 

As showing the degree of affluence attained by some of 
the Hebrews of New York, one hundred and twenty years 
ago, it is interesting to read in a newspaper bearing date 
March 30, 1767, an announcement by Moses M. Hays, of a 



14 THB: HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

robbery committed at the house of Mrs. Rebecca Hays, 
where burglars secured, among othes articles, " a silver tank- 
ard, large silver punch bowl, sugar castor, round salts with 
feet, salver, tea-pot and pan, tea-tongs and tea-spoons, table- 
spoons, cofTee-pot and pair of diamond earrings," for the 
recovery of which a reward of .£^10 was oflered. In 1775 
Solomon Simson owned two houses and lots in Oyster Bay, 
Long Island. 

Prior to the Revolution the New York Hebrews were 
already successful and wealthy merchants. Hayman Levy, 
owned most of the houses on Duke Street, now Beaver Street. 
His principal business was in furs, in which he traded largely 
with the Indians. A local historian claims that he not only 
was beloved by the Red man but was " actually worshipped 
by them." One of his advertisements in 1773 announces the 
fact that he "has on sale, black and white wampum, the best 
northern beaver, old coast beaver, raccoons, dressed martin 
skins and deer leather, both Indian dressed and in the hair." 
Two men who became eminent in the history of New York 
found employment with Mr. Levy when mere lads. One 
was John Jacob Astor, whose first experience in the fur trade 
was acquired while in Mr. Levy's house as a stripling. The 
other was Nicholas Low, the celebrated merchant, who 
served as Mr. Levy's clerk for some years and then embarked 
upon his mercantile career with one hogshead of rum pur- 
chased from his former employer, who encouraged and 
rendered him substantial assistance. 

During the French and Indian War, Isaac Myers notified 
the citizens of New York of his intention of going to the seat 
of war in the capacity of Captain of " Battoe-Men," and ex- 
tended an invitation to those who desired to enter that ser- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 5 

vice under him, to report as soon as possible at his house, 
"at the Rising Sun." This period was doubtless one of 
activity and profit for Hayman Levy. That enterprising 
merchant, during his business career, kept his name con- 
stantly before the public by liberal advertising. His readi- 
ness to furnish supplies to the troops in war times is shown 
in the«announcement of a large stock of " English shoes and 
pumps, for officers, English and New York shoes for soldiers, 
likewise camp equipage, such as tents of best Ravens duck, 
kettles, kanteens and tents, sufficient for twelve regiments." 
A competitor was found in Emanuel Abrahams, a dealer in 
Indian goods in Stone Street, and Maurice Josephson, a 
dealer in " Broadcloths, Threads, Bed Ticks and sundry other 
articles," whose store was at Slip Market. Judah Hays, who 
dealt in " Broadcloths, velvets, linens and sundry other goods, 
too tedious to mention," entertained his customers at the 
corner of Stone and Broad Streets. Samuel Judah's supply of 
goods was of a decidedly miscellaneous character, and con- 
sisted, according to his advertisement in the New York 
" Gazette," of " Callicoes, Chintz, Bombazeens, Sattins, 
Blunderbusses, Cannon balls. Regimental Shoe buckles and 
buttons, perfumery, etc." The result of the competition in 
those days, which was undoubtedly keen, and probably, at 
times, overstepped the limits of propriety, may be seen by 
an examination of the newspapers of the day, one of which, 
on September 5, 1756, published this notice signed by Solo- 
mon Hays : 

There has been several scandalous Jews trying to hurt my char- 
acter and credit, as they have done already. This is, therefore, to 
give public notice that if any person will give me intelligence who 
they are and where they are, they shall have 100 Pistoles reward. 



1 6 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

A few years later Moses Hays advertises " West India and 
New York Rum with Molasses " at his store near the Fly 
Market; and Uriah Hendricks offers at his establishment in 
Broad Street, near the Exchange : " Pepper in bales, like- 
wise the very best of Russia and Ravens duck, extreme 
cheap," and he further reminds the public that "a few 
tickets for the State Lottery are daily expected, and- that 
schemes may be seen at aforesaid store." 

Hayman Levy met with severe losses during the great fire 
of 1776, when most of his property was swept away. He 
died about 1790, and his wife (formerly a Miss Slowey) fol- 
lowed him a few years later. He was considered one of the 
most upright and enterprising merchants in New York dur- 
ing the last century. 

The marriage of the Rev. Gershom M. Seixas, on Novem- 
ber I, 1789, is thus publicly announced in the New York 
" Journal" of the following day : " Married yesterday, the 
Rev. Gershom Seixas to Miss Manuel, a lady endowed with 
every qualification necessary to render the connubial state 
happy." 

Uriah Hendricks, whose name is so frequently mentioned 
in the early history of New York, was a native of Amster- 
dam, and reached New York early in the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury. He was prominently identified with Hebrew affairs 
and commercial enterprises, and died September 27, 1798. 
Aaron Hendricks, his father, died in 1771, and Esther, his 
wife, died in 1775. Harmon, son of Uriah and Esther Hen- 
dricks, was born in December, 1767, and on June 4, 1800, he 
married Frances, daughter of Joshua and Brandly Isaacs, the 
ceremony being performed by the Rev. Mr. Seixas. Har- 
mon Hendricks, in 1813, started the Soho copper rolling mills 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 7 

at Belleville, N. J., now known as the Belleville Copper 
Mills, and was engaged in the metal business with his brother- 
in-law, Solomon I. Isaacs, up to the time of his death in 
1837. During the war of 1812, when Congress called for a 
loan of $16,000,000, Harmon Hendricks was a subscriber to 
the amount of $40,000. His three sons, Uriah, Montague 
and Henry, succeeded him. Their combined fortunes 
amounted to $3,000,000. Much of the wealth of the former 
generations was due to their ability to import largely of 
Chili ores on credits ranging from six months to one year. 
The old firm were likewise in close business relations with 
the great Boston house of Hemingway & Co. The present 
Hendricks firm engaged in the rnetal business, which is the 
most extensive in the country in that line, and the oldest 
Hebrew business concern in the United States in any branch, 
is composed of Joshua, Edmund, Francis and Harmon 
Washington, all sons of Uriah Hendricks, the second, who 
was the father of sixteen children. The surviving male de- 
scendant of Henry Hendricks is Dr. A. T. Hendricks, and of 
Montague Hendricks the living male descendants are Morti- 
mer, Harmon, Albert and Charles. In the New York direc- 
tory, a century ago, are found the names of Uriah Hendricks, 
ironmonger. No. 43 Hanover Street ; A. Isaac, tailor, No. 3 
Princess Street ; Joshua Isaac, merchant. No. 8 Water 
Street ; Benjamin Jacobs, merchant. No. 10 Duke Street ; 
Lyon Jonas, furrier. No. 21 Broad Street ; Raymon Levy, 
merchant. No. 7 Duke Street ; Philip and Jacob Marks, mer- 
chants, No. 16 Dock Street, and Solomon Simpson, No. 31 
Broad Street. 

The first Hebrew congregation in New York, and 
which was the first in this country, is known as Shearith 



1 8 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Israel (Remnant of Israel), and was organized in 1680, 
twenty-six years after the Hebrew colonists first reached 
Manhattan Island. The minutes of the congregation for 
the most remote period were recorded in 1728, and are 
written in Spanish and English. They are dated Tishri 
the 20th, 5489-1728. Prior to the erection of a regular 
synagogue, services took place in a frame building in Mill 
Street, about one hundred feet east of the lot on which 
the congregation built their first synagogue in 1729. The 
consecration of this building took place on the eve of the 
Seventh day of Pcsach, or Passover, in 1730. The mem- 
bers of the congregation at this time were : Moses Gomez, 
Parnass ; Daniel Gomez, Adjunte ; Benjamin Mendez 
Pacheco, Abraham R. Riviera, Mordecai Gomez, Nathan 
Levy, Isaac D. Medena, Joseph Nunez, Dr. Nunez de Costa, 
Abraham Isaacs, Baruch Judah, Jacob Franks and Moses 
Gomez, Jr. Eleven years later the membership was 
increasd by J. Myers Cohen, David Gomez, R. Rodriquez, 
Judah Hays, Judah Mears and Solomon Hays. It was 
resolved at this time that the management of the synagogue 
should be vested in the Parnass ■A.nA two Hatainin. In 1741 
the congregation determined upon the election of two Par- 
nassin, one to serve from Rosh Hoshonahto Pesach, and one 
from Pesach to Rosh Hoshonah. This method continued in 
force for twenty years, when one Parnass, as originally 
existed, was again substituted until 1776 when Hayman 
Levy was requested to act in giving out the Metzvath in the 
synagogue. The records of the congregation covering the 
period of the Revolution are missing, but it is known that 
among the members who left for Philadelphia soon after the 
breaking out of hostilities were : Isaac Moses, Hayman 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 9 

Levy, Benjamin Seixas, Simon Nathan, Moses Gomez, Jr., 
Solomon M. Cohen, Myer Cohen, Asher Myers, Eleazer 
Myers, Solomon Maruche, David Gomez, Jr., Matthias 
Gomez, Samuel Judah. The three last named died during 
their residence in Philadelphia. On the evacuation of New 
York by the British, in 1783, the refugees returned from 
Philadelphia, and at a meeting of the congregation called 
by Hayman Levy, the year following, these resolutions were 
adopted : 

Whereas, Mr. Alexander Zunz, late Parnass of the Congregation, 
did on Saturday last resign his office publicly in the Synagogue, 
having only accepted that office until this place should be evacu- 
ated; therefore, be it resolved that Hayman Levy do act as Parnass 
until proper officers shall be elected, and that he exercise the same 
power as a Parnass formerly did according to the Constitution. 
Resolved, that an address be presented to his Excellency, Governor 
George Clinton, and that Messrs. Hayman Levy, Myer Myers and 
Isaac Moses sign and present the same in behalf of this Congrega- 
tion. 

At the same meeting Jacob Cohen was designated to 
officiate as Hazan until the return of the Rev. Mr. Seixas. 
The congregation continued to worship in the same building 
until 1817, when the synagogue was demolished and one of 
stone erected in its place. The dimensions of this were 
thirty-six by fifty-eight feet. The consecration took place on 
the eve of Shabat Hagadol, in 1818, the congregation wor- 
shipping in the interim in a room in an engine-house on 
Beaver Street next to Broad. 

Disisoway, the author of "Earliest Churches in New York" 
says that his earliest impressions are scenes connected with 
this synagogue," the venerable Rabbi reading out of the Book 
of Law, his splendid robes of office, the long flowing beard. 



20 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

the men with their silk scarfs, the females latticed in the 
gallery and the whole congregation chanting aloud in He- 
brew, were sights and sounds to leave lasting remembrance 
upon the youthful mind. 

During the prevalence of the yellow fever in 1822, service 
was performed in a school-house corner of Henry and Oliver 
Streets. In the spring of 5 593-1833, the property in Mill and 
Beaver Streets was sold, but the materials of the old syn-a- 
gogue having been reserved by the Trustees, were as far as 
possible, used in the erection of a place of worship in Crosby 
Street, which was consecrated on the eve of the first day of 
Shebuot 5594-1834. The congregation worshipped in the 
meanwhile in a large room fitted up for that purpose, over 
the New York Dispensary, corner of White and Centre 
Streets, which, without interruption, has ever since been 
used by various congregations as a temporary synagogue. 
In 1859 "^^ synagogue was removed from Crosby Street to 
the present site on Nineteenth Street west of Fifth Avenue. 
The congregation by judicious investments in real estate 
has since been enabled to accumulate a capital sufficient to 
defray the support of the synagogue, and claims to be the 
wealthiest in the United States at the present day. The 
following are the names of the ministers of this Congrega- 
tion as far as can be ascertained from the records : Abra- 
ham De Lucena, Benjamin Wolf, Moses Lopezde Fonseca, 
David Mendes Machado, Benjamin Pereira Mendes, Joseph 
Jessurun Pinto, Jacob Rafa Cohen, Gershom Mendes 
Seixas, E. Nunes Carvalho, Moses Levi Maduro Peixotto, 
Isaac Mendes Seixas, Jacques J. Lyons, Haim Pereira Men- 
des. Gershom M. Seixas was a Trustee of Columbia College 
for twenty-eight years. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 21 

' The first Hebrew burial ground in New York, as far as 
known, was on the corner of Madison and Oliver Streets, 
and was purchased in 1681. It stood on a high hill adjoin- 
ing^ the ground acquired in 1729, which extended to Chat- 
ham Street, then known as the King's High Way. This 
was deeded in the year last named by Noe Willey of London, 
England, to his three sons, merchants in New York, to be 
used as a burial ground. The year following a trust was 
created providing that " the said land shall forever remain 
as a burial place for the Jewish nation and to no other use 
whatever." On its ceasing to be used for that purpose a 
quit-claim deed of it was extended to the Congregation 
Shearith Israel by Isaac Gomez, Jr. Interment having been 
prohibited by the Common Council, a portion of the ground 
that had not been used was sold. In November, 1829, a 
second cemetery was dedicated. This was on Eleventh 
Street, near Sixth Avenue, and interment here was discon- 
tinued in 1 85 1 for similar reasons. 

In 1800 Isaac Abraham, merchant, was at No. 66 Ann 
Street ; Isaac A. Abraham, tobacconist, 24 Water ; Jacob 
Hays, marshal, 51 Chambers; Moses Gomez, merchant, 64 
Nassau ; Benjamin Gomez, book dealer and stationer, 97 
Maiden Lane ; Moses Gomez & Co., auctioneers, 75 Wall ; 
Solomon Simpson, merchant, Greenwich Village; Isaac 
Moses & Sons, auctioneers, 63 Wall and 86 Pearl ; Joshua 
Isaacs, broker, 7 Gold; Rev. Gershom Seixas, 20 Mill; 
Asher D. Levy, merchant, 159 Greenwich; Simeon Levy, 
merchant, 2 Water; Simeon Nathan, 27 Water. 

Half a century ago the Hebrew population of New York 
was about 2,000. Doctors Daniel Levy Maduro, Peixotto 
and Leo Wolf were the only Hebrew physicians, and Alex- 



22 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

ander Kursheedt and S. B. H. Judah the only practitioners 
at the bar. P. J. Joachimsen had but recently been admitted 
to the bar. 

Dr. Peixotto, whose father, in the early days of the pres- 
ent century, was Minister of the Congregation Shearith Is- 
rael, was born July i8, 1800, and graduated at Columbia 
College in 1816. Entering the office of Dr. David Hosack, 
who had been the physician of Washington, he profited 
greatly by his studies, and in 18 19 received from his Alma 
Mater the degree of M. D. He passed some years in the 
West Indies and Caraccas, and during his stay practiced his 
profession. In 1823 he returned to New York and soon 
took rank among the leading physicians of the city. As a 
writer. Dr. Peixotto acquired fame by articles of acknowl- 
edged merit, and of considerable importance to the pro- 
fession. In 1825-26, conjointly with Drs. Beck and Bell, he 
edited the New York " Medical and Physical Journal " and 
" Gregory's Practice." All subjects pertaining to medicine 
enchained his thoughts and quickened his pen. He served 
as one of the physicians of the old City Dispensary in 1827, 
and as President of the New York Medical Society from 
1830-32. He was also one of the projectors and organizers 
of the Society for Assisting the Widows and Orphans of Med- 
ical Men, and urged the establishment of a Medical Library. 
In 1836 he received the appointment of Professor of Theory 
and Practice of Medicine and of Obstetrics, and was elected 
Honorary Member of the Medical Society of Lower Canada. 
In the same year he was called to the Presidency of the 
Willoughby Medical College and removed with his family to 
Cleveland, Ohio, occupying the position of Dean of the 
Faculty for several years, when he returned to New York 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 23 

and resumed his practice. Dr. Peixotto was gifted witli 
high literary endowments and was a frequent contributor to 
the magazine Hterature and newspaper press of the day. An 
intimate friend of General Jackson, he advocated his election 
to the Presidency, editing the " True American " in his behalf. 
He was also for a time connected with the New York " Mir- 
ror," when that journal was under the control of N. P. Willis 
and George P. Morris. Dr. Peixotto was an eminent linguist, 
writing and speaking no less than seven languages with equal 
fluency. He died in New York City, on May 13, 1843. 
He was the father of Consul Peixotto, a sketch of whose 
career is given on a later page. 

The annual ball, under the auspices of the Hebrew Benev- 
olent Society, and other public social gatherings, were held in 
those days at the City Hotel on the west side of Broadway, 
between Liberty and Cedar Streets. Among the merchants 
during that period may be mentioned S. Lindo, a pioneer in 
the manufacture of copal varnish in the Urjited States. 
Simon Content conducted a retail dry goods store on 
Grand Street near Ludlow. Moses Henriques lived in 
Carroll Place, Bleecker Street. Elias L. Phillips resided in 
Broadway near Ninth Street. Seixas Nathan, at one time a 
stock broker and afterward one of the Commissioners of 
Charities, lived in White Street ; Moses L. and Isaac Moses, 
extensive cotton brokers at this period, made their home in 
Chambers Street, then a fashionable neighborhood. Samuel 
N. Judah, son of Naphtali Judah, who had been one of the 
first . presidents of the Mechanics' Bank, was engaged in 
the South American and Spanish trade, and resided in 
Broome Street. I. B. Kursheedt's home was in Houston 
Street at the corner of Wooster. Solomon J. Isaacs, a 



24 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

brother-in-law of Harmon Hendricks, resided just across 
the way. 

Chatham Street at that period was almost wholly devoted 
to the second-hand clothing and pawnbroking trade, though 
the business was by no means monopolized by Hebrews. 
Among those to be found in that celebrated avenue were 
Henry M. Silverman, whose clothing establishment stood 
near the present terminus of the Brooklyn Bridge. J. Hart, 
father of Henry Hart, President of the Third Avenue Rail- 
road Company, was also engaged in the loan business, and 
in his establishment close by were developed some of those 
financial schemes which finally resulted in the building of 
that great street railway. Morrison & Levy, subsequently 
Morrison, Haber & Co., who were among the first manu- 
facturers of clothing in New York, transacted a large 
business farther up the street, while just opposite was the 
clothing and pawnbroking establishment of Moses S. Pike, 
father of S. N. Pike. Another merchant close by was L. H. 
Simpson. He conducted a clothing business, but this he 
afterward discontinued to undertake the development of 
coal lands in Pennsylvania. 

Hyam M. Salomon, son of the famous Haym Salomon of 
Philadelphia, the friend of Madison, Jefferson and other 
founders of the Republic, was a dealer in powder and shot. 
He occupied a store in Front Street. During the great fire 
of 183s, when every building for blocks around him was de- 
stroyed, his alone was saved. At the corner of Broad Street 
and Exchange Place stood the wine importing house of 
Tobias I. Tobias. On Lispenard Street, near what is now 
West Broadway, resided Bernard Hart, and nearly opposite 
lived Samuel Souza, a leading liquor dealer. Isaac Soria, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 2i, 

who was one of the first to introduce the French dyeing 
and scouring method in this country, was located in Pearl 
Street. Old citizens will remember E. S. Lazarus, father of 
Moses Lazarus, and grandfather of the late Emma Lazarus, 
whose home was on Howard Street. Mr. Lazarus was for 
many years elected and re-elected assessor of the Fourteenth 
Ward. He was at one time President of the Congregation 
Shearith Israel, and was the translator of the Common 
Prayer-book of the Portuguese Jews, a peculiarity of which 
was his translation throughout the book of the word 
Jehovah as The Eternal Self-Existent. This book was first 
printed by Mr. Jackson, who subsequently published the 
very first penny paper in New York, called " The Sun." 

One branch of trade in which many New York Hebrews 
were engaged fifty years ago was the manufacture of sealing 
wax and quill pens. Not long afterward Emanuel Velleman 
introduced the manufacture of whalebones. Before conclud- 
ing this account of some of the conspicuous characters of 
half a century back, mention should be made of Myer Levy, 
son of Jacob Levy, who was for a long time associated with 
the Joseph Brothers, bankers, and whose handsome face and 
manly figure gave him the sobriquet of "Adonis of Wall 
Street." 

Asher Marx is remembered as one of the prominent mer- 
chants of former times, as is his son, Henry Carroll Marx, 
who was one of the swells of Old Gotham, and known as 
" Dandy" Marx because of his inordinate fondness for dress 
and exquisite taste. He spent a vast sum of money organ- 
izing a company of Hussars, and was a member of a hose 
company. When the fire-bell sounded an alarm " Dandy" 
Marx was the first on hand, frequently dragging " the ma- 



• 26 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

chine" while attired in patent-leather shoes and white kid 
gloves. The name of " Dandy" Marx is enrolled in history 
as the originator of the waxed moustache. 

At the time of the introduction of India-rubber clothing 
in this country, about 1848, a sensation was created in one of 
the synagogues by the appearance in the pulpit of the acting 
minister, clad in a long India-rubber coat and cape in lieu 
of the regulation silken robe. For some time afterwards 
the house of worship was known as the " India-rubber 
shule." 

Benjamin Morange arrived in New York about 1815. His 
distinguished services as Minister from France to Spain 
under Napoleon I. insured for him a hearty welcome, and 
he was one of the most respected and useful members of 
the Hebrew community. He became known in the course 
of time as the inventor of oil silk, in the manufacture of 
which he became extensively engaged. Henry H. Morange, 
the eminent lawyer of later years, was his son. One of his 
daughters, Galathe, married Solomon Menken, of Cincin- 
nati ; another, Cornelia, was the wife of Michael De Young, 
of Baltimore ; Betsy, a third daughter, was the wife of Zadok 
A. Davis, the prominent author of a Masonic manual, while 
Eliza, a fourth daughter, married Charles Newman, the 
father of Lieutenant-Colonel Leopold C. Newman, who fell 
in the Civil War. 

Mordecai M. Noah, of New York, in 1820, conceived the 
idea of founding a Hebrew colony on Grand Island, in 
Niagara River, with the object of ^attracting emigration from 
Eastern countries. The Albany " Gazette," commenting on 
the proposed scheme, said : " Here they (the Hebrews) can 
have their Jerusalem without fearing the legions of Titus. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 2^ 

Here they can erect their temple without dreading the 
torches of frenzied soldiers. Here they can lay their heads 
on their pillows at night without fear of mobs, of bigotry 
and persecution. Here they can become citizens attached to 
the soil, defending the laws and interested in the protection 
of liberty." Mr. Noah's scheme, despite this and other 
endorsements, was abandoned after several years of agitation. 
On the site of the proposed colony, a monument was 
erected, inscribed, "Ararat, a city of Refuge for the Jews, 
founded by Mordecai M. Noah, in the month of Tishri 
(September, 1825) and in the Fiftieth year of the American 
Independence." 

In 1843, fifteen gentlemen formed a society, the object of 
which was expressed in the following words : " We can 
undertake no work more acceptable in the eyes of the God, 
and more advantageous for the spiritual welfare of our co-re- 
legionists, of our children and of our children's children, in 
this world and the next, than by striving to introduce an 
improved form of divine service, and thus to influence the 
religious and moral culture of the members of the Hebrew 
persuasion." In 1845 their numbers had increased to thirty- 
three, who called themselves Congregation Enianu-El, and 
divine service was held in a private dwelling, corner of Grand 
and Clinton Streets, with Rev. Dr. Ludwig^ Merzbacher, as 
Rabbi and preacher, and G. M. Cohen, as reader. The Con- 
gregation then bought a church in Christie Street, which was 
occupied until 1852, when they removed to Twelfth Street, 
between Third and Fourth Avenues. Rev. Dr. Merzbacher 
died during his term of ofifice. The Congregation Emanu- 
El, now on Fifth Avenue, is the oldest reform congregation 
in the United States. Over 500 pew and seat holders are 



28 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

among its members. During the great holidays it affords 
seating accommodation for 3,000 persons. The synagogue, 
which is the handsomest in the United States, cost $650,000, 
and, with the site, could not be replaced to-day for less than 
$1,000,000. At the first auction sale of seats, held immedi- 
ately after the dedication, nineteen years ago, the amount 
realized was far in excess of the cost of the building and 
ground, a financial feat unparalleled in the history of any 
other religious edifice in the world. A Sunday-school with 
400 scholars is attached to the Temple, and the congrega- 
tion own the largest and most beautiful Hebrew cemetery 
on the continent. 

High Constable Jacob Hays was one of the unique charac- 
ters of New York many years ago. Born at Bedford, West- 
chester County, N. Y., in 1772, he came to the metropolis in 
1798, and was appointed by iVIayor Varick as one of the 
marshals of the city. Four years afterwards he was appointed 
by Mayor Livingston High Constable of the city, corres- 
ponding to the present office of Chief of Pohce. So faith- 
fully were his duties performed that he occupied the position 
up to the time of his death in 1850, discharging for some 
years also the duties of Sergeant-at-Arms of the Board of 
Aldermen and Crier of the Court of Sessions. New York 
never had a more vigilant, industrious or efficient head of 
police. During his long public career of forty-eight years he 
slept, on an average, not more than six hours out of twenty- 
four. The cry of " Set old Hays on them !" always sufficed 
to quickly disperse the unruly element. In hunting down 
and bringing criminals to justice he had no equal. The first 
on hand at all signs of disturbance, the " Terror of Evil 
Doers" promptly restored order out of chaos by the magic 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 29 

of his presence. His fame as a detective was known all over 
the world. Fifteen years after his death the London police 
officials, unaware of his demise, addressed a letter to " High 
Constable Hays, New York," on important professional busi- 
ness. His picture for some years adorned the walls of the 
Governor's Room in New York. His personal appearance 
was striking, being about five feet six inches in height, 
weight about one hundred and eighty pounds, round face, 
dark complexion, penetrating eyes and an expression denot- 
ing intense sternness and vigilance. The High Constable 
was twice married, both wives being estimable ladies. He 
left six sons, as follows : Benjamin J.; Aaron B., for many 
years Cashier of the North River Bank ; Gilbert, who was for 
a long while connected with the New York Clearing House; 
William H., President of the Bank of the State of New York 
and President of the Eighth and Ninth Avenue Railroad 
Companies ; Dewitt C, formerly Treasurer of the New York' 
Stock Exchange and now President of the Manhattan Com- 
pany's Bank ; and Jacob, formerly of the banking firm of 
Hays & Tompkins. Gilbert and De Witt C. alone survive. 
The Hays family were well known and ranked among the 
most prominent citizens, early in the Eighteenth Century, in 
the neighborhood of New York. They came from Holland, 
but the precise date of their arrival is a matter of conjecture. 
They settled in Westchester County. The earliest of these, 
of whom there is any positive knowledge, is David Hays, Sr. 
the father of David Hays, Jr., who kept a store at Oblong in 
Dutchess County, in the year 1759. The former's wife was 
Hetty or Esther Hays. Letters in her handwriting addressed 
to her son Michael, from New York, and dated early in the 
Eighteenth Century, refer to her daughter. Charity, then resid- 



30 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

ing at Philadelphia. David and Hetty, or Esther Hays had 
also three sons besides David, Jr., whose names were Michael, 
Benjamin and Moses. David Hays, Jr., was born at New 
Rochelle, also in Westchester County. His store at Oblong 
was evidently discontinued shortly after 1759, for in 1771 he 
is described as a merchant at Bedford in Westchester County. 
The books kept in his store at the latter place and which are 
made of the stamped paper of the Colonies, shows that his 
business was an extensive one. David Hays, Jr., was a devout 
Israelite. He was also an ardent supporter of the Colonists 
in the struggle for Independence, and served in the Colonial 
army on Long Island, in retaliation for which the Tories 
burned his house and store. The patriot's family consisted 
of three sons : Benjamin E., Moses, a bachelor, and Jacob ; 
and five daughters : Rachel, Hannah, Esther, Charity and 
Abigail. Michael Hays, son of David Hays, Sr., already 
referred to, was a man of considerable business capacity and 
a large land-owner at Mount Pleasant in the town of North 
Castle, Westchester County. Prior to the Revolution he 
was one of the Commissioners appointed by the Crown to lay 
out lands in that portion of the County, as appears by an old 
volume printed in England, and formerly in the possession of 
the Hays family. The two sided with the Colonists during 
the war. In 1785 his large estate was increased by the pur- 
chase of a farm of 170 acres at Pleasantville for £8yi 5s., the 
money being paid to Isaac Stoutenburg and Philip Van 
Courtlandt as Commissioners of Forfeiture for the State 
of New York. 

This tract had belonged to one Phillips, and was confiscated 
because of his loyalty to the British. Numerous other large 
tracts of land were acquired by Michael Hays, during his 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 3 1 

life-time, £26 being paid for one small piece as early as 1753- , 
All of his property was left at his death (which occurred about 
1786) to his brother David, great grandfather of Daniel P. 
Hays, now a prominent member of the New York Bar. 
David Hays took possession of this farm and resided there 
for many years. He, too, was a devout Hebrew and one of 
the first seat-holders in the Mill Street synagogue of the Con- 
gregation Shearith Israel, at New York. He died October 
18, 1812, and was buried in the old burying ground at Oliver 
and Chatham Streets. His large estate, including the farm, 
was devised to Benjamin E. Hays, who also engaged in farm- 
ing throughout his life. " Uncle Ben," as he was known 
throughout the country, was the only Hebrew farmer in 
Westchester County in his day. He was strictly orthodox in 
his religious belief and adhered closely to all the forms and 
ceremonies observed by the most pious and devout of his race. 
In order to conform to the prescribed dietary laws he ob- 
tained a certificate, authorizing him to kill his own meat, as 
appears by the following verbatim copy of the document in 
possession of the family : 

Mount Pleasant, N. Y., November 11, 1813. 

I do certify that Benjamin Etten Hays is duly Qualified to Kill 
any Kind of Clean Beasts or Fowles according to Law, and that I 
have examined the said Benjamin Etten Hays, Finding that his 
Knowledge of the (Shaceta) of the (Cuts) and the (Badecan) for 
the searching, According to the Denim of them, is so much to my 
satisfaction that I do give him Leave to Kill, and that all the 
(House of Israel) may eat of his Killing and this is his (certificate) 
for the same, and that the same Benjamin Etten Hays has promised 
me that he will look over the said Denims and I whom give this 
Liberty have been myself examined by Jacob Abrams the (Shoath) 
of K. K. Shearith Israel in New York and Received a certificate 



32 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

from the said Jacob Abrams Declaring my qualification of the 
Denims of Shaceta and Badecan and leave to Kill according to 
them, therefore from this power I do give the same to Benjamin 
Etten Hays whom is an Israelite. I do give this under my hand 
and seal. 

Hesvan 27th, 5575. Jacob L. Sous.' 

This pious Hebrew, though living in a comparatively 
remote section and completely isolated from his co-religion- 
ists, observed the Mosaic law as strictly as though he lived 
in their midst, and enjoined upon his children a like observ- 
ance. On his extensive farm he contented himself by going 
over the fields a single time in garnering the hay and the grain, 
their leavings, together with the fruit that fell to the ground, 
being left for the benefit of the poor, thus following out the 
Biblical injunction. " Uncle Ben " was universally loved 
and respected. An old Quaker once assured him that he was 
" the best Christian in Westchester County." He was also 
a man of generous impulses, and among his charities may be 
mentioned the donation of a piece of land to the Trustees 
of the School District, on which to build a school, the sole 
proviso being that the school should be free to all without 
discrimination. Benjamin E. Hays' incapacity for military 
service, owing to a double affliction, is attested by the fol- 
lowing unique certificate, which also betrays some slight 
orthographical errors on the part of the mender of broken 
limbs and skulls : 

This is ti certify That Benj . Etting Hays is not fit for Militay 
Duty on the account of having a Lame Ankel and fracterd Cranum, 
whom it May Conssern this 19 day of June 1790. 

Seth Miller, Surgen. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 33 

The children of Benjamin E. Hays were : David, Michael, 
Benjamin, Jacob, Esther and Hannah. He lived to the age 
of eighty. David Hays, the first named, married Judith S., 
daughter of Dr. Daniel L. M. Peixotto, the famous New 
York physician. 

NEWPORT. 

■7 Attracted by the tolerance of Roger Williams' settlement 
in Rhode Island, where freedom of faith and worship was 
guaranteed to all, many ■ Hebrews, disheartened by Stuy- 
vesants' illiberal treatment, made their way to Newport 
about 1657. These were joined on August 24, 1694, by 
others from Curacoa, where two years previous to the settle- 
ment at New Amsterdam, a tract of land had been granted 
by the West India Company of Amsterdam to Joseph Nunez 
de Fonseca. Before the close of the Seventeenth Century, 
the Hebrew population of Newport was large and prosperous 
and included the following persons, the names being secured 
from a memorandum made by N. H. Gould, of Newport, at 
the request of Charles H. Marshall, of New York, and by the 
latter furnished to Hon. C. P. Daly, of New York: Samuel, 
Isaac and Judah Moses, soap boilers ; Moses and Jacob James, 
workers in brass ; Isaac Benjamin, Abraham Bezam, Isaac 
Moses, Jacob France, Jacob and Joseph Judah, Benjamin 
and Moses Myers, Naphtali Myers, Isaac and Nathan Lyon, 
David Salomon, Abraham Jacobs, Solomon Mendes, Solomon 
Cohen, Aaron Cohen, Isaac Cohen, Joseph Jacobs, Abraham 
Mendes; Isaac Isaacs, money broker; Aaron Myers, Joseph 
Jacobs, Abraham Mendez, Ueazer Eleazer, Moses Isaacs 
and Isaac Eleazer. 



34 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

The terrible earthquake at Lisbon, in the year i/SSi brought 
additional emigrants to Newport. Their settlement in 
Rhode Island, however, is said to have been accidental, the 
vessel bearing them being driven by tempestuous weather into 
Narragansett Bay, while proceeding to some point on the 
Virginia coast. It was determined to land there, and thus 
reinforced by the new arrivals, the Newport colonists were 
soon in the enjoyment of remarkable prosperity and in- 
fluence. 

In 1750, Moses Lopez was excused from all other civil 
duties in recognition of his gratuitous services to the govern- 
ment in translating important Spanish documents. In i7S3i 
he was granted by the General Assembly, a patent for the 
manufacture of potash. The inscription on his tombstone 
reads : " He was a gentleman in whom were united every moral 
and social virtue, which prepared his immortal part for the 
fruition of that glorious state, where the pious and virtuous 
receive the reward of their good actions." In 1761, Aaron 
Lopez, who reached Newport in 1750, and Isaac Elizar 
petitioned for the right of naturalization, which was de- 
nied, the following opinion being handed down from the 
bench : 

"The petition of Messrs. Aaron Lopez and Isaac Elizar, 
persons professing the Jewish religion, praying that they may 
be naturalized on an act of Parliament, made in the thirteenth 
year of his late Majesty's reign, George II., having been duly 
considered, and also the act of Parliament therein referred 
to, this Court was unanimously of the opinion that the said 
act of Parliament was wisely designed for increasing the 
number of inhabitants in the plantations, but this colony 
being already so full of people that many of His Majesty's 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 35 

good subjects, born within the same, have removed and 
settled in Nova Scotia aud other places, cannot come within 
the intention of said act. Further, by the charter granted 
to this colony, it appears that the free and quiet enjoyment of 
the Christian religion and a desire of propagating the same, 
were the principal views with which the colony was settled, 
and by a law made and passed in the year 1663, no person 
who does not profess the Christian religion, can be admitted 
free of this colony, the Court, therefore, unanimously dis- 
misses this petition as wholly inconsistent with the first 
principles upon which the colony was founded, and a law of 
the same now in force." 

Arnold, the historian of Rhode Island, attributes this de- 
cision to party spirit, and expresses the opinion that it sub- 
verts an act of Parliament, violates the principle of the char- 
ter and enunciates principles never acted upon in the colony. 
Seventy-six years previous to this incident the Hebrews had 
received assurance from the Assembly that they might expect 
the same protection in Rhode Island as any other resident 
foreigners, being obedient to the laws. '^ Of Aaron Lopez, 
one of the petitioners, it is said that no citizen of Newport 
was more respected or enterprising, his extensive business 
requiring a fleet of twenty-seven square-rigged vessels, in- 
cluding several whalers, and his operations extended as 
far as the Falkland Islands. The estimation in which he 
was held by the people of Newport is shown by a well- 
known writer, who says that he was " a man of immense 
probity and benevolence, and his charities were widely dif- 
fused. They were not confined to creed or sect, and the peo- 
ple of Newport have for more than half a century continued 
to venerate his memory." Aaron Lopez was drowned near 



30 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Providence in 1782. His resting-place is marked by a stone 
bearing this inscription : 

He was a merchant of eminence, 

of poHte and amiable manners. 

Hospitality, Liberality and Benevolence 

were his true characteristics. 

An ornament and valuable Pillar to 

the Jewish Society, of which he was a 

member. His knowledge in commerce 

was unbounded and his Integrity irreproachable ; 

thus he lived and died, much regretted, 

esteemed and loved by all. 

Jacob Rodrigues Riviera, father-in-law of Aaron Lopez, 
was another respected Newport merchant, who owned numer- 
ous manufactories of oil and spermaceti, he being the first 
man in this country to engage in the manufacture of the lat- 
ter. His manufactories were on the island now known as 
Fort Walcott. 

The flourishing condition of the Hebrew colony at New- 
port, and their rapid increase in numbers, were largely due to 
Mr. Riviera's influence. He came from Lisbon, bringing 
with him a large amount, of gold, but was eventually a bank- 
rupt. Despite his misfortune, he set industriously to work 
and recovered a portion of his losses, so that " on a certain 
day in a certain week, which according to his faith was de- 
voted to works of righteousness and of charity, every creditor 
received the whole amount of his debt, both principal and 
interest," and at the time of his death he was worth 
$120,000. These words upon his monument in the old ceme- 
tery record his virtues : , 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 37 

If to profess and patronize the principles of Judaism 

— to observe the strictest integrity in extensive commerce 

and to exhibit unbounded benevolence 

for all mankind, can secure 

to the spontaneous and invariable practiser 

of these virtues, eternal bliss. 

Jacob Rods Riviera, 

whose mortal frame is deposited beneath this marble, 

must, consonant to the ardent hopes of all who knew him, 

be in full possession of that superlative 

happiness. 

He lived beloved and died lamented the 23d Sebat A. M. 

S549, corresponding with i8th Feby. A.D. 1789, 

Aged 72. 

A glimpse of social life among the Hebrew colonists is 
offered but rarely. One of these instances is presented in 
the year I76i,whena Hebrewr club was organized at Newport. 
It was limited to a membership of nine, who at this time were : 
Moses Lopez, Isaac Polock, Jacob Isaacs, Abraham Sarze- 
das, Moses Levy, Issachar Polock, N-aphtali Hart, Naphtali 
Hart Jr., and Jacob Rodriguez Riviera. The by-laws pro- 
vided that the club should meet every Wednesday evening 
during the winter months. A chairman was elected to serve 
each month. Each member was permitted to invite his 
friends to the club, "one at a time only." The hours for 
meeting were 5 to 10 P. M., and from 5 to 8 each member 
was at liberty " to divert at cards." An offer to play for 
more than twenty shillings at whist, picquet or any other 
game was a violation of the established regulations, and 
subjected the offender to the payment of the value of four 
bottles of good wine for the use and benefit of the club. 
Supper was served at 8 o'clock and the playing of cards or 
other games after this repast was interdicted. Should any 



38 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

member after the supper hour have a motion to make in 
relation to the club he was required to "wait until the chair- 
man had drank some loyal toast." Conversation at the 
club regarding synagogue affairs was also prohibited under 
penalty of payment of the value of four bottles of good 
wine, and cursing, swearing or other objectionable conduct 
could only be indulged in on payment of a like fine. 

In 1763, when the Hebrews numbered sixty families, a 
synagogue was erected a short distance from the cemetery, 
the congregation styling themselves Yeshuath Israel. The 
building was of brick, square in form and stood on a plateau 
in a street known by the name of Touro. Over three hun- 
dred worshippers attended the synagogue before the Revo- 
lution, when the Hebrew population at one period numbered 
nearly eleven hundred souls. From 179010 1850,3 period 
of sixty years, the doors of the synagogue were closed, and 
no service was held until Rev. Dr. M. J. Raphall, of New 
York, in the year last named, delivered a discourse. This 
venerable edifice, which stands but a short distance from the 
State House, is built in old-fashioned style. It is lighted by 
seventeen windows on the front and sides, and fine chande- 
liers are suspended from the ceilings. 

The author of " Channing's Recollections of Newport," 
describing its appearance at the beginning of the century, 
writes : " Gradually the impressive service subsided and 
finally died out, and then the building was left to the bats 
and moles and to the invasion through its porch and win- 
dows of boys who took great pleasure in examining the 
furniture scattered about. I had often been apprised of a 
suspended lamp over the altar, the light of which had never 
been extinguished. This legend excited my curiosity, and 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 39 

one day, upon going into the lofty gallery, I espied it and 
expected to see the flame which had been first kindled at 
Jerusalem issuing from the socket, but my childish hope was 
destined to be foiled. It was not until the death of the 
Touros, long after I had left Newport, that their valuable 
gifts appropriated for the repair of the synagogue, of the 
street in front of it and of the cemetery, effected an entire 
change in the external aspects of those sacred relics." 

Rev. Isaac Touro, minister of the congregation, came from 
Jamaica, and married a daughter of Michael Moses Hays, a 
leading Boston merchant. On the breaking out of the 
Revolution he returned to Jamaica, where he died in 1783, 
his widow surviving him but four years. In the Newport 
cemetery has been erected a monument bearing this inscrip- 
tion : 

In memory of 

the 

Rev. Isaac Touro, 

The able and faithful minister 

of the Congregation 

Yeshuath Israel, 

in Newport, R. I., 

who departed this life 

on the 14th of Tebet A. M. 5544, 

and December 8th MDCCLXXXIII, 

At Kingston, Jamaica, 

Where his remains lie buried 

& 46 years. 

The memory of the Just 

is blessed. 

Rebecca, the daughter of Isaac Touro, and wife of Joshua 
Lopez, died in the City of New York in 1833. Abraham 
Touro, a son, died in Boston in 1822. They and their 



40 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

brother Judah were reared and educated by their mother's 
brother at Boston. 

In 1769, the commerce of Newport, both foreign and 
domestic, exceeded that of New York, and up to the 
Revolution the Hebrew colony enjoyed a period of re- 
markable prosperity. As their forefathers had been com- 
pelled to flee from Spain to more tolerant countries in 
Europe many years before, and later generations had been 
denied even a foothold in Portugal by the upheaval at Lis- 
bon, so now the refugees and their families, warned by the 
opening of hostilities at Lexington, and the appearance of a 
British fleet in Newport harbor, hastened to escape the 
ravages of war, and from their departure dates the decline of 
Newport's commercial supremacy. Moses Hays left for 
Boston ; Isaac Touro, with his wife and children, returned to 
Jamaica ; Rabbis Cohen and Seixas, left for New York and 
Richmond, Va. Moses Lopez, a distinguished mathematician 
and nephew of Aaron Lopez, was the last to leave, and 
removed to New York. Joseph Lopez was one of the few 
to return after the Revolution. The town records show 
that among those dwelling at Newport, during a portion 
of the Revolutiohary period, were Hyram Levy and family 
of five, and Moses Seixas and family of five, both of whom 
resided on " Jew Street," now Bellevue Avenue, and Moses 
Levy and family of four, living on East Griffen, now Eliza- 
beth Street. Peterson's History of Rhode Island, says that 
the Hebrews, before their dispersion, occupied residences on 
what was later on known as the Mall, " which was covered 
with them." Most of these were finally destroyed by fire, 
while that of Mr. Levy became the property of Commodore 
Perry. In 1792, Abraham R. Riviera was a member of the 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 4I 

Newport Artillery Company. Moses Isaacks, was one of the 
early Newport settlers, and married Rachel Mears, a lineal 
descendant of the Spanish refugees. He sided with the 
Colonies during the Revolutionary War, and had the honor 
of entertaining Gen. Washington at his house, during that 
period. His eldest son, Abraham, married a sister of Samp- 
son Simson, of New York. 

Washington's visit to Newport in August, 1790, evoked 
the following letter, signed by Moses Seixas on behalf of the 
congregation : 

Sir : Permit the children of the stock of Abraham to approach 
you with the most cordial affection and esteem for your person and 
merit, and to join with our fellow-citizens in welcoming you to 
Newport. 

With pleasure we reflect upon those days of difficulty and danger 
when the God of Israel, who delivered David from the peril of the 
sword, shielded your head in the day of battle ; and we rejoice to 
think that the same spirit which rested in the bosom of the greatly 
beloved Daniel, enabling him to preside over the provinces of the 
Babylonian Empire, rests and ever will rest upon you, enabling you 
to discharge the arduous duties of the Chief Magistrate of these 
States. 

Deprived, as we have hitherto been, of invaluable rights of free 
citizens, we now — with a deep sense of gratitude to the Almighty 
Disposer of all events — behold a government erected by the majesty 
of the people, a government which gives no sanction to bigotry and 
no assistance to persecution, but generously affording to all liberty 
of conscience and immunities of citizenship, deeming every one, of 
whatever nation, tongue or language, equal parts of the great gov- 
ernmental machine. This so ample and extensive Federal Union, 
whose base is philanthropy, mutual confidence and public virtue, we 
can not but acknowledge to be the work of the great God, who 
rules the armies of the heavens and among the inhabitants of the 
earth, doing whatever seemeth to him good. 

For all the blessings of civil and religious liberty which we enjoy 



42 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

under an equal and benign administration, we desire to send up 
thanks to the Ancient of days, the great Preserver of men, beseech- 
ing him that the angel who conducted our forefathers through the 
wilderness into the promised land may graciously conduct you 
through all the difficulties and dangers of this mortal life ; and when, 
like Joshua, full of days and full of honors, you are gathered to 
your fathers, may you be admitted into the heavenly paradise to par- 
take of the water of life and the tree of immortality. 

To which Washington replied as follows : 

While I have received with much satisfaction your address, replete 
with expressions of esteem, I rejoice in the opportunity of assuring 
you that I shall always retain a grateful remembrance of the cordial 
welcome I experienced in my visit to Newport from all classes of 
citizens. The reflection on the days of difficulty and danger, which 
are passed, is rendered the more sweet from the consciousness that 
they are succeeded by days of uncommon prosperity and security. 
If we have the wisdom to make the best use of the advantage with 
which we are now favored, we cannot fail under the just adminis- 
tration of a good government to become a great and happy people. 
The citizens of the United States of America have the right to ap- 
plaud themselves for having given to mankind examples of an en- 
larged and liberal policy worthy of imitation. All possess a like 
liberty of conscience and immunities of citizenship. It is now no 
more that toleration is spoken of as if it were by the indulgence of 
one class of people that another enjoyed the exercise of their inher- 
ent natural rights, for happily the Government of the United States, 
which gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assisstance, 
requires only that they who live under its protection should demean 
themselves as good citizens in giving it on all occasions their effect- 
ual support. It would be inconsistent with the frankness of my 
character not to avow that I am pleased with your favorable opinion 
of my administration and fervent wishes for my felicity. May the 
children of the stock of Abraham who dwell in this land continue 
to merit and enjoy the good will of the other inhabitants, while 
every one shall sit in safety under his own vine and fig-tree and there 
shall be none to make them afraid. May the Father of all mercies 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 43 

scatter light and not darkness in our paths and make us all in our 
several vocations useful here and, in His own due time and way, 
Everlastingly happy. 

In 1677 the growing population demanded the laying out 
of a cemetery which according to the records in the Town 
Clerk's office was thirty feet square. The cemetery, which 
was acquired in 1677 from Nathaniel Dickens by Moses 
Pacheco and Mordecai Campanal, is thus described in the 
deed : " A piece of land thirty feet long, resting southwest 
upon the highway that leads from ye Stone Mill towards 
Benjamin Griffin's land, and thirty foot upon the line cutting 
southeast upon John Easton's land, and thirty foot upon the 
land northwest, cutting upon a slip of land which the said 
Nathaniel Dickens hath yet remaining between this piece of 
land now sold and the land belonging unto Benjamin Griffins, 
and the line northeast butting also upon Nathaniel Dickens, 
his land to be in length forty foot. Sold unto ye said Jews and 
their heirs and assigns and successors for them to possess 
and enjoy for the use abovesaid forever." In 1820 Abraham 
Touro, of Boston, erected a brick wall around the cemetery, 
which had fallen into decay, and in 1842 Judah Touro, his 
brother, expended the sum of $12,000 in further improve- 
ments, bequeathing upon his death the sum of $20,000 to 
the city of Newport, the interest of which is annually ex- 
pended in keeping the grounds in perpetual repair. Over 
the massive and imposing stone entrance to the cemetery is 
an inscription, reading : " Erected 5603, from a bequest made 
by Abraham Touro." 

Among the monuments in the cemetery are the following: 
that of Mrs. Phila, relict of Marcus Elkan, of Richmond, 
Va.,who died in 1820; Catharine Hays, of Boston, who died 



44 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

at Richmond, Va., in 1854; Stowey, daughter of Moses M. 
and Rachel Hays, who died in Richmond, Va., in 1836; 
Moses Lopez, of Portugal, who died in 1830, aged eighty-six ; 
Moses Seixas, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the 
Masonic Order of the State and Cashier of the Bank of Rhode 
Island ; Abraham Minis, of Savannah, Ga., who " fell a vic- 
tim in the bloom of life to the accidental fracture of a leg," 
in 1 801 ; Isaac Mendes Seixas, of New York, who died in 
1780 ; Isaac, the son of Rabbi Meyer Polak. The oldest of 
all the inscriptions is that on the monument of Rachel Rod- 
riquez, and reads as follows : 

Here lieth the body of ye virtuous Mrs. Rachel Rodriquez 
Rivera, who departed this life on Saturday, the 8th of 
Veadar, 552 1, which corresponds to ye 14th of March, 

1761. 
May her blessed soul enjoy eternal happiness. Amen. 
States sui 77. 

The next oldest monument is that of the wife of Aaron 
Lopez and bears the following inscription in Latin : 

Whatever remains after death 

of Abigail Lopez, is here. 

She was distinguished for virtue and lively charity, 

A faithful wife and companion, 

The tenderest of parents, 

died 2 1 St lyar, 

In the year of the world 5522, 

which is 

the 14th day of May, 1762, of the Vulgar era. 

Her age, 36. 

In recording the story of the earlier Hebrew settlers at 
Newport, historians have frequently indulged in eulogistic 
comments upon their integrity, enterprise, thrift and liber- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 45 

ality. The scources from which these pleasing comments 
have emanated have been in almost all cases Christian writers. 
For many years the character of these people has been re- 
garded by the citizens of Rhode Island as a model worthy 
of imitation. In 1847, the Hon. William Hunter, LL.D., in 
a public adflress delivered at Newport, declared that after a 
veryclose examination of the records of the Courts of Justice, 
he had failed to discover a^ingle indictment ; neither does 
tradition indicate an accusation of reproach against any of 
the race. 

SAVANNAH. 

Scarcely had Oglethorpe founded the colony in Georgia, 
in 1733, when, on July 7th of that year, a party of forty He- 
brews sailed up the Savannah river on a vessel direct from 
London and proceeded to make themselves at home in the 
midst of their predecessors. Their names were Benjamin 
Sheftall, Perlah Sheftall, his wife ; D. Minis and Mrs. Minis, 
his mother ; Daniel and Moses Minis, Shem their son ; Ra- 
phael Barnal and wife ; David Olivera, Jacob Olivera and 
wife; David, Isaac and Leah, their children ; Aaron Depena, 
Benjamin Gideon, Jacob Crosta, David Lopez De Pass and 
wife, Mr. Veneral, Mr. Molena, David and Jacob Moranda, 
David Cohen and wife, Isaac, their son, and Abigail, Hannah 
and Grace, their daughters, Abraham Minis and wife, and 
Leah and Esther, their daughters ; Simon Minis, Jacob 
Yowell and Abraham De Lyon. The memorandum from 
which these names were secured was originally kept in He- 
brew by Benjamin Sheftall, and at the request of his sons 
translated into English. From it we learn that the " emi- 
grants were in nowise dependent on the British crown for 



46 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

one dollar to facilitate their emigration." The captain of 
the ship bringing them was Beverly Robinson, and the ves- 
sel, whose name is not obtainable, encountered boisterous 
weather on the voyage from London. It was almost 
wrecked off the North Carolina coast and compelled to seek 
harbor at New Inlet, where it remained for some weeks. 
This ship was the second to leave London for Savannah. The 
Hebrew emigrants brought with them a Safer Tora with 
two cloaks and a Circumcision box, both the gift of a Mr. 
Lindo, of London, and also the Hechal. 

Though Oglethorpe's charter guaranteed freedom of reli- 
gious opinion and observance to all save Papists, the unex- 
pected presence of these Hebrews caused a flutter among the 
colonists which finally extended to London, and was for 
months the subject of bitter controversy. The colonists had 
come to the New World with money collected under a com- 
mission appointed by trustees under Oglethorpe's charter, 
contrary to regulations, which prescribed that colonization 
should be undertaken only by means of funds furnished 
through the Bank of England. The trustees thereupon in- 
formed Oglethorpe of the concern caused in London by their 
arrival at Savannah, and expressed the hope that they would 
meet with no encouragement. Meanwhile, Oglethorpe, who 
had conceived a liking for the new comers, had written to 
England eulogizing their good conduct, and especially com- 
mending one Dr. Nunes. To this reply was made that Dr. 
Nunis should be properly compensated for his services, but 
it was urged that the granting of land in the province to any 
of the Hebrews be withheld. The breeze raised in London 
on account of their presence in Georgia was undoubtedly 
caused by the violation of positive instructions by the Com- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. ' 4/ 

missioners rather than special hostility to the people of the 
ancient faith. The men composing this commission were 
Thomas Frederick, Anthony de Costa, Francis Salvador and 
Alvaro Lopez Suaro. For their high-handed action the 
trustees demanded the return of their commissions, and de- 
cided that inasmuch as " certain Jews have been sent to 
Georgia, contrary to the intentions of the Trustees, and 
which may be of ill consequences to the colony, the Trustees 
do hereby require of said persons to immediately re-deliver to 
Mr. Martyn, their secretary, the said commission, and to ren- 
der an account in writing to the Trustees of what money has -i/ 
been raised by virtue thereof, and if they refuse to comply 
with this demand that then the Trustees will think them- 
selves obliged not only to advertise to the world of the de- 
mand and refusal of the said persons to deliver the commis- 
sion and accounts, and of the misapplication before men- 
tioned, in order to prevent any further impositions on His 
Majesty's subjects under pretence of an authority granted 
by these vacated commissions, and likewise to recover those 
commissions and demand an account of money collected in 
such a manner as their council may advise." 

Some months later an entry of the proceedings of the 
Trustees shows that an unsatisfactory reply had been re- 
ceived from the Commissioners, coupled with the statement 
that " as they cannot conceive but the settling of the Jews 
in Georgia will be prejudicial to the colony, and as some 
have been sent without the knowledge of the Trustees, the 
Trustees do likewise require that the said persons, or who- 
ever else may have been concerned in sending them over, to 
use their utmost endeavors that the said Jews be removed 
from the colony of Georgia, as the best and only satis- 



48 • THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

faction that they can give . to the Trustees for such an 
indignity offered to gentlemen acting under his Majesty's 
charter." 

After repeated protests against their presence, on the 
ground that they were "prejudicial to the trade and welfare 
of the colony," the Hebrews were permitted to remain un- 
molested. One of the first movements by the colonists was 
the erection of a synagogue. "In this temporary house of 
God," says the historian Stevens, " divine service was regu- 
larly performed, and the great I AM was worshipped in the 
same language in which Abraham, Isaac and Jacob prayed, 
which was heard on Sinai and in the gorgeous Temple of 
Solomon, in which inspired men of God poured forth their 
sublime and far-seeing professions. They were not able to 
employ a regular Hazan, but the worship was conducted by 
the voluntary services of the brethren, who, even in the pine 
forests of Georgia, did not forget the God of their fathers or 
to lift up their voices in prayer, with their faces turned to 
the East." The same authority states that " while the 
Trustees of the colony were expending large sums for sub- 
sisting many slothful and discontented emigrants, whose 
idleness weakened and whose factions almost ruined 
the scheme of benevolence, these descendants of the 
father of the faithful, asking for no charity, clamorous 
for no peculiar privileges, demanding from the Trustees 
nothing but the freehold which their money purchased ; 
proved their worth by services of real value and by olBces of 
tried devotion." 

While none of the Georgia colonists attained great promi- 
nence, they numbered among them several men of enterprise 
and intelligence, the most learned being Dr. Nunes, whose 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 49 

services -were early recognized and rewarded, and Abram 
De Lyon, who stood high as a horticulturist. 

Isaac, son of Abraham Minis, was the first white male 
child born in Savannah. His oldest descendant now living 
is Abraham Minis, a merchant of Savannah. Benjamin 
Sheftall was a merchant who was known for his decided 
anti-slavery views, and was the originator and founder of the 
Union Society, an organization for the care and education 
of orphan boys, which is still in existence. Mordecai, son 
of Benjamin Sheftall, was born in Savannah, December 13, . 
1735. During the Revolutionary War he was Deputy Com- 
missary General of the Georgia Brigade, while his son, 
Sheftall Sheftall, born in Savannah, September 8, 1762, was 
appointed Assistant Deputy under his father at the early 
age of fourteen. When the British took possession of 
Savannah, on December 29, 1778, Mordecai Sheftall, with 
his son Sheftall, endeavored to make his escape, but was 
compelled to surrender by a body of Highlanders. He was 
taken to the guard-house, where the officer in charge was 
instructed to guard him well as he was " a great rebel." 
There he was confined with a number of soldiers and 
negroes without a morsel to eat until a Hessian officer 
named Zeltman, finding he could talk his language, removed 
him to his quarters and permitted him to communicate with 
his wife and son. In an interesting narrative, published 
many years ago, Mr. Sheftall states that he was treated with 
abuse by Captain Stanhope of the " Raven " sloop-of-war 
and he and his son were ordered on board the prison ship. 

The names of Mordecai Sheftall " Chairman Rebel Provis- 
ional Committee," Phillip Jacob Cohen, " shop-keeper," and 
Sheftall Sheftall, " Rebel officer," are enrolled among those 



so THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

selected as coming under the Disqualifying Act of July, 
1780, which rendered them incapable of holding or exercising 
any office of trust, honor or profit in the Province of Georgia. 
About the year 1800 Mordecai Sheftall was a magistrate of 
Savannah. The name of Abraham Seixas also appears on the 
roll of ofificers in the Continental Line of the Georgia Brigade 
during the Revolution, with the rank of lieutenant. Moses, 
son of Mordecai Sheftall, was born in Savannah, October 12, 
1769. He was a physician of note, and for many years a 
member of the Legislature. The ecclesiastical returns sent 
to London by the Rev. Mr. Frink, in 1771, thirty years after 
the arrival of the first Hebrews, gives their population in 
Savannah at that time as forty-nine. It appears that many of 
them during the intervening period, had left for Charleston, 
which accounts for their slow progress in numbers at that 
time. A. large number of them went to Philadelphia also. 

Religious service by the Hebrews in Savannah was first 
held in a house in " Market Square," the same place being 
used until 1740-41. A second place of worship was then 
fitted up in the residence of Mordecai Sheftall, and here the 
Hebrew colonists held divine worship for many years. In 
1773, Mordecai Sheftall deeded a piece of land for the pur- 
pose of erecting a synagogue, the trustees being Abraham 
Hart and Joseph Gomperts, of London, Samson Simson and 
Joseph Simson, of New York, Isaac Hart and Jacob Riviera, 
of Newport, and Philip Minis and Levi Sheftall, of Savannah. 
In 1786, the re-establishment of the congregation was de- 
termined upon and for that purpose a house was rented in 
what is known as " St. James' Square.'' A charter was 
granted the same year, with Levi Sheftall, Sheftall Sheftall, 
Cushman Polock, Joseph Abrahams, Mordecai Sheftall, Abra- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 5 I 

ham De Pass and Emanuel De La Motta, named as Trustees. 
This building was occupied for many years when the congre- 
gation was again disbanded. 

The congregation having sent a congratulatory lettevr to 
Washington on his accession to the Presidency, the following 
reply was returned in the month of May, 1790: 

I thank you with great sincerity for your congratulations on my 
appointment which I have the honor to hold by the unanimous 
choice of my fellow-citizens, and especially for the expressions which 
you are pleased to use in testifying the confidence that is reposed in 
me by your congregation. As the delay which has naturally inter- 
vened between my election and your address has afforded opportu- 
nity for appreciating the merits of the Federal Government, and for 
communicating your sentiments of its administration, I have rather 
to express my satisfaction than regret at a circumstance which de- 
monstrates (upon experiment) your attachment to the former as well 
as approbation of the latter. I rejoice that a spirit of liberality and 
philanthropy is much more profound than it formerly was among 
the enlightened nations of the earth, and that your brethren will ben- 
efit thereby in proportion as it shall become still more extensive. 
Happily, the people of the United States of America have, in many 
instances, exhibited examples worthy of imitation, the salutary effect 
of which will doubtless extend much farther if, gratefully enjoying 
those blessings of Peace, which, under the favor of Heaven, will 
have been obtained by fortitude in war, they shall conduct them- 
selves with reverence to the Deity who charitably directs their fellow- 
creatures. May the same wondering Deity who long since delivered 
the Hebrews from their Egyptian oppressors and planted them in 
the promised land, whose providential agency has been conspicuous 
in establishing these United States as an independent nation, still 
continue to water them with the dews of Heaven and make the in- 
habitants of every denomination participate in the temporal and 
spiritual blessings of that people whose God is Jehovah. 

Moses Sheftall was active in securing funds for reviving 
the synagogue, and liberal subscriptions were made for that 



52 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

purpose both by Hebrews and Christians. The consecration 
of the synagogue, which took place in 1820, was an impor- 
tant event in the history of the city. The discourse was de- 
Hvered by Dr. Jacob De La Motta, who officiated for several 
years without compensation. In acknowledging the receipt 
of a copy of the discourse transmitted by Dr. De La Motta, 
the author of the Declaration of Independence wrote as 
follows : 

Th. Jefferson returns his thanks to Dr. De La Motta for the elo- 
quent discourse on the Consecration of the Synagogue of Savannah, 
which he has been so kind as to send him. It excites in him the 
gratifying reflection that his own country has been the first to give 
to the world the truths, the most salutary to human society, that 
man can govern himself and that religious freedom is the most 
effectual antidote against religious dissension ; the maxim of civil 
government being reversed in that of religion where its true form is 
" divided we stand, united we fall." He is happy in the restoration 
of the Jews, particularly to their social rights, and hopes they will 
be seen taking their seats on the benches of science as preparatory 
to their doing the same at the board of Government. He salutes 
Dr. De La Motta with sentiments of great respect. 

James Madison, who was likewise favored with a copy of 
Dr. De La Motta's discourse, took occasion to observe in a 
letter of reply : 

It is particularly pleasing to observe in the good citizenship of 
such as have been most distrusted and oppressed elsewhere, a happy 
illustration of the safety and success of this experiment of a just and 
benignant policy. Equal laws, protecting equal rights, are found as 
they ought to be presumed, the best guarantee of loyalty and love of 
country as well as best calculated to cherish that mutual respect and 
good win among citizens of every- religious denomination, which 
are necessary to social harmony and most favorable to the advance- 
ment of truth. The account you give of the Jews of your congre- 
gation brings them fully within the scope of these observations. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 53 

. CHARLESTON. 

On the day following the Jewish, new year, 1750, the first 
Hebrew congregation was formed in Charleston, S. C. At 
this, time the Hebrew population of the city was composed of 
Moses Cohen, Isaac DeCosta, Joseph Tobias, Meshon Tobias, 
Moses Prinenta, David de Olivera, Abraham DeCosta, Mor- 
decai Sheftall, Levy Sheftall, Michael Lazarus and Abraham 
N. Cardoza. Moses Cohen was elected Chief Rabbi of this con- 
gregation, Isaac De Costa, Minister, and Joseph Tobias, Presi- 
dent. A small wooden house in Union Street was occupied 
as a synagogue which was known as Kahal Kadosh Bet/i- 
Elohim — " Holy Congregation of the House of Israel." 
Eighteen persons chosen by ballot, were vested with the 
government of the congregation. The members likewise 
formed a benevolent association under the name of the He- 
brew Benevolent Society, which still exists. After several 
changes, the congregation in 1780, purchased a lot and 
brick building which had been used as a cotton-gin manufac- 
tory, for 310 guineas. In 1790, Jacob Cohen, President of 
the congregation, addressed a lengthy congratulatory letter 
to Washington on his elevation to the Presidency, in which 
he said : 

When laudable ambition had nothing more to tempt you with; 
when fame had wearied itself in trumpeting your renown ; yielding 
to the disinterested impulses of uniform protestations, and the 
urgent invocations of your fellow-citizens, you quitted your peaceful 
and pleasurable mansion to involve yourself in the cares and fatigues 
which now throng on you ; and you have shown yourself as emi- 
nently qualified to preside at the helm of government, as at the head 
of armies. While historians of this and every age shall vie with 
each other in doing justice to your character, and in adorning their 
pages with the splendor of your endowments, and of your patriotic 



54 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

and noble achievements ; and while they cull and combine the 
various good and shining qualities of the Pagan and modern heroes, 
to display your character, we, and our posterity, will not cease to 
chronicle and commemorate you, with Moses, Joshua, Othniel, 
Gideon, Samuel, David, Maccabeus, and other holy men of old, 
who were raised up by God for the deliverance of our nation. His 
people, from their oppression. May the Great Being, our universal 
Lord, continue propitious to you and to the United States ; perfect 
and give increase and duration of prosperity to the great empire of 
which He has made you so instrumental in producing. May He 
grant you health to preside over the same, until He shall, after 
length of days, call you to eternal felicity, which will be the reward 
of your virtues in the next, as lasting glory must be in this world. 

The original of Washington's reply, having been destroyed 
in the fire of 1 838, no copy can be obtained. In 1 79 1 , the con- 
gregation numbered fifty-three families, and the Legislature 
granted an act of incorporation. The year following, land 
was acquired from the heirs of Nicholas Trott, formerly 
Chief Justice of the Province, for the purpose of erecting a 
more 'commodious house of worship. The sum of $20,000 
was contributed for this purpose and the corner-stone of the 
synagogue was laid by the Masonic fraternity. The cere- 
monies were thus described by Nathaniel Levin, the present 
Secretary of the congregation : 

Friday, the 14th day of September, 1793, was the day appointed 
for the ceremony of laying the corner-stones of the sacred edifice. 
On that day the congregation assembled in the " Old Synagogue," 
and after divine service proceeded in procession to the spot where 
the new building was to be erected. Eight marble stones were laid ; 
one at each corner of the building, and one at each corner of the 
porch. Each stone bore the name of the person laying it, also the 
date and an inscription in Hebrew and English. The first stone 
was placed in the East by Mr. Israel Joseph, and the second in the 
West by Mr. Philip Hart. These two gentlemen having contributed 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 55 

very generously to the building fund the congregation awarded them 
this honor. The privilege of laying the other six was disposed of at 
auction, privately and was secured by the following gentlemen at 
the annexed prices ; Mr. Lyon Moses, the third, at ^15 ; Mr. Isaac 
Moses, the fourth, for ^13 ; Mr. Emanuel Abrahams, the fifth, for 
^18 ; Mr. Mark I'ongues, the sixth, for ^9 6s. ; Mr. Hart Moses, 
the seventh, for ^8 los., and Mr. Abraham Moses, Sr. , the eighth, 
for ;£& 7s. The committee of arrangements having charge of the 
ceremony, in their report to the Vestry speak in glowing terms of its 
having been " conducted by the rules and regulations of the ancient 
and honorable fraternity of Freemasons." 

The building was completed in 1794 and the consecration 
took place in September of that year. Governor Moultrie 
and numerous civil and military dignitaries were present. In 
1835, forty-seven members of the congregation out of about 
ninety, petitioned the Board of Trustees to alter and curtail 
the Liturgy. They desired that the service should be short- 
ened so that portions repeated twice might be recited once 
in English and once in Hebrew, and that the children and 
many grown persons might, during a portion of the time, be 
able to understand the prayers recited. Precisely what was 
sought, however, can be best comprehended from the follow- 
ing extract from the petition . 

Your memorialists seek no other end than the future welfare and 
respectability of the Nation. As members of the great family of 
Israel, they cannot consent to place before their children examples 
which are only calculated to darken the mind and withhold from the 
rising generation the more rational means of worshipping the True 
God. It is to this, therefore, in the first place, we invite the 
serious attention of your honorable body, by causing the Hazan 
or Reader to repeat in English such part of the Hebrew prayers as 
may be deemed necessary. It is confidently believed that the 
■members of the congregation would be more forcibly impressed 
with the necessity of Divine Worship and the moral obligations 



S6 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

which they owe to themselves and their Creator, while such a 
course _would lead to more decency and decorum during the time 
they are engaged in the performance of religious duties. With 
regard to such parts as it is desired should undergo change, your 
memorialists would strenuously recommend that the most solemn 
portions be retained. Those parts considered superfluous should 
be rejected (the frequent repetition of the same prayers) and, if 
possible, all that is read in Hebrew should also be read in English, 
so as to enable every member of the congregation fully to under- 
stand every part of th? service. Your memorialists would next 
call the attention of your honorable body to the absolute necessity 
of abridging the service generally. They have reflected seriously 
upon its present length, and are confident that this is one of the 
principal causes why so much of it is hastily and improperly hurried 
over. According to the present mode of reading the Para Sha it 
affords to the hearer neither instruction or entertainment, unless he 
be able to comprehend as well as read the Hebrew language. But 
if, like all other ministers, our Reader would make a chapter or verse 
the subject of an English discourse once a week, at the expiration 
of the year the people would, at all events, know something of that 
religion which at present they so little regard. 

The Vestry of the congregation, consisting of the Presi- 
dent, Vice-President and five other gentlemen, rejected 
the petition, and ordered, it is alleged, that it be laid 
on the table without discussion, the memorialists receiv- 
ing no reply. Nathaniel Levin, Esq., for many years 
Secretary of the Congregation, in an exhaustive history of 
the synagogue, published some years since, avers that 
" the proposed changes were believed to strike at the 
fundamental principles of Judaism." At all events, the 
forty-seven petitioners resigned in a body, immediately 
rented an appropriate hall and organized the " Reform 
Society of Israelites," with a form of worship in accordance 
with their desires. Mr. David Nunes Carvalho, a brother of 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 57 

the gentleman who occupied the pulpit of the Congregation 
Beth-Elohim and one of the memorialists, gratuitously per- 
formed the required services in Hebrew and English, which 
were well attended. 

In 1835 the Rev. Gustavus Poznanski was elected minister 
of the Congregation Beth-Elohim, subsequently re-elected 
and then elected for life. The destruction of the synagogue 
by the great fire of 1838 deprived the congregation of their 
place of worship, and a new edifice was erected in 1840, at a 
cost of $40,000. About this time thirty-eight members of 
the congregation petitioned the Trustees for the introduc- 
tion of an organ in the synagogue. The petition was denied 
by a vote of four to one, but at a general meeting of the 
members this action was overruled by a vote of forty-seven 
to forty. This led to the withdrawal of the minority, who 
recognized the proposed innovation as a violation of the 
sacred laws, and these in 1843 formed another congregation, 
known as Shearith Israel. A union of the two congrega- 
tions was effected in 1866. During the Civil War the organ 
and the scrolls of the law were destroyed at Columbia, 
whither they had been taken for safe keeping. From 1750 
to 1850 the following ministers occupied the pulpit of the 
Congregation Beth-Elohim : Isaac De Costa, Abraham Alex- 
ander, Abraham Azubee, Benjamin C. D'Azevedo, Emanuel 
N. Carvalho, H. Cohen, S. C. Peixotto and Gustavus Poz- 
nanski. Michael Lazarus was Secretary from 1750 to 1780, 
Lyon Levy from 1 781 to 1805. Nathaniel Levin, the pres- 
ent incumbent, has occupied the office since 1866. Emanuel 
De La Motta, Moses C. Levy, Israel De Lieben and Abra- 
ham Alexander took an active part in organizing and estab- 
lishing the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted 



58 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Scottish Rite of Free Masons in South Carolina in 1801. 
Mr. Levy was a Pole and emigrated at an early age to 
Charleston, where he died in 181 5 at the age of eighty-nine 
years. Mr. Alexander was an Englishman and a noted cali- 
graphist. Mr. De La Motta was a Spaniard. He was born 
in 1761 and died in 1821. He was the father of Dr. Jacob 
De La Motta, President of the South Carolina Medical 
Society. 

Isaac Harby, President of the Reform Congregation and a 
well-known author, was one of the most prominent Charles- 
tonians early in the century. He was a son of Solomon 
Harby, whose father was Lapidary to the Emperor of 
Morocco, and was born at Charleston, S. C, in, 1788. 
Abandoning the study of law after deciding to adopt that 
profession, he opened a school on Edisto Island, which he 
conducted with success. At Charleston he undertook the 
editorial management of " The Quiver " and then the 
" Investigator," subsequently known as the " Southern 
Patriot," in which he championed the then Republican 
cause. In 1822 he conducted the " City Grazette," and sub- 
sequently the"" Charleston Mercury." In 1 807 he appeared 
as a dramatist, being at the time but nineteen years of age. 
His first production was " The Gordian Knot ; or Cause and 
Effects," a five-act play, founded on Ireland's novel, " The 
Abbess." Next he wrote " Alexander Serverus," and in 
1819 he produced a play called "Alberti," the original 
object of which was the vindication of the character and 
conduct of Lorenzo D'Medici from the calumnies of 
Alfieri's Conspiracy. The second performance of this play 
was honored by the presence of President James Monroe, 
then visiting Charleston. Mr. Harby's " Letters on the 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 59 

Presidency,'' in 1824, over the signature of "Junius,'' at- 
tracted wide attention. Among his earlier contributions to 
Hterature are a review of Byron's " Cain," critique on Marino 
Faliero, essay on criticism and a Defence of the Drama. 
He married Leah, daughter of Samuel Mordecai, of Savan- 
nah. He was Vice-President of the Hebrew Orphan Society 
of Charleston, and in 1825 delivered the first anniversary 
oration before the Reformed Society of Israelites of Charles- 
ton, of which he was President. Removing to New York 
City in 1828, he contributed to the columns of the " Evening 
Post." He died in that city November 14th of the same year 
(his wife having died a few months previously), possessing 
the friendship of many of the best people of the day, in- 
cluding Thomas Jefferson, Edward Livingston and other 
statesmen with whom he was in correspondence, and letters 
from whom are in the possession of his granddaughter, 
Mrs. Joseph P. Joachimsen of New York. 

In 1833 literary circles of Charleston became much inter- 
ested in a little volume of poems entitled " Fancy's Sketch- 
Book." The work showed its author to possess a high 
order of talent, deep feeling and an extremely sensitive and 
poetic nature. It was the first publication of the writings of 
Miss Penima Moise, a name that is dear to thousands of 
Hebrew hearts, especially in the South. Miss Moise was 
the daughter of Abraham Moise, of Charleston, S. C, and 
was born in that city on the 23d of April, 1797. Poetic 
expression came natural to her from girlhood, and her ten- 
der and sympathetic nature caused her poetry to touch the 
popular heart at once. After the publication of her book 
she was engaged to write for a number of leading news- 
papers and periodicals, among her chief subjects being the 



6o THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

great fire in Charleston in 1838, the yellow fever visitation, 
the charitable work of Sir Moses Montefiore, and others of 
like nature. She also composed a book of hymns for the 
Congregation Betli-Elohim of Charleston, of which she was a 
member. This book is still in use there. Such a favorite 
did Miss Moise become that she was known as the " Singer 
of Israel." During many years of her life Miss Moise had 
the care of her mother, who was a paralytic, and her 
brother, who was a sufferer from the asthma. Her devotion 
in these cases, as well as to the yellow fever sufferers in 
Charleston in 1854, was whole-souled and touching. During 
the last years of her life Miss Moise became blind, but she 
continued to compose poetry and was looked upon by her 
congregation as a holy one among them. She died Sep- 
tember 13, 1880, in the eigthy-fourth year of her age. 

Marx E. Cohen, youngest son of Mordecai Cohen, was ah 
extensive planter, born and residing in Charleston, and 
having his plantation at " Tissabon" (the Indian name for 
" Clear Spring"), about eighteen miles from the city, on the 
Ashley River. At the age of twenty-eight he married Ar- 
mida, youngest daughter of the distinguished litterateur, Isaac 
Harby, by whom he had several daughters and one son. Dr. 
Marx E. Cohen, who was killed in the Civil War. After the 
close of that great conflict, in which he lost most of his for- 
tune, he removed with his family to Sumter, S. C, where he 
died February 24, 1 881, at the age of seventy-two. He was 
graduated with high honors at the college in Glasgow, Scot- 
land, and was a well-read and highly cultured gentleman. At 
the time of the Henry Clay excitement he was a candidate 
for the Legislature, but was defeated, in common with the 
entire Democratic ticket. He was somewhat of a litterateur, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 6l 

and his name was a synonym for integrity and the most un- 
bounded hospitality. Mr. Cohen was radically liberal in his 
religious views. The first discovery of the famous phos- 
phate beds was made on his plantation soon after he had sold 
it, at the close of the war. 

Mordecai Cohen came to Charleston, from England, while 
yet a lad, and with scarcely a dollar in his pocket. His in- 
dustry and unquestioned integrity brought him deserved 
prosperity, and he subsequently became the richest man, 
with the exception of Robert Adger, in the State of South 
Carolina. Retiring from active business pursuits, he pre- 
sented each of his four children with an independent fortune. 
He married Miss Leah Lazarus, a lady belonging to one of 
the most exclusive of the aristocratic families in Charleston, 
and died at the age of eighty-six. He was a man of ready 
wit and dry humor. His charities were great, but un- 
bounded by any consideration of age, sex, color or religion. 
A tablet to his memory was erected by the city of Charles- 
ton in the Orphan House (an unsectarian institution which 
has been in existence since the city was in its infancy), to 
which he had been a most generous and unfailing donor. He 
is the only Hebrew to whom the city of Charleston has ever 
reared a memorial stone. His religious views were exceed- 
ingly liberal and he was highly respected by Christian and 
Hebrew alike. 

PHILADELPHIA. 

An especially prominent position is held by Philadelphia 
in the history of the early Hebrews of the United States. 
One of the earliest names mentioned in connection with the 
race there is that of Samuel Keimer, an Englishman by birth. 



62 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

who was the pubHsher of the " Pennsylvania Gazette," and 
the printer with whom Benjamin FrankUn secured employ- 
ment upon reaching Philadelphia, in 1723. Franklin, in his 
autobiography, makes no mention of Keimer's Hebrew origin, 
the publisher of the " Gazette " being described therein as 
wearing a long beard and abstaining from work on the seventh 
day. From this statement has originated a belief that Kei- 
mer was a Hebrew. The author of a valuable work on 
American literature, recently published, evidently accepting 
Franklin's inferential testimony as authority, designates 
Keimer as a " Jew." There is good reason for believing, 
however, that Keimer was a member of a sect known as 
" French Prophets." 

According to Rosenbach's " Jews in Philadelphia previous 
to the year 1800," Arnold Bamberger, who by special act was 
permitted to hold lands and to trade in the province of Penn- 
sylvania, in the year 1726, was the first Hebrew in Philadel- 
phia regarding whom documentary evidence is extant. Pre- 
vious to the Revolution it is supposed that worship was con- 
ducted in Sterling Alley. As early as 1738, Nathan Levy 
laid out a burial place for himself and family, on Spruce 
Street, between Eighth and Ninth Streets, and in 175 1, Mr. 
Levy published a notice in the " Pennsylvania Gazette " 
complaining of injury to the fence of the cemetery caused by 
the firing at marks set against it by sportive marksmen. 

Among the members of the Congregation Mickve-hrael in 
1 78 1 were the Sheftalls of Savannah, several persons from 
Charleston and others from Newport and New York, the lat- 
ter including the Rev. Gershom Seixas. Already in 1773 
the financial maintenance of the Congregation Mickve-hrael, 
then located in Sterling Alley, between Third and Fourth 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 63 

Streets, had been the subject of much concern to the mem- 
bers, the necessary funds being derived from voluntary sub- 
scription. In that year Bernard Gratz, the Parnass, con- 
tributed .£^10, Michael Gratz ^10, Solomon Marache and 
Henry Marks each ;£"5, Levi Solomon £4. and Mordecai Levy 
£2,, to continue annually for three years. The influx of co- 
religionists from .other cities on account of the war swelled 
their numbers to such an extent that more commodious 
quarters were found necessary, and the congregation removed 
to Cherry Alley, where it remained until 1782, when Isaac 
Moses, Haym Levy, Solomon M. Cohen, Simon Nathan, 
Bernard Gratz and Jonas Phillips were entrusted with the 
duty of securing still better accommodations. The sum of 
£600 was raised by subscription for erecting a new place of 
worship. This amount proving inadequate, Haym Salomon 
came to the rescue by offering to. defray one-fourth of the 
entire cost, regardless of the amount. 

The new synagogue in Cherry Street, near Third, was 
solemnly dedicated in September, 1782, by the Rev. Ger- 
shom Seixas, the committee in charge of the ceremonies 
being Solomon Marache, Simon Nathan, Haym Levy, Isaac 
Moses, Solomon M. Cohen and Benjamin Seixas. The 
building, which had accommodations for nearly two hundred 
persons, was of brick, with a residence of the minister adjoin- 
ing. Notwithstanding Haym Salomon's liberal contribution 
the financial condition of the congregation was far from satis- 
factory for some years after, and so pressing was the neces- 
sity for further funds that in 1788 relief was sought by a 
memorial to the General Assembly to permit a lottery, with 
a view of securing the money necessary to liquidate the in- 
debtedness. An address to " all humane, charitable, and 



64 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

well disposed people," was then issued, setting forth at 
length the financial difficulties under which the congregation 
labored, and asking their worthy fellow-citizens of every re- 
ligious denomination " their benevolent aid and help, flatter- 
ing themselves that their worshipping Almighty God in a 
way and manner different from other religious societies will 
never deter the enlightened citizens of Philadelphia from 
generously subscribing" toward the preservation of a religious 
house of worship." 

In April of the same year Rev. Jacob Cohen informed the 
congregation that his term of service was about to expire, 
and desired to know whether a re-engagement was contem- 
plated. The minister during the preceding year had been 
sustained by subscription, and it was determined at this 
meeting to continue the subscription plan for another year. 
For this purpose Manuel Josephson contributed ;£^i 5s. 6d.; 
Samuel Hayes, £1 2s. 6d.; Solomon Lyon, ;^i los.; Jonas 
Phillips and son, £2 12s. 6d.; Sholas Barrnitza, 14s. 6d.; 
Tiny Phillips, 12s.; Bernard Gratz, £1 i6s.; Michael Gratz 
and son, £1 19s.; Michael Levy, 17s. 6d.; Isaac Moses, Sr., 
7s. 6d.; Moses Nathan Levy, 2s. 8d.; Moses Nathan Levy's 
brother, i8s.; Solomon Aaron, 7s. 6d.; Jacob Cohen, Sr., 
;^i 2s. 6d.; Myer Hart, lis.; Abraham Hart, 7s. 6d.; 
Michael Hart Cohen, ;^i us.; Solomon Etting, ^i 2s. 6d.; 
Benjamin Nones, £2 3s. 6d.; Isaac Ximenus, 6d.; Joseph 
Henry, 8s.; Meyer and Solomon Marks, 3s.; Aaron Syefort, 
;^IO los. 

A few months later the congregation took into considera- 
tion the subject of depredations at the burying ground and 
it was voted to permit the erection of a building close by, at 
the expense of the builder, in order to remedy the evil. This 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 65 

cemetery was at Spruce and Ninth Streets, and' among others 
buried there, prior to the present century, were : Nathan 
Levy, 1753; Jacob Henry, 1751 ; David Gomez, 1780; Mat- 
thew Gomez, 1781 ; Sarah Judah, 1783 ; Miriam Marks, 
1784; Sarah Marks, 1784; Abraham Levy, 1786; Emanuel 
Josephson, 1796. The stone marking the grave of the latter 
gives the date of his death as February 30, 1796. 

On February 24, 1790, Bernard Grziz, Parnass, and Manuel 
Josephson, Trustee, on behalf of the congregation, issued a 
fresh appeal for funds wherewith to pay off the indebtedness 
on the synagogue. This was addressed to the congregation 
in Parimarirba Surinam. "In former times," it read, "the 
few housekeepers that were settled here, being impressed 
with a sense of duty to assemble on Sabbath and Solemn 
days, to offer up their prayers in Congregation, thereby pre- 
serving the mode of worship and those ceremonies appertain- 
ing to our holy religion, and initiating their young offspring 
therein, that the same might become familiar to them, and 
so be handed down inviolate to succeeding generations, and 
in order that they might have a place wherein to assemble 
for that purpose, they hired a room in a private house and 
furnished and decorated it proper for a synagogue, although 
in miniature, it being suited to their numbers and circum- 
stances. This they continued many years, satisfied and 
happy in that particular, until the year 1776, when the dis- 
turbances in this county began and which caused numbers of 
our brethern from the different congregations in America to 
come with their families to reside here. Thus the congrega- 
tion greatly increased, so that the room aforesaid, became 
insufficient to contain so considerable a number. * * * * 
But no sooner did the news of peace reach these parts than 



66 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

they all returned to their respective homes and former places 
of abode, leaving this small congregation saddled with a debt 
that had been contracted chiefly on their account, and is be- 
come impossible for this handful to discharge, without the 
assistance of their benevolent brethren abroad, finding it at 
present even difficult to raise the annual salaries of the 
Hazan, Shochet and Shamas." 

Two. years after the application to the Legislature for a 
lottery, an act was passed, allowing the congregation to raise 
;^8oo by that means. 

The story of Haym Salomon's life is an interesting one. 
His prominence was not confined to the synagogue, to 
which he was the most liberal contributor, but was attained 
by generous and timely assistance to the founders of the 
Republic, and will cause his name to be remembered for all 
time to come. He was a native of Poland and of Portuguese 
descent. His family were highly respectable and learned 
people. His wife was Rachel Frank, daughter of Moses 
B. Frank of London, who, with his brother, the distin- 
guished Jacob Frank of the Revolutionary War, died in 
New York while it was yet a colony. Moses and Jacob 
Frank were spns of Aaron Frank of Germany, who was the 
companion and friend of King George of Hanover, and who 
loaned that monarch the most valuable jewels in his crown 
at his Coronation. Jacob Frank was the British King's sole 
agent for the Northern Colonies at New York, and his son 
David was the King's agent for Pennsylvania. After visit- 
ing many countries and acquiring various languages, Haym 
Salomon left Lissa and came to America. He was in New 
York when the British took possession of the city, and 
with other patriots was arre-ted and confined in the prison 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 6/ 

known as the " Prevost,'' which stood, on the spot now 
occupied by the Hall of Records in the City Hall Park. 
So closely were the prisoners packed there that " when 
they laid down at night to rest, when their bones ached 
on the hard oak planks and they wished to turn, it was 
altogether by command 'right-left,' being so wedged as 
to form almost a solid mass of human bodies." Escaping 
from the clutches of the British, Haym Salomon made his 
way to Philadelphia, and there married the sister of Colonel 
Frank. It was during his residence there that he was 
entrusted with the negotiation of all the war subsidies of 
France and Holland on his own personal integrity, which 
were disposed of to the resident merchants in America with- 
out any loss, at a credit of two and three months, for 
which he received the small commission of one-fourth of one 
per cent. It was Haym Salomon who, when the people of 
Philadelphia were deprived of the use of any circulating 
medium by the act of withdrawal of Continental money and 
great distress existed, caused $2,000 in specie to be dis- 
tributed among the poor of that city. In Madison's letter 
to Virginia in 1881, he writes: "My wants are so urgent 
that it is impossible to suppress them. The case of my 
brethren is equally alarming." And later on he declares 
that " the kindness of our friend in Front Street (Mr. Salo- 
mon) is a fund that will preserve me from extremities, but I 
never resort to it without great mortification, as he obstinately 
rejects all recompense. To necessitous delegates he gratui- 
tously spares from his private stock." And the same year 
he admits, in a letter to Edmund Randolph, that he had 
been " for some time past a pensioner on the favor of Haym 
Salomon." The magnitude of these great favors granted by 



68 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Mr. Salomon may be judged by what was written by one dis- 
tinguished Virginian in 1781-82, who said: " We have tried 
to raise funds to relieve ourselves by offers of depositing the 
best names in Virginia, but it is in vain. My brethren are in 
like distress." Relief from any other quarter than from Mr. 
Salomon was so rare that the only instance where it occurred 
is thus recorded in Mr. Madison's journal, in September, 
1782: 

" I succeeded in getting the sum of fifty pounds from 
Mr. Cohen by depositing the obligation of Mr. Randolph 
payable for it at sixty days." The disinterestedness of Haym 
Salomon was again forcibly illustrated in his intercourse with 
the members of the Government. When he was called on to 
advance the entire pay for the ensuing year to Messrs. Jones, 
Randolph and Madison, as members of the Revolutionary 
Congress, they had in writing allotted that Mr. Madison 
should get fifty pounds less than the other two, but Mr. Sal- 
omon seeing in this young statesman, then only twenty-nine 
years old, those great, latent talents, for which he became in 
after years distinguished, presented him, from his own pri- 
vate purse, the fifty pounds, and thus equalized the pay of 
the whole delegation. Jared Sparks, the historian, in the 
Life of Governeur Morris, a member of Congress in 1780, pub- 
lishes a letter written by Mr. Morris, in which he declares 
that " the person who did loan cash to a member to relieve 
his distress in that day, was in no expectation of ever getting 
repaid." While many of the merchants who subscribed to 
make up army supplies in 1780, were represented as having 
given their names without any security, it is shown by Mr. 
Madison's journal that they had a contingent security of the 
best Sterling Exchange to the amount of ;^ 150,000, in 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 6g 

excess of their subscription. Facts not generally known are 
contained in a document presented to a committee of 
Congress, from the Bank of North America, the first and 
only bank chartered by the Revolutionary Congress. This 
document shows the relative proportion of the account of 
Mr. Salomon, and forty other principal merchants, who com- 
menced with the opening of the bank. Their accounts, up 
to the period of his death, when his account closed, occupied 
in all fifteen pages of the large ledger, and his single account 
occupied fifteen pages, double columns, of the same ledger. 
The amount of his one account was as large as their entire 
account in the aggregate. His balance at the various times 
of settlement in his bank book show specie balances of 
$15,000 to $50,000 at each period. The amount charged by 
the bank to his account as paid to the financier of the Revo- 
lution was more than $200,000, while Robert Morris' own 
account during the same period has but a deposit of less than 
$10,000, and which was received on the very day from Haym 
Salomon as it was charged to him. Funds were also given, 
when necessity required, to Jefferson, Willson, Ross, Duane, 
Reed, and others of the Congress of the Declaration, and 
also to Madison, Mercer, Arthur Lee, Joseph Jones, Harri- 
son, Mififliin, Rittenhouse, Pendleton, Randolph and others. 
Haym Salomon was also the confidential friend of that ardent 
adherent to the American cause, the Chevalier de la Luzerne, 
the French Ambassador, as well as to the two Consuls-Gen- 
eral Marbois and De La Forrest, both of whom were subse- 
quently ministers of Napoleon L 

In the archives of the Intendancy of Cuba, there is a letter 
from Don Francisco Rendon, Minister from Spain to the 
United States, addressed to Don Diego Jose de Navarro, 



•JO THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Governor-General of Cuba, in which the former says : " I am 
entirely indebted to the particular kindness of Mr. Salomon 
to support my credit with any degree of reputation, and 
without it I certainly could not have been able to render 
that protection and assistance to the subjects of His Most 
Catholic Majesty which is enforced on me by his royal Com- 
mands." The list made and deposited at the Probate office 
of the certificates of Revolutionary indebtedness, of which he 
was seized at the time of his death in 1784, shows upwards of 
$350,000, consisting of War ofifice, Loan office. Commissioner, 
Treasury and Continental certificates, not one cent of which 
was ever received by the infant children, owiag to circum- 
staances for which they could not be accountable. Henry 
Wheaton says that Judge Wilson, so distinguished for his 
labors in the convention that framed the Federal Constitu- 
tion, would have retired from public service had he not been 
sustained by the timely aid of Haym Salomon, adminstered 
with equal generosity and delicacy. 

A committee of the United States Congress, in 1850, to 
whom was referred a resolution to reimburse the heirs of 
Haym Salomon, for the moneys so generously advanced by 
their illustrious ancestor, admitted the justice of the claim and 
reported that he had " advanced liberally of his means at a 
time when the sinews of war were essential to success," and 
as late as 1864, the Committee on Revolutionary Claims of 
the United States Senate, reported a bill appropriating the 
sum of $353,726.43, provided that Mr. Salomon's heirs would 
relinquish all further claim upon the Government. 

Isaac Moses was a Philadelphia merchant whose patriot- 
ism was emphasized by a contribution of ^3,000 when Rob- 
ert Morris undertook to raise money with which to prose- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 71 

cute the war. He subsequently removed to New York, 
where he was for years a leading merchant and was one of 
the founders of the Bank of New York. David Franks, son 
of Jacob Franks, of New York, was a prominent Philadelphia 
merchant, whose fortune was swept away by confiscation on . 
account of his adherence to the British cause. In 1743 he 
married Margaret, daughter of Peter Evans, of Philadelphia, 
having previously abjured the Hebrew faith. Three daugh- 
ters and one son were born to them. The three daughters 
were among the belles of Philadelphia during the Revolu- 
tionary War, the eldest, Abigail, having married Andrew 
Hamilton, the owner of " Woodlands," and at one time the 
Attorney-General of the State ; the b.coad was unmarried, 
while the youngest, Rebecca, was, after the war, wedded to 
Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Johnson, who rendered im- 
portant service in the rebellion in Ireland. Rebecca Franks 
was distinguished for her beauty, wit and intelligence. She 
was a conspicuous figure in Philadelphia society during the 
period named. General Lee said of her that she was " a 
lady, who has had every human and divine advantage." She 
was universally courted for the charms of her conversation. 
At the celebrated fete of the Mischianza, which took place 
at Philadelphia, May 18, 1778, and which was given by the 
British officers to Sir William Howe before he relinquished 
his command to Sir Henry Clinton, Rebecca Franks was one 
of the princesses. The following interesting description of 
social life in New York towards the close of the Eighteenth 
Centurj' occurs in a letter from her pen, and is taken from 
Mrs. Ellett's " Queens of American Society : " 

By the bye, few ladies here know how to entertain company in 
their own houses, unless they introduce the card-table. Except \'..:. 



72 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Van Homes, who are remarkable for their good sense and ease, I 
don't know a woman or girl who can chat above half an hour, and 
that on the form of a cap, the color of a ribbon, or the set of a 
hoop, stay ox jupon. I will do our ladies, that is the Philadelphians, 
the justice to say, that they have more cleverness in the turn of an 
. eye than those of New York have in their whole composition. 
With what ease have I seen a Chew, a Penn, an Oswald, or an 
Allen, and a thousand others, entertain a large circle of both sexes ; 
the conversation, without the aid of cards, never flagging, nor seem- 
ing in the least strained or stupid. Here in New York, you enter a 
room with a formal set courtesy, and after the howdos things are 
finished ; all is a dead calm till the cards are introduced, when you 
see pleasure dancing in the eyes of all the matrons, and they seem 
to gain new life. The maidens, if they have favorite swains, fre- 
quently decline playing, for the pleasure of making love ; for to all 
appearance, it is the ladies, not the gentlemen, who now-a-days 
show a preference. It is here, I fancy, always leap-year. Indeed, scan- 
dal says, that in the cases of most who have been married, the first 
advances came from the lady's side, or she got a male friend to 
introduce the intended victim and pass her off. I suspect there 
would be more marriages were another mode adopted ; they have 
made the men so saucy that I sincerely believe the lowest ensign 
thinks he has but to ask and have ; that a red coat and smart 
epaulette are sufficient to secure a female heart. 

At a ball given by Mrs. Washington to the French 
Minister in honor of the alliance between France and the 
United States, Miss Franks took occasion to show her Tory ■ 
sympathies by bribing a servant to decorate a dog with the 
cockades of the two countries and usher the animal into the 
ball room. In 1810 the former Philadelphia beauty was liv- 
i'ng in Bath, England, where she was visited by General 
Scott some years later. In the course of an animated con- 
versation, she remarked to the hero of Lundy's Lane : 
" I have gloried in my rebel countrymen. Would to heaven 
I, too, had been a patriot! I do not— I have never re- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 73 

gretted my marriage ! No woman was ever blessed with a 
kinder — a better husband ; but I ought to have been a 
patriot before marriage." 

A sister of David Franks married General Oliver De 
Lancey, of the British Army. David S. Franks, a nephew 
of David Franks, was an officer of the Continental Army. 
Mayer Isaac Franks, a brother-in-law of Haym Salomon, was 
for a time Judge of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. 
One of the sons of David Franks returned to England, and 
died a member of Parliament, while Colonel Franks, after 
the war, was appointed Prothonotary of the Supreme Court 
of Pennsylvania, which office he held at the time of his 
death. 

Israel Israels, a native of the Island of Barbadoes, was a 
prominent character in Philadelphia, up to the time of his 
death in 1821. During the Revolution he resided on the 
Delaware, near Wilmington. The female members of the 
family being dependent upon Israel and his younger brother 
Joseph, for protection, lots were drawn to determine which 
should become a soldier. The lot fell upon Joseph, the 
younger, while Israel devoted his time and attention to his 
farm on the Delaware, where "he resided with his wife. The 
story of Israel's trial and escape, after his arrest by the 
British, forms /one of the most thrilling episodes of the Revo- 
lution and is thus graphically described by the historian 
Lossing : 

" Israel Israels, was a member of the Committee of Safety, 
and, of course, a marked man. Betrayed by Tory neighbors, 
he and his wife's brother were made prisoners and taken upon 
the frigate ' Roebuck,' lying in the Delaware, in sight of his 
house, for trial. He was treated harshly ; his bed was a coil 



74 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

of rope on deck, his food was of the meanest kind. It was 
reported that he had declared that he would ' sooner drive 
his cattle as a present to General Washington, than receive 
thousands of dollars in British gold for them.' On being 
informed of this the British Commander ordered a detach- 
ment of soldiers to go to his (Ifsael's) meadows, in full view, 
and seize and slaughter his cattle then feeding there. His 
young wife (then only nineteen years old) saw her husband 
and brother taken to the frigate, and she also saw the move- 
ment of the plunderers. She guessed their purpose when 
she saw the soldiers land. With a boy eight years old, she 
hastenedto the meadows, cast down the bars and began driv- 
ing out the cattle. The soldiers told her to d&sist and 
threatened to shoot her. ' Fire away !' cried the heroic 
woman. They fired, and the balls flew thickly but harm- 
lessly around her. The shield of God's providence was over 
her, and, though the cowardly soldiers fired several shots, not 
one grazed her. The cattle were all saved, and the discom- 
fited marauders returned to the frigate. The trial of Israel 
took place. A kind-hearted soldier asked him if he was a 
Free Mason. He answered in the affirmative and was in- 
formed that a lodge was to be'held on board the vessel that 
night, the officers being Masons. The trial ended. The life 
of Israel was in jeopardy. He made a manly defense before 
the Court, and when opportunity offered he gave a sign of 
the brotherhood. It was recognized ; the haughty bearing 
of the officers was changed to kindness ; the Tory witnesses 
were reprimanded for seeking the harm of an honorable 
man ; presents were prepared for his heroic wife, and himself 
and brother were sent on shore in a splendid barge and set 
at liberty. The records of the Grand Lodge of Masons of 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 75 

Pennsylvania bear testimony that Mr. Israel (who was at one 
time Grand Master) was saved from an ignominious death 
by the use of Masonic signs." 

Israel Israels, was at one time High Sheriff of Philadelphia, 
and was seventy-eight years old when he died. A clock 
owned by Israels is among the relics in possession of the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society. Israel's wife was Hannah 
Erwin, a Christian, and Mrs. Ellett, author of " Women of the 
Revolution," and " Queens of American Society," was their 
daughter. 

Jonas Phillips, who Jived at noT^orth Second Street, mar- 
ried "Rebecca, daughter of Hazan Machada. Their son, Naph- 
tali Phillips, was born October 19, 1773. Zelegman Phillips, 
another son, was born June 28, 1779. He married Arabella, 
daughter of M. Solomon. He was one of the ablest criminal 
lawyers in Philadelphia, and died in 1839. Moses Levy, an- 
other lawyer, sold his house in Chestnut Street to the Bank 
of North America. Another distinguished member of the 
Bar, was Sampson Levy, whose impromptu speeches were 
said to be " perfect gems." 

For many years the Hebrews of Philadelphia have occupied 
an honorable place in the community. Prominent among 
those in the mercantile world, half a century ago, were John 
and Samuel Moss, shipowners, and Lewis Allen, who carried 
on an extensive wholesale dry-goods business from 1815 to 
1841. A merchant then widely known was Leon J. Levy, 
who occupied a large establishment on Chestnut Street. 
Among the numerous bankers were found the Gratz family. 
Michael Gratz came from Austria when a lad, and traded 
largely with the Indians. He sided with the Colonists during 
the war, and his name appears among the signatures to the 



■j6 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Non-Importation Resolutions after the passage of the Stamp 
Act. Of his eleven children, Simon, the eldest son, was one 
of the founders of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. 
Hyman, a brother, was President of the Pennsylvania In- 
surance Company. Rebecca, a daughter, who is immortal- 
ized as the heroine of Scott's " Ivanhoe," was born March 4, 
1781. She was prominently identified in the organization of 
numerous charitable and benevolent associations. When 
fifty-seven years old she organized the first Hebrew Sunday- 
school in the United States. 

Writing of her in her younger days, Gratz Van Rensselaer 
says : " Her eyes were of exquisite shape, large, black and 
lustrous ; her figure was graceful and her carriage was 
marked by quiet dignity — attractions which were height- 
ened by elegant and winning manners. Gentle, benevolent, 
with instinctive refinement and innate purity, she inspired 
affection among all who met her ; and having received the 
best instruction that the time and country afforded, she was 
well-fitted for practical and social duties." Among her 
numerous acquaintances was Washington Irving, and to the 
latter it is said Scott was indebted for the character of 
Rebecca in Ivanhoe, Irving having portrayed to him, during 
one of his visits abroad, the fair Philadelphian's " wonderful 
beauty, the story of her firm adherence to her -religious 
faith under the most trying circumstances, and particularly 
illustrated her loveliness of character and zealous philan- 
thropy." She died in 1869 at the age of eighty-eight. 

Hyman Marks was also engaged in the banking business. 
Other bankers were Robert and Isaac Phillips, the latter a 
son-in-law of John Moss, the Joseph brothers and Joseph 
Andrade. Mr. Andrade was a Frenchman and a man of 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1"] 

immense fortune. Though received in the best society he 
was noted for his penury, eccentricity and shabby attire. 
Among the members of the bar Zeligman Phillips and his 
sons, Altamont and Henry M., occupied high places. 

Johaveth, a daughter of Moses Isaacks, of Newport, 
married Michael Marks of Philadelphia, who came from 
England with Hyman and Michael Gratz. He, with his 
father, Henry Marks, were among the founders of the syna- 
gogue Mickve-Israel. 

Anna, a daughter of Michael Marks, married Lewis Allen, 
a well-known and highly respected merchant of Philadelphia, 
who succeeded his father, Lewis Allen, Sr., in business in 
1815. Mr. Allen was for many years President of the syna- 
gogue of which his father-in-law was a founder, and his 
widow, Mrs. Anna Allen, assisted Miss Gratz in the forma- 
tion of the first Hebrew Sunday-school of thac city and was 
one of the founders and first President of the Jewish Foster 
Home and Orphan Asylum, and was forty years Treasurer of 
the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society of Philadelphia. 
Mrs. Allen, who was born in the village of Sing Sing, N. Y., 
in the year 1800 is now (1888) a resident of the city of New 
York. 

Abraham Hart, was for many years a member of the firm 
of Carey & Hart, the leading book house of the United 
States. Mr. Hart's uprightness and integrity, during his 
business career of more then a quarter of a century, was 
marked, on his retirement from active life, by a public 
dinner, tendered him by the publishers and booksellers of 
Philadelphia, in 1854. He was, for upwards of thirty years, 
President of the Mickve-Israel congregation, and his opinion 
was sought after by all his co-religionists. He generously 



78 lilK HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

aided and encouraged all Hebrew institutions in his city and 
elsewhere, and " many a time in the synagogue when the 
Sabbath was over, a crowd of poor would gather about him, 
and he would deal out money to them, and many a poor 
soul went forth rejoicing, calling God's choicest blessings 
upon the head of this generous man." He enjoyed the 
friendship of General Grant, George W. Childs, and other 
famous men, and the announcement of his death, in July, 
1885, called forth expressions of sincere sorrow in many 
Hebrew households. Miss Louisa B. Hart, was one of the 
three Jewesses of Philadelphia, to whom we are indebted 
for the first Hebrew Sunday-school in the United States. 
She was born at Easton, Penn., June 3, 1803, and, after the 
death of her father, a merchant of that town, removed to 
Philadelphia, where she became interested in the formation 
of the Sunday-school founded by Miss Gratz, and of which 
she became a teacher and first Vice-president and subse- 
quently Superintendent. She died in 1874. 

LANCASTER. 

A numerous Hebrew community existed in Lancaster, 
Penn., in colonial days. The most prominent of the early set- 
tlers there, was Joseph Simon. He reached Lancaster about 
1735, and taking out a license as an Indian trader, soon mo- 
nopolized the business in that section, ranking for almost half a 
century as one of the wealthiest Indian traders and merchants 
in America. The colonial records of Pennsylvania made 
frequent and honorable mention of his services. As early as 
1740, he began to acquire land in Lancaster and the sur- 
rounding country, and gradually accumulated immense tracts 
in Pennsylvania. In 1747, he bought one piece of 288 acres, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 79 

near Maytown, from John Lowrey. Mr. Simon's store was 
the largest at Lancaster, and was in Penn Square, in the 
centre of the town. Levy Andrew Levy, was a partner in 
this store for many years and his (Simon's) sons-in-law, Levi 
Phillips, Solomon M. Cohen, Simon Gratz and Solomon 
. Etting, were also, at various periods, associated with him. 
Another son-in-law was Dr. Nicholas Schuyler, of Albany, a 
surgeon in the Revolutionary war. Prior to the French and 
Indian wars of 1755, Mr. Simon made frequent excursions 
to the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers with his pack horses, 
trading with the Indians. 

In 1763 the series of Indian depredations culminated in 
the attack by the Shawnees, Delawares and Huron tribes 
at " Bloody Run," in Bedford County, Penn. This re- 
sulted in heavy losses to the traders, among whom were 
David Franks, Joseph Simon, William Trent, Levy Andrew 
Levy, and Colonel Alexander Lowrey, twelve traders sus- 
taining thereby a loss of .£^80,000 (four hundred thousand 
dollars). Five years after this disaster, on November 8, 
1768, at the treaty of Fort Stanwix (Rome, N. Y.), all the 
tribes of the Six Nations joined in a deed to the aforemen- 
tioned Indian traders of the tract of land " beginning at the 
south side of the mouth of Little Canhawa Creek where it 
empties into the Ohio River, and running from thence south- 
west to the Laurel Hill until it strikes the River Monon- 
gahela, thence along said river to the southern boundary 
line of the Province of Pennsylvania, thence along the 
boundary line of Pennsylvania to the Ohio River, and down 
that stream to place of beginning." 

The region referred to in this deed, which may be seen in 
Independence Hall, Philadelphia, at the present time com- 



8o THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

prises the large State of West Virginia. The settlement of 
this land was resisted by Virginia, and the breaking out of 
the Revolution put an end to all negotiations looking to its 
acquirement. Mr. Simon, however, cherished for many years 
a hope of reclaiming it and until the day of his death ex- 
pended large sums of money to obtain possession of the grant. 
The losses at Bloody Run proved but a temporary check to 
Mr. Simon, who was a man of push and enterprise, and he 
enjoyed a lucrative trade until after the Revolutionary War. 
On July 5, 1773, the different tribes of the Indian nations 
in Illinois conveyed to twenty-two residents of Lancaster 
and surrounding country a grant of land which now embraces 
the southern half of the State of Illinois. Eight Hebrews 
were interested in its purchase. They were Moses Franks, 
Jacob Franks, David Franks, Barnard Gratz, Michael Gratz, 
Moses Franks, Jr., Joseph Simon, Levy Andrew Levy. ■ 
This land, like that in Virginia, never passed into the control 
of the purchasers, which was also owing, it is presumed, to 
the Revolution. Levy Andrew Levy's interest in Mr. 
Simon's business ceased in 1778, when he and Susanna, his 
wife, conveyed it to Aaron Levy, also a storekeeper in Lan- 
caster, presumably a son. The Levys reached Lancaster a 
few years after the arrival of Mr. Simon, his (Simon, s) sons-in- 
law coming many years thereafter. One of them, Solomon 
Etting, had previously lived at York, Penn. Mr. Simon's 
closing years .were embittered by his son-in-law, Michael 
Gratz, whom he fancied had dealt unjustly with him in cer- 
tain business transactions. On this account Mr. Simon dis- 
posed of the whole of his real estate, including several 
thousand acres in Northumberland County, in order to pre- 
vent him from enjoying any part of it. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 8 1 

Colonel Alexander Lowrey, was, for over forty years, en- 
gaged with Mr. Simon in the fur trade. Colonel David 
Clark, of New Orleans, father of the late Mrs. Myra Gaines, 
whose claims involving millions of dollars were the subject of 
many years of litigation with the Government, was employed 
as wagon boy by the two traders when they visited the Ohio 
and Mississippi country. 

Mr. Simon lived to the ripe age of ninety-two years and 
was buried in the Lancaster Cemetery. The inscription on 
his tombstone reads : 

And Joseph gave up the Ghost, 

and died in a good old age. 

An old man and full of years 

and was gathered to his people. 

Joseph Simon 

Departed this life 

the 1 2 th day of the month Shebath, in the 

year 5565, corresponding with the 24th day 

of Januuary, 1804, aged 92 years, in a good old age 

And he walked with God, and he was not, 

for God took him. 

At his side rests his wife, on whose tombstone is this 

record : , 

The Body of Mrs. Rose Simon, 

wife to 

Mr. Joseph Simon, 

who departed this life 

the 3d day of May, 1796, 

in the 69th year 

of her age. 

Levi Phillips and Belah, his wife, (son-in-law and daughter 
of Mr. Simon) were appointed his executors. A clause was 
inserted in his will providing that the " silver plate used for re- 



82 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

ligious worship " in his family and two scrolls of the law, were 
to remain in Mr. Phillips' family, during the latter's life-time, 
after which they should revert to the Philadelphia synagogue. 

After Mr. Simon's death the Phillipses, Cohens, Gratzes 
and Ettings all removed to Philadelphia. Mr. Simon left 
five daughters and two sons. The latter were imbeciles and 
were amply provided for in his will. 

In the year 1747 one-half acre of ground was acquired for 
a Hebrew cemetery, Isaac Nunus Ricus and Joseph Simon 
being named as Trustees. The deed conveying the prop- 
erty reads that it is to be held " for the Society of Jews 
settled in and about Lancaster." The first interment in the 
old cemetery after 1804 was in the year 1855. Two years 
prior to this the Hirsh brothers reached Lancaster. They 
took measures to form a congregation, and on February 25, 
1855, a charter was obtained with twenty-one members, the 
congregation styling themselves Shaaray-Shamoyim. On 
September 13, 1867, their synagogue was built and dedi- 
cated. It stood at the corner of Orange and Christian 
Streets. For some years the following gentlemen officiated 
as Hasmt, or Reader, of the congregation : Joseph Eckstein, 

L. Rosenstein, W. Frankenstein, Jacob Stein, Weil, 

William Shuster, A. B. Black and Henry Weile. 

Easton, Penn., was settled in 1750, and eleven families 
numbering about forty men, women and children, comprised 
the population two years thereafter. Among these was one 
Hebrew family, the head of which was Meyer Hart, who 
was the first merchant in the town. In 1763 he was the 
heaviest tax-payer found there. That year his assessment 
amounted to nineteen shillings. Meyer Hart's business 
career, according to the town records, was a satisfactory one. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 83 

By thrift and industry he prospered so far as to become the 
owner of three houses and several negroes, besides which 
he owned a good stoclc in trade. In 1782 his stock was val- 
ued at $1,200. Michael his son, encouraged by his father's 
success also embarked as a merchant, and in 1776, was found 
occupying a store on the north-east corner of the square. 
He also owned slaves. It was at his house that Washington 
accepted an invitation to lunch while tarrying for a few 
hours in the town. The late Miss Louisa B. Hart, his 
daughter, thus proudly records the event in her diary : " Let 
it be remembered that Michael Hart was a Jew, practically, 
pious, a Jew reverencing and strictly observant of the Sabbath 
and festivals ; dietary laws were also adhered to, although 
he was compelled to be his own Shochet. Mark well, that he, 
Washington, the then honored as first in peace, first in war 
and first in the hearts of his countrymen, even during a short 
sojourn became for the hour the guest of the worthy Jew." 

A congregation, Betli-Shalome , was started in Easton in 
1839, and chartered in 1842, with the following members : 
Henry Rosenfield, Michael Lederer, Solomon Rohden, Sam- 
uel Bachenheimer, Moses Cohen, Solomon Scheit, Samuel 
Able, Adolph Hirsch, Lewis Bachenheimer, M. Gardner, 
Wolf Rosenbaum, Emanuel Scheif and Isaac Menline. Rev. 
Morris Cohen was the first Rabbi, and was succeeded by 
Messrs. Kling, Pritzel and Jacoby. 

RICHMOND. 

In Richmond, Va., the Congregation Beth-Shalome, was 
founded in or about the year 1791. Among the organizers 
and earlier members were Jacob Mordecai, Samuel Alexander, 
Joseph Marx, Gershom Judah, Myer M. Cohen, Baruch 



84 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Judah, Zalma Rehine, Asher Marx, Benjamin Myers, Israel 
I. Cohen, Benjamin Solomons, Samuel Mordecai, Jacob I. 
Cohen, Marcus Elkan, Joseph Darmstadt, Isaac H. Judah, 
Isaac Mordecai, Lyon Hart, Aaron Henry, Benjamin Woolfe, 
Manuel Judah, Isaiah Isaacs, Mordecai M. Mordecai, Abra- 
ham Myers, Samuel M. Myers, Jacob Lyons, 'Solomon 
Jacobs, Moses Myers, Jacob Block. Divine service was held 
in early years on Nineteenth Street, in the rear of the Union 
Hotel. In excavating the foundation for the hotel a portion 
of the building in which the synagogue was located was 
demolished. This caused its abandonment and subsequent 
removal, about 1817, to Mayo Street, where the city donated 
a lot for synagogue purposes. On October 21, 1791, Isaiah 
Isaacs deeded to the Trustees of the synagogue a portion of 
his garden, on the south side of Franklin Street, west of 
Twenty-first, for the purpose of burying " all Jews, male and 
female, that may hereafter die in the City of Richmond, or 
whose bodies may be brought there to be interred." The 
cemetery had a frontage on Franklin Street of forty feet and 
extended southwardly 102 feet. Here many of the oldest 
and best known citizens found a resting place. As the 
population increased, a larger cemetery was laid out in the 
northwest section of the city. Isaac H. Judah officiated as 
Minister of the synagogue early in the century. Isaac B. 
Seixas was acting minister after his retirement. Rev. Abram 
Hyam Cohen, occupied the pulpit from 182910 1830. He 
was the son of Rev. Jacob Raphael Cohen, a native of 
Gibraltar, who officiated in the synagogue Mickve-Israel, of 
Philadelphia, and died in 18 11. Rev. Jacques J. Lyons and 
Rev. Ellis Lyons, brothers and natives of Surinam, were Mr. 
Cohen's successors in the Richmond synagogue. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 85 

The following letter of Washington is in reply to an address 
from the congregations of Richmond, Philadelphia, New- 
York and Charleston, felicitating him upon his accession to 
the Presidency : t. 

The liberality of sentiment toward each other, which marks every 
political and religious denomination of men in this country, stands 
unparalleled in the history of nations. The affection of such a peo- 
ple is a treasure beyond the reach of calculation, and the repeated 
proofs which my fellow-citizens have given of their attachment to 
me and approbation of my doings form the purest source of my 
temporal felicity. The affectionate expressions of your address 
again excite my gratitude and receive my warmest acknowledgment. 

The power and goodness of the Almighty so strongly manifested 
in the events of our late glorious Revolution, and his kind inter- 
position in our behalf, have been no less visible in the establish- 
ment of our present equal government. In war he directed the 
sword and in peace he has ruled in our councils. 

My agency in both has been guided by the best intentions and a 
sense of duty I owe to my country. And as my exertions have 
hitherto been amply rewarded by the approbation of my fellow- 
citizens, I shall endeavor to deserve a continuance of it by my future 
conduct. May the same temporal and eternal blessings which you 
implore for me rest upon your congregations. 

Jacob I. Cohen, one of the early members of the Congre- 
gation Beth-Shalome came from Rhenish Prussia in the year 
1773. After a brief sojourn at Lancaster, Penn., he proceeded 
to Charleston, S. C, with a view, it is supposed, of establish- 
ing himself there in business. During the active hostilities 
which soon followed, Mr. Cohen took part as a volunteer 
soldier in the defense of the colonies, serving under Moultrie 
and Lincoln, in the ranks with numerous co-religionists from 
Charleston and other sections, until the British were driven 
out of the Carolinas. He was then honorably discharged 
from service, and shortly thereafter, and before Cornwallis' 



o6 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

surrender, at Yorktown, settled at Richmond. Mr. Cohen 
soon became a successful merchant and subsequently a 
banker, and in the latter capacity was able to render im- 
portant service to the young Republic. Frequent reference 
to Mr. Cohen is found in the Madison papers and the future 
President, on several occasions, bore testimony to his valu- 
able services. Though absorbed with the cares of business, 
Mr. Cohen, during his residence in Richmond, was interested 
in public affairs and was conspicuous in all municipal move- 
ments, being chosen a magistrate and a member of the City 
Council. He was twice married but had no children. He 
died at Philadelphia, in 1823, and his remains rest in the old 
Hebrew burying ground on Spruce Street. After the close 
of the Revolutionary War, Israel I. Cohen, a younger brother 
of Jacob I., joined the latter at Richmond. He subsequently 
made a voyage to England, where he was married, and in 
1787 returned to Richmond, bringing with him his wife. He 
died in that city in 1803, and was there buried, leaving a 
widow, six sons and one daughter. The sons were: Jacob I. 
Cohen Jr., Philip I., Mendes I., Benjamin I., David I., Joshua 
I. In 1802, the six sons, with their mother and sister, re- 
moved to Baltimore. Hyman Marks was a citizen of Rich- 
mond towards the close of the Eighteenth Century. His 
wife was a native of Newport and a child of Hillel and Abi- 
gail Seixas Judah. 

The burning of the Richmond theatre in the year 18 11, 
resulting in the death of the Governor of the State and many 
other prominent citizens, caused a painful sensation through- 
out the country, and brought grief to numerous Hebrew 
households. Among those who perished in that memorable 
catastrophe, were : Mrs. Zipporah Marks, Miss Eliza Jacobs, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. ^7 

Joseph Jacobs, Charlotte Raphiel and Adelaide Boseman, 
the two latter being children. 

Joseph Marx was a wealthy merchant. His son Samuel 
was cashier of the Bank of Virginia. Marcus Levy was an 
eccentric character. He claimed to be a prophet. Solomon 
Jacobs, besides occupying various public ofifices, was Presi- 
dent of the synagogue. Reuben Canter, an intelligent Eng- 
lishman, was a tobacconist. Mr. Norstedlan, a prominent Ger- 
man and highly respected in the community, was engaged in 
a similar business. Alexander Levy came from Alsace, 
France. He had been a soldier under Napoleon L Isaac 
Lyon was a prominent business man, and in his youth was 
engaged in the printing establishment where the State laws 
were published. Israel B. Kursheedt reached Richmond 
soon after the war of 1812, having come to New York from 
Germany in 1796. In Richmond he conducted a lottery and 
exchange business. His wife was a daughter of Rev. Ger- 
shom Mendes Seixas, of New York. Abram L. Philip, was 
a well known merchant. Henry L. Philip was an importer 
of fancy goods. Myer Ansel, who married the eldest 
daughter of Rev. Abraham Hyam Cohen, was also a 
merchant. Zalma Rehine was a storekeeper, and the 
uncle of Isaac Leeser. One of the leading members of 
the synagogue was David Judah, a merchant. 

About the year 1840 the Hebrew community in Richmond 
was one of the most flourishing in the country. The year 
1844 witnessed the formation of the Synagogue Beth-Ahaba. 
An unpleasant episode occurred about this time, steps hav- 
ing been taken by the older congregation to prevent the in- 
terment of members of the new synagogue in the cemetery, 
of which the first congregation claimed exclusive control. A 



88 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

legal contest was necessary in order to settle the points at 
issue. Gustavus A. Myers, a co-religionist and prominent 
member of the bar, was retained as counsel by the Ger- 
mans. The decision of the Court was in favor of his clients. 

During the second decade of the present century the He- 
brew population included Abram Levy, Jacob Levy, Simon 
Block, Benjamin Jewell, Marcus Levy, Solomon Raphael, 
Mordecai Marks, Solomon Fallen, Israel B. Kursheedt, Myer 
Angel, Samuel Daniels, Isaac Cardoza, Reuben Canter, 
Isaac Lyons, Jacob Phillips, Myer Ansel, Abram L. Philip, 
Henry L. Philip, Solomon Marks, Adolph Ancker, Mitchell 
Ancker, Hart Ancker, Jacob Ancker, Gustavus Ancker, Mr. 
Norstedlan, Alexander Levy, David Judah, Joseph Jacobs. 
Prior to 1845 the population was increased by the arrival of 
Elias Mayer, Abraham Seixas, Hyman Seixas, Elias Mar- 
kens, M. J. Michelbacher, Abraham Hirsh, Solomon Sober, 
Aaron Myers, Lewis Pyle, Abram Pyle, Isaac Schi'iver, Isaac 
Rosenheim, Joseph Myer, Moses Waterman, Myer Stern, 
Joseph Milheiser, William Fleishman, Emanuel Strauss 
Solomon Hunt, Emanuel Hunt, Henry Hyman, Lewis Hy- 
man, Lazarus Rosenfeld, Lewis Rosenfeld, Emanuel Rosen- 
feld, Simon Rosenfeld, Isaacs Bachrach, Moses Mittledorfer, 
Abraham Hutzler, Simon Hutzler and Augustus Mailert. 

Emanuel Hunt, who lived to the age of 106 years, was a 
highly respected merchant. He strictly observed the Hebrew 
Sabbath and holidays up to the time of his death, including 
the twenty-four hours fast on the Day of Atonement. He 
was the recipient of numerous testimonials for saving 
the lives of several citizens from drowning. His death, 
which occurred in 1845, caused profound sorrow in 
the community. His funeral was attended by the Governor 
of the State and numerous State and Municipal ofificers. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 89 



NEW ORLEANS. 



Of the early settlement of Hebrews in the State of Louisi- 
ana the information obtainable is somewhat meagre. The 
edict known as the " Black Code," in the reign of Bienville, 
forbade them from becoming settlers, denied them the rights 
of citizenship, and placed them in the same category with 
the negroes for whom the code was originally intended and 
whence it derives its name. The Huguenots, however, were 
subjected to similar restrictions, and when, after their expul- 
sion from France, they expressed a desire to emigrate to 
Louisiana, the answer was returned from the Home Govern- 
ment that they had not been expelled from France for the 
purpose of allowing them to settle in any of the French 
colonies. Hence, it appears that the provisions of the "Black 
Code" deterred Hebrews from venturing to Louisiana until 
the edict was regarded as inoperative and, to some extent, a 
" dead letter." Judah Touro, Alexander Isaac and Asher 
Phillips, were among the arrivals early in the present century. 
Abraham Labatt, father of the present well-known lawyers, 
was among the old-time residents. Bernard Cohn, born in 
1820, is one of the few survivors of early days. 

The first Hebrew burial ground at New Orleans was 
located just beyond the suburb of Lafayette in the Parish of 
Jefferson, and fronted on Jackson Street, the purchase price 
being $361.24 which sum was paid by Manis Jacobs and 
Aaron Daniels the Senior Wardens, and Abraham Plotz, 
Asher Philips and Abraham Green, the Junior Wardens of a 
benevolent society styling themselves Shaaray-Chcsed. On 
June 28, 1828, the first interment in the cemetery, that of 
Hyam Harris took place, followed on July 23d by Emanuel 



go THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Stern, and the following day by that of his wife. Among the 
interments up to 1834 are G. S. Gomperts in 1828; Sarah 
Jacobs in 1829; M. Marx in 1829; Susan Barnett and Samuel 
Hart in 1832, M. Strauss 1833; August Luzenburg 1834. 
Most of the earlier interments were natives of Germany and 
Holland, many of those later on coming from Charleston, 
London, England, Cincinnati, Baltimore and Kingston, Jamai- 
ca. The first congregation adopting the name of the benevo- 
lent society {Shaaray-Chesed) before referred to, worshipped 
in a room on the top floor of a building in St. Louis Street. 

The population of New Orleans did not exceed 10,000 
when, in 1801, Judah Touro took up his abode in the 
town. He was then but twenty-five years of age, and was 
the son of the Rev. Isaac Touro of Newport, where he was 
born. Having lost his father when eight years old, and his 
mother four years later, his care and education devolved 
upon his mother's brother, a son of Michael Moses Hays of 
Boston, in whose counting-room he was reared. At the age 
of twenty-two he was selected as supercargo of a valuable 
shiprtient to the Mediterranean. After returning home he 
went to New Orleans where he opened a store and soon built 
up a thriving trade in New England products. His earnings 
were invested in ships and real estate and he soon attained 
prominence. Forming the -acquaintance of Rezin D. Shep- 
perd, also an enterprising merchant from Virginia, a warm 
attachment soon sprung up between the two. 

During the memorable defense of New Orleans by Andrew 
Jackson, Judah Touro entered the ranks as a common soldier, 
and on January i, 1815, volunteered his services to aid in 
carrying shot and shell from a magazine to a battery. Whilst 
thus engaged he was struck on the thigh by a twelve pound 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 9I 

shot and seriously wounded. Mr. Shepherd was also serving 
in the ranks when he learnt of his friend's misfortune, and 
though the surgeon in charge declared that Touro's life could 
not be saved, he procured a cart and lifting the wounded man 
into it, drove to the city and carried Touro into his house, 
returning to the field after seeing that his friend was properly 
cared for. Shepherd and Touro were ever afterward insepar- 
able, and both became millionaires. Judah Touro died at 
New Orleans, June 18, 1854. Public journals and eminent 
divines offered eloquent and just tributes to his virtues. In 
New Orleans his death created a profound sensation and this 
feeling extended to many other places. By his will one-half 
of his estate was distributed among various charitable insti- 
tutions, including $80,000 to the New Orleans Alms House, 
handsome endowments to all Hebrew congregations in the 
country, and numerous private legacies to individual friends. 
Rezin D. Shepherd was made the universal legatee of the 
residue of the estate, in recognition of having preserved his 
life. One of the personal legacies in Mr. Touro's will, was 
the sum of $3,000 to the Rev. Dr. Theodore Clapp, the 
eminent Universalist divine. 

Upon learning that Amos Lawrence, of Boston, had 
pledged himself to give $10,000 to complete the Bunker Hill 
Monument, if any other person could be found to give a like 
amount, Mr. Touro immediately sent a check for the amount. 
At a dinner given at Faneuil Hall, at the celebration of the 
completion of the monument, the following toast was given : 

Lawrence and Touro, united names, 
Patriarch and Prophet, press their equal claims ; 
Christian and Jew, they carry out one plan, 
For though of different faith, each heart, a man. 



92 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

In accordance with his dying request and a provision in 
his will, Judah Touro's remains were conveyed to Newport 
for interment, accompanied by the Revs. J. K. Gutheim, Isaac 
Leeser, and S. M. Isaacs. 

Rev. Mr. Leeser, in the course of his remarks at the grave, 
said: 

He massed wealth by honest frugality, treasures flowed into his 
coffers in the pursuit of his mercantile enterprises. He had no one 
near him who was bound to him by the ties of blood and kindred, 
yet he squandered not his acquisitions in extravagance and intem- 
perance, in boisterous wassail or secret debauchery ; but he 
relieved distress when it presented itself to his benevolent eye ; 
when he saw the naked, he clothed them ; and those that needed 
food, obtained it at his hands, whether they belonged to his faith or 
country, or whether they worshipped at other shrines, and had just 
seen the light of day in foreign lands. And if you had seen him 
in his daily walks, you would not have suspected him to be the man 
of wealth, and the honored protector of the poor, as he was ; the 
exterior of our brother betrayed not the man within. But when he 
gave you his hand, when he expressed in his simple manner that 
you were welcome, you could not doubt his sincerity ; you felt con- 
vinced that he was emphatically a man of truth, of sincere benevo- 
lence. And thus he lived for many years, unknown to the masses, 
but felt within the circle where his character could display itself 
without ostentation and obtrusiveness, at a period when but few of 
his faith were residents of the same city with him. 

Ezekiel Salomon, a son of Haym Salomon, of Philiadelphia, 
was the cashier of the branch of the United States Bank at 
New Orleans, in which office he died in 1822. Gershom 
Kursheedt, one of the sons of Israel B. Kursheedt, settled 
in New Orleans about 1835, and during his early years 
served as a clerk, and afterwards published a daily news- 
paper. Judah Touro appointed Mr. Kursheedt one of his 
executors. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 93 

BALTIMORE. 

According to the Provincial Court Record of Maryland, 
there resided in that Province, as early as 1658, one " Jacob 
Lumbrozo, late of Lisbone, in the Kingdom of Portugal," 
who was known as " Ye Jew Doctor." Lumbrozo was 
committed for blasphemy, in the year mentioned, and in 
1663, he was granted letters of " denizacion." In 1665 he 
receive a commission to trade with the Indians. Jacob 
Hart, a Hebrew of German birth, who came to this country 
in 177s, was a merchant in Baltimore during the Revolu- 
tion. He is the person mention in the secret journals of the 
Revolutionary Congress, as having headed a subscription 
of the merchants of that city, and raised 2,000 guineas for 
the relief of a detachment of the American Army, under the 
command of Lafayette, while passing through Baltimore. 
Mr. Hart was the father-in-law of Haym M. Salomon, son of 
Haym Salomon of Philadelphia. Nathaniel Levy of Balti- 
more, fought under Lafayette, during the campaign of 1781. 

In 1758 Jacob Myers erected an inn at the southeast cor- 
ner of Baltimore and Gay Streets. Reuben and Solomon 
Etting settled in Baltimore towards the close of the 
Eighteenth Century and were prominent citizens as early as 
1795. Reuben was captain of the Independent Blues. He 
removed to Philadelphia where he married, and where his 
descendants still reside. Solomon Etting was a native of 
York, Penn., where he was born in 1764. He was one of the 
committee of citizens appointed to forward resolutions to 
Washington, expressive of disapprobation of the proposed 
treaty with Great Britain. In 1804 he was one of the Direc- 
tors of the Baltimore Water Company, whose shares at one 



94 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

time sold at 900 per cent, above par. In 1816 he was ap- 
pointed a Street Commissioner, and in 1828 a Director of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. He was for many years a 
Director of the Union Bank of Baltimore, and was elected a 
member of the City Council immediately after the passage of 
the Enfranchisement Bill in 1825, and was made President 
of the First Branch. Mr. Etting's second wife was a daugh- 
ter of Simon Gratz, of Philadelphia. He reared a large 
family, and resided in Baltimore up to the time of his death, 
about 1847. 

The six sons of Israel J. Cohen arrived in Baltimore soon 
after the death of their father at Richmond in 1803. They 
were Jacob I., Jr., Philip I., Mendes I., Benjamin I., David 
I. and Joshua I. Jacob I., Jr., was about thirteen years of 
age at the time. Under the watchful care of a good and 
pious mother he becanie at an early age a successful busi- 
ness man. He established at Baltimore, where he removed 
after his father's death, the banking house of J. I. Cohen, Jr., 
& Brothers, which was widely and honorably known in its 
day. He took an active part in business affairs, and his 
opinions and counsel were constantly sought in matters of 
public importance. When the Legislature of Maryland, in 
,1826, removed the disabilities of the Hebrews, who had pre- 
viously been ineligible to public office, Mr. Cohen was 
elected to represent his ward in the City Council. He was 
several times re-elected and finally chosen annually as a mem- 
ber of the First Branch. He was President of the Council 
from 184s to 1851. During his early connection with the 
Council Mr. Cohen was particularly active in the establish- 
ment of the Baltimore Public School system. The devel- 
opments of all works of internal improvement engaged his 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. '■■$ 

attention, and when the building of the Philadelphia. Wil- 
mington and Baltimore Railroad was suggested, Mr. Cohen 
was one of the most active projectors of the movement. He 
was for a long time Vice-President of the company and re- 
mained a Director until his death. In 1836 he was chosen a 
director of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, and 
in 1849 he became the President of the Baltimore Fire Insur- 
ance Company. This ofifice he also occupied up to the time 
of his death, the administration of its affairs being attended 
with great prosperity to the corporation. Mr. Cohen, who 
was a bachelor, died in 1869, in his eightieth year, attended 
by the loving ministrations of his two brothers and of the 
nieces and nephews to whom he stood a parent. He was be- 
loved and respected by all who knew him. Mr. Cohen's 
residence in Baltimore was the first private dwelling in that 
city to be lighted with gas. This event took place in 1820. 
Philip I. Cohen, the second son of Israel I. Cohen, married 
at Norfolk, Va., and died there in 1852. He was post- 
master of the city at the time of his death. In the war 
of 1812-14 he was a member of Captain Nicholson's com- 
pany of Fencibles, and served in the defense of Fort 
McHenry during the bombardment. 

When the British menaced Baltimore in 18 14, Mendes I. 
Cohen volunteered in its defence, and served in Fort Mc- 
Henry during the memorable bombardment. After retir- 
ing from the banking business, in 1829, he travelled exten- 
sively, visiting the principal cities of Europe and the East, 
and ascended the Nile. While abroad he acquired numer- 
ousobjects of antiquarian value, including the great col- 
lection of Consul-General Salt, at London, which num- 
ber 680 objects. This collection was presented by his 



:jG THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

nephews to Johns Hopkins University in 1884, and is known 
as the " Cohen Collection of Egyptian Antiquities." While 
abroad Mr. Cohen was the recipient of marked attention, 
from numerous celebrities including the Rothschilds and 
Pope Gregory XVI. He also witnessed the Coronation of 
Queen Victoria. Mr. Cohen served a term in the Maryland 
Legislature, where he introduced several important bills He 
served for some years as Director of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad, and was a prominent member of various commer- 
cial and benevolent associations. In Baltimore no man was 
better known than he, or more highly respected. He was 
ever lending a helping hand to worthy charities and always 
a firm upholder of the faith of his fathers. He lived to the 
age of eighty-three. 

Benjamin I. and David I. Cohen were both married, and 
both were actively engaged in the banking business with 
their brothers. The former died in Baltimore in 1845, ^"^d 
the latter in 1847. Both were prominent in business and 
social affairs, and left large families. David I. Cohen was 
the father of the distinguished Civil Engineer, Mendes 
Cohen, now a resident of Baltimore. Joshua I., sixth son of 
Israel I. Cohen, was at the time of his death, in 1870, one of 
the leading physicians of Baltimore. He attained distinc- 
tion in the treatment of diseases of the ear, and was a man 
of scholarly and scientific attainments. He was known 
as a mineralogist of high rank, and for some years filled the 
chair of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Mary- 
land. He was also a member of the American Philosophi- 
cal Society, and many other scientific bodies. 

David Nunes Carvalho resided in Baltimore in 1828. He 
was a brother of Rev, E. N. Carvalho. In 18 14 he married 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 97 

Sarah, daughter of Rev. Benjamin Cohen D'Azevedo, of 
Charleston, S. C. In Baltimore he was engaged in the man- 
ufacture of marble paper, and on his removal to Philadelphia, 
was appointed one of the City Judges of the Court of Arbi- 
tration, occupying the office until business recalled him to 
Baltimore, where he died, in i860, aged seventy-six years. 
Among his literary remains was a tragedy in blank verse, in 
five acts, entitled, " Queen Esther," and a metrical translation 
of the Psalms of David, in English, from the original He- 
brew, neither of which have been published. 

In the State of Maryland, as early as 1649, the full rights 
of citizenship were denied to those not professing the Christian 
religion. The first movement looking for the enfranchise- 
ment of the Hebrews, took place in 1797, and in 1818 the 
first persistent and organized effort was made in that di- 
rection. At that time, a citizen of Maryland, if of the He- 
brew faith, though eligible to appointment to any office, 
under the Constitution of the United States, could not, under 
the government of Maryland, be appointed a Justice of the 
Peace, and though compelled to perform military duty, he 
could not rise even to the rank of ensign in the militia, nor 
plead as an attorney at the bar ; in short, he was disqualified 
from holding any office under the State Government. The 
attempted r-emoval of these disabilities by the House of Del- 
egates, in the year 1818, led to heated and protracted dis- 
cussion. On December 9th of that year Mr. Kennedy, of 
Washington County, moved that a committee of three be ap- 
pointed "to consider the justice and expediency of extend- 
ing to persons professing the Jewish religion the same privi- 
leges that are enjoyed by Christians." Twelve days there- 
after, Mr. Kennedy, who with Messrs. Brackenridge and 



98 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

E. S. Thomas of Baltimore, had been appointed such commit- 
tee, made an exhaustive report recommending the passage of an 
act extending such rights and privileges. Numerous attempts 
were made to postpone consideration of the bill, and on i.he 
question being put, "Shall the Bill pass?" Mr. Kennedy- 
opened the debate. In the course of his remarks, which 
cover thirty printed pages of the ofificial report, and abound in 
eulogies of the Hebrew race, he said : 

Poor, hapless, unfortunate children of Israel, how are ye fallen ! 
once the peculiar people of God, and enjoying His favor. His pro- 
tection and His immediate presence ; blest with a land flowing with 
milk and honey, with a climate bland as the dew of heaven and a 
soil luxuriantly fertile ; now scattered and dispersed, oppressed and 
persecuted, without a country and without a home ! Ye have drank 
deep of adversity's bitter draught ; ye have indeed emptied " the 
cup of trembling even unto the dregs " — yet scattered and dispersed 
as ye have been ; amidst all your distresses and unparalleled suffer- 
ings — ye have still been faithful and true to the religion of your fore- 
fathers ; ye have still worshipped the God of Abraham ; and ye 
have lived to see your destroyers destroyed. But fear not ye sons 
of Jacob — faint not ye children of Israel ; though cast down, ye 
shall never be destroyed ; persecuted, ye shall never be utterly for- 
saken ; the hour of your deliverance approaches ; the day of your 
redemption draweth nigh ; and he who led your fathers through the 
wilderness, he who has hitherto preserved you as a nation — as a 
peculiar people, will, ere long, restore you to the promised land. 

I call upon you as legislators to whose hands are committed the 
destinies of a free and generous people, to do them justice. I call 
upon you, as Christians, to consider what you would expect, what 
you would ask, were you now in their situation, and to do them 
justice. I ask no more. 

After a three days' debate the bill was lost by a vote of 
twenty-four in the afifirmative and fifty in the negative. A 
few days thereafter, a motion was made in the Senate for 
permission to bring in a bill to repeal such parts of the Con- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 99 

stitution and Bill of Rights as establish a religious test as a 
qualification to office, which was also refused. These excit- 
ing debates were the subject of discussion and formed the 
topic of newspaper comment in all parts of the country. 
The Natchez, Miss., "Independent Press," said: 

As it was not required, when a soldier was enlisted in the armies 
of the. Revolution, that he should give an account of his religious 
tenets before he could be permitted to shed his blood in defence of 
liberty ; as it was not demanded of a citizen when he was called 
upon to give up his property to support those heroes who were fight- 
ing the battles of his country, to what God he prayed to prosper her 
arms, before he was allowed to contribute to the achievement of her 
independence ; little does it become us now, to say to one who has 
borne the heat or burthen of the combat, because he eats not of the 
same bread, nor drinks from the same cup as we do — "Thou art 
not one of us." 

The following verses appeared in the " Franklin Gazette " 
of Philadelphia, after the rejection of " The Jew Bill." 

What ! still reject the fated race, 
Thus long denied repose — 
What ! madly striving to efface, 
The Rights that heaven bestows ! 

Say, flows not in each Jewish vein, 
Unchecked — without control ; 
A tide as pure — as free from stain — 
As warms the Christian's soul ! 

Do ye not yet the times discern, 
That these shall cease to roam — 
That Shiloh, pledged for their return, 
Will bring his ransomed home ! 

Be error quick, to darkness, hurl'd ! 
No more with hate pursue — 
For He who died to save a world, 
IMMANUEL— was a Jew, 



lOO THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

After being voted down session after session, the bill was 
finally passed by both Houses of the Legislature in 1822. In 
accordance with the Constitution, its ratification was required 
by the next Legislature. This failed of accomplishment, but 
the friends of the measure were indefatigable and on Satur- 
day, February 26, 1825, the last day of the session, the bill 
passed the Assembly. It was ratified at the succeeding ses- 
sion and thus became a law. According to Solomon Etting, 
of Baltimore (of whom an account is given elsewhere in this 
volume) the total Hebrew population of Maryland at that 
time did not exceed 125, whose combined wealth was es- 
timated at $500,000, and at the same time he computed 
their total number in the United States at this period to be 
about 6,000, whose wealth was estimated at about $10,- 
000,000. These facts were elicited in the course of an ex- 
amination by a committee of the Legislature during the 
pendency of " The Jew Bill.'' 

In 1832 the Hebrew citizens residing in Baltimore were J. 
M. Dyer, Tobias Myer, Jonas Friedenwald, Levi Benjamin, 
Solomon Etting, Jacob I. Cohen, Mendes I. Cohen, Joseph 
Simpson. Mr. Dyer was the first President of the synagogue 
which worshipped in " Old Town," Abraham Rice being the 
first Minister. 

CINCINNATI. 

Previous to 181 8 no Hebrews are believed to have been 
included in the population of the then far-off Western town 
of Cincinnati. In that year P. I. Johnson arrived there, and 
later removed to Louisville and then to St. Louis. Soon 
after Mr. Johnson's arrival he was joined by Joseph Jonas, 
who had already reached New York in 18 16, and proceeded 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. lOI 

to Philadelphia where he lived for some time with Samuel 
Joseph and Levi Phillips. The latter urged him to abandon 
his intention of taking up his abode " in the wilderness of 
America and entirely amongst Gentiles, and where he would 
forget his religion and his God." In 1818 there arrived at 
Cincinnati David Israel Johnson, who lived for a time at 
Brookville, Ind. He was a brother of P. I. Johnson, who 
had preceded him. They had numerous children, amongst 
whom were Edgar M. Johnson, for many years a prominent 
member of the Cincinnati bar, and at the present time a mem- 
ber of the law firm of Hoadly, Lauterbach & Johnson, of 
New York City. Lewin Cohen, of London, Barnet Levi, of 
Liverpool, and Jonas Levy, of Exeter, England, all reached 
Cincinnati in the month of June, 18 19. Solomon Bucking- 
ham, Moses Nathan and Solomon Menkin came from Ger- 
many in 1820. The last named established the first whole- 
sale dry goods house in Cincinnati and was respected as a 
man of sterling worth. 

Among the arrivals in 1821, when the total population was 
but 14,000, were the six Moses brothers, Morris, Phineas, 
Solomon, Simeon, Benjamin and Elkin. Most of these were 
from England, Simeon coming from the Island of Barbadoes. 
The only survivor of these six brothers is Phineas. In 1823, 
Joseph, Morris, Simeon and Simon Symonds, arrived from 
Portsmouth, England. Joseph Jonas was joined soon after 
his arrival by his three brothers, Abraham, Samuel and 
George. A son of Abraham, Benjamin F., is the ex-United 
States Senator from Louisiana. The parents of the four 
brothers followed them to Cincinnati, bringing with them 
another son, Edward. Samuel and Moses J. De Young and 
wife, and Joseph Abraham, were among the old-time resi- 



102 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

dents of Cincinnati coming from England. Mr. Abraham 
was one of twenty-two brothers and sisters, and emigrated 
from England to Jamaica, where his uncle was established 
in business. Ill health caused his departure for New York 
where he arrived during the great fire of 1835. Major M. M. 
Noah gave him employment in his newspaper office. At the 
suggestion of his friend, Phineas Moses, Mr. Abraham re- 
moved to Cincinnati in the Spring of 1836, where he married 
Miss Sarah De Young, a daughter of one of the pioneers. 

Of the early residents who formed the nucleus from which 
has grown the present large, influential and wealthy Hebrew 
community, Phineas Moses and Joseph Abraham, are the 
sole survivors. Elias Mayer and his brother, David Mayer, 
emigrated from France. The former who recently died at the 
age of eighty-four years, married Miss Ancker of Richmond, 
Va., and was active in organizing the first synagogue in Cin- 
cinnati. 

The growing population, recognizing the necessity of con- 
certed action with respect to religious services, assembled at 
the residence of Morris Moses, January 4, 1824, with Mr. 
Moses in the Chair and Joseph Jonas acting as Secretary. 
Resolutions were adopted to form a congregation " for the 
purpose of glorifying our God and observing the fundamental 
principles of our faith, as developed in the laws of Moses." 
Those taking part in the proceedings were Morris Moses, 
Joseph Jonas, David I. Johnson, Jonas Levy, Solomon 
Moses, Simon Moses, Phineas Moses, Samuel Jonas, Solomon 
Buckingham and Morris Symonds. Two weeks after, on 
January i8th, another meeting was held, when a constitution 
and by-laws were adopted, Joseph Jonas being elected Par- 
nass, and Phineas Moses and Jonas Levy, Vestrymen. Reso- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. IO3 

lutions were passed to secure a proper place for holding ser- 
vices in which chorus singing was for some years a feature. 
David I. Johnson, Morris Moses and Joseph Jonas ofificiated 
for some time as Hazan, and in 1826 Morris Moses was 
elected Parnass, and David I. Johnson, Gabay. Being pressed 
for funds, the congregation made an appeal to sustain the 
synagogue which was generously responded to by the con- 
gregations of Charleston, Philadelphia, Barbadoes and Ports- 
mouth, England. In 1830, the Congregation B'nai-Israel 
was regularly organized under a special act of incorporation 
by the Legislature. In the early part of 1836, a committee 
was appointed for the purpose of purchasing a lot of ground 
and erecting thereon a synagogue. Liberal contributions 
followed, and the first synagogue was successfully erected, 
the consecration taking place in September, 1836. 

In the same year Hart Judah was elected first Hazan of 
the congregation, with a salary of $100 per annum. Before 
the close of his term of service his salary was increased to 
$1,000. Members' dues were fixed at six dollars per annum. 
The era of peace and concord was soon disturbed by the 
misconduct of a member of the congregation, which led to 
his expulsion. The offender, together with several partisans, 
thereupon withdrew and organized a new congregation, 
whence has developed the large and influential Congregation 
B' nai-Jesurun, of which Rev. Isaac M. Wise has been for 
many years the head. The original congregation which was 
located on Broadway, near Sixth Street, continued to prosper 
despite this. disafTection. The phenomenal growth of the 
congregation rendered a more commodious synagogue 
necessary. About 1852, a new building was erected with 
accommodations for 500 males, and 400 females. The new 



I04 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

building was "consecrated by the late Rev. Dr. M. J. Raphall, 
of New York. Up to this period the service and ritual was 
strictly orthodox. The Rev. Dr. Lilienthal was made Rabbi 
and preacher of the congregation, and at his suggestion 
certain changes in the ritual were adopted. A number of 
members opposed to the proposed innovations then with- 
drew and organized a new congregation under the name of 
Shearith-Israel, which still exists as an orthodox congrega- 
tion. This disaffection, however, in no wise impaired the 
growth of the old Congregation E nai-Israel, which now 
ranks among the ultra Reform Congregations. 

CLEVELAND. 

In Cleveland, Ohio, the earliest settlers were Samson Thor- 
man, of Unsleben, Bavaria, who arrived in 1837. Aaron 
Lowentrite, of Schoningen, Bavaria, reached there the same 
year. The first Hebrew family to settle in Cleveland was 
that of Samson Hoffman, in 1839, ^^o also came from 
Unsleben. Isaac Hoffman, a son, is still residing at Cleve- 
land. During the same year Simon Thorman, also from 
Unsleben, arrived in Cleveland, and during the following year 
Simon Newmark, from Wilmersdorf, near Fuerth, Bavaria, 
Moses Alsbacher, from Unsleben, S. L. Coleman and Gerson 
Strauss, from Geroden, near Ruedenberg, Bavaria, and Kal- 
man Rosskopf, from Gerstfeld, settled in that city. In the 
year 1839, "the Israelite Society" was started and services 
were held in a hall on South Water Street and Winyard Lane, 
with Samson Thorman as President, and Isaac. Hoffman as 
Minister. A burial ground was purchased in 184O, at a cost 
of $100. Two " splits " occurred in the congregation, one 
in 1846, when several members withdrew for the purpose of 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I05 

forming a second synagogue styled Anshe-Chesed, which was 
soon abandoned, and again in 1848, when the Congregation 
Tiferitli-Israel, was organized. The members of the latter, 
in 1852, erected a Temple on Huron Street. George Davies 
was the first President. 

CHICAGO. 

With a view of engaging in agricultural pursuits, a num- 
ber of Bavarians about the year 1841 or 1842 delegated a 
Mr. Meyer to proceed to Schaumburg, 111., and inquire into 
its advantages for Hebrew colonization. It was found inex- 
pedient to settle here, although Mr. Meyer had reported the 
section to be one " in which milk and honey is flowing, par- 
ticularly for the tillers of the soil." Removal to Chicago 
was then decided upon, the pioneers being Jacob Fuller and 
Benedict Schubert, who erected the first brick building on 
Lake Street. Benedict Schubert was already a resident of 
the then insignificant town, and engaged in the business of 
merchant tailor, in which he became wealthy. Abraham 
Kohn, Levi Rosenfelt, Jacob Rosenbergh, Isaac Teigler, 
Isaac Conk, Meyer Klein, the Rubel brothers, Samuel Cole, 
M. M. Gerstley, Messrs. Greenebaum, Fuller, Weinemann, 
Brunneman, Clayburgh, Weigselbaum, Zeigler and others 
arrived about this time. Increase in numbers and success 
in business enterprises enabled the purchase of ground for a 
cemetery, which is now within the limits of Lincoln Park, 
and the formation of a congregation, under the name of 
Kehiluth Anshe Merah (Congregation of the Men of the 
West) soon followed. Worship was conducted on the upper 
floor of an old frame building at the southwest corner of 
Lake and Wells Streets, whence they removed to a small 



Io6 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA.- 

building on Clark, between Quincy and Jackson Streets, 
remaining there until 1854, when they removed to Wells and 
Adams Streets. Ignatz Kimreuther was the first Minister 
of the congregation, and was succeeded by Hasans G. Syn- 
dacker, G. M. Cohen, L. Lebrecht, L. Levi, M. Mensar, M. 
Moses and L. Adler. In 185 1 the Congregations Kehiluth 
. and Sinai were founded. The former occupied at first a hall 
in a building on Clark, near Jackson Street, and the latter 
established themselves on Monroe Street, near La Salle. 
Abraham Kohn was one of the first to occupy public ofifice. 
He was chosen City Clerk, and Henry Greenebaum was 
elected to a seat in the City Council from 1856 to 1858. 
E. S. Salomon was elected to a like ofifice from 1859 to 
1 86 1. The advance guard at a very early period took 
measures for the organization of charitable associations, 
the result of which was the institution of a Benevolent 
Association, Relief Association and Ladies' Benevolent 
Society. 

ST. LOUIS. 

Four years previous to Missouri's admission into the 
Union as a State, the Territory was inhabited by Hebrews. 
The Bloch, or Block family, was the first and most numerous 
to settle west of the Mississippi River. This was in 1816. 
The family consisted of several brothers and numerous 
cousins, and were natives of Schwiham, in Bohemia, Austria. 
They first settled at Cape Girardeau; Troy, in Lincoln 
County ; Perryville, in Perry County, and Louisiana, in Pike 
County. Some of them then removed to St. Louis,which began 
to rise into prominence about that time (1819) when the first 
steamer for New Orleans landed there. Two years later the 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I07 

population of St. Louis had increased to 5,000. Eliezer 
Block was at this time (182 1) an attorney-at-law, while 
Thomas H. Benton, subsequently the distinguished United 
States Senator, and Edwin Bates, some years later Attorney- 
General of the United States, were practicing at this time in 
the courts of that city. The Block family were distinguished 
for their remarkable vigor and longevity, some of them reach- 
ing the age of ninety years, while one lived to the age 
of 100. All were respected as industrious, high-minded 
and successful business men. Throughout the Mississippi 
Valley few firms were better known or more highly esteemed 
than Block & McCune, owners of the Northern Mississippi 
Steamship Line. 

While the Blocks were the first to settle West of the 
Mississippi, Phineas Israel Johnson was the first Hebrew to 
settle at St. Louis. Mr. Johnson was a descendent of the 
famous DTsraeli family, of which Lord Beaconsfield was a 
member. Accompanied by his brother, D. J. Johnson, he 
sailed from Portsmouth, England, in 1817, and settled in 
Cincinnati. Here the latter remained, while his brother, 
Phineas, removed to Louisville. In 18 19, he established 
himself at St. Louis where he engaged in the auction busi- 
ness with the elder Patrick Walsh, then as clerk and after- 
wards as partner with John D. Daggett, under the firm name 
of Walsh, Johnson & Co. In April, 1827, Mr. Daggett was 
elected an Alderman of St. Louis. This was during the ad- 
ministration of William Carr Lane, the first Mayor of St. 
Louis, and, in 1841, Mr. Daggett was himself Mayor of the 
city. Mr. Johnson married a Christian lady, Miss Clarissa 
Clark, of Virginia, a grand-niece of Abraham Clark of New 
Jersey, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. 



I08 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

The Hebrew settlements up to the third decade of the 
present century, were few and wide apart, that in St. Louis 
being separated from the East by a gap of several hundred 
miles. Louisville and Cincinnati were the nearest, hence the 
frequent inter-marriages between Hebrews and Christians. 
The prospect of going to a far-off wilderness deterred the 
daughters of the eastern settlers from accepting offers of 
marriage. As a result, the Block family also married 
Christians, and many of the old and most prominent fami- 
lies of St. Louis are connected by blood and marriage 
with Hebrew ancestry. The Carrs, Edgertons, Faggs, Tay- 
lors, Meisenburgs and others, are grandchildren of the 
Blocks. The Hebrew emigrants themselves, however, and 
most of their descendants, have always adhered to the He- 
brew faith. Matilda, daughter of Phineas Israel Johnson, 
married Captain Sol. L Levi, a zealous Hebrew, of St. Louis, 
who worked faithfully in establishing the first synagogue, 
B'nai-El, and contributed largely to the purchase of the first 
Hebrew cemetery. In 1839 he was appointed by Governor 
Clark, Captain of the first Volunteer Militia Company, was 
a member of the City Council in 1854-55, and held the office 
of Notary Public from 1849 ^P ^o the time of his death in 
1877. 

The first religious service by the Hebrews of St. Louis, 
was held in September, 1836, on the Hebrew New Year. In 
1839, steps were taken for organizing a congregation, to be 
known as Achduth-hracl or United Hebrew Congregation. 
Abraham Weigel was elected first President and Rabbi, Sam- 
uel Davidson first Reader. Mr. Weigel died January, 31, 
1888. The congregation up to 1859 occupied rented rooms 
in various localities. Dr. Illowy was elected Rabbi in 1854, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. IO9 

and A. J. Latz served as President from 1852 to 1861. The 
corner-stone of the new synagogue, the first in St. Louis, was 
laid March I, 1857, '^"'i the edifice was opened and dedicated 
in 1859, Rev. Dr. M. J. Raphall, of New York, officiating. 

PITTSBURG. 
The pioneers of the prosperous and influential Hebrew 
community at Pittsburg, Penn., were David Strasburger, 
Emanuel Reis, Jacob Klein, Louis Stern, William Frank, L. 
Hirschfeld, Simon Stein, N. Gallinger and E. Wormer. In 
the year 1846, a congregation known as Etz-Chayim, was' 
organized, the place of worship being on Third Street, on a 
floor over the " Vigilant " Engine House. Mr. Manheimer 
was elected first Minister. He was succeeded by Mr. Sulz- 
bacher. In 1851, Rev. William Armhold, was elected 
Minister. He continued in office until 1865; when L. Naum- 
burg was chosen in his place. William Frank was first 
President of the congregation, and Mr. Hirsfeld Secretary. 
The membership was soon increased by the arrival of Messrs. 
A. Fink, Mr. Jaroslowsky and three sons, Mr. Silverman, L. 
Eisner, Joseph Myers, J. Morganstern, L. Morganstern, 
Asher Fraunefeld, Emanuel Frauenfeld, Abraham Frauenfeld, 
Simon Kaufman, J. Klee, A. Guckenkeimer, Emanuel Wert- 
heimer, Samuel Wertheimer, Isaac Wertheimer and others. 
A disagreement led to the withdrawal of the German element 
together with their Minister, Mr. Armhold, and the formation 
in 1858, of the Congregation Rodef-Shalomc, which secured 
suitable quarters in the " Irish " Building on St. Clair Street, 
where they remained until the erection of their own building 
on Eighth Street, in the year 1861, the dedication sermon 
being delivered by Rev. Dr. M. J. Raphall, of New York. 



no THE HEB41EWS IN AMERICA. 

W. Frank was President of the congregation at this time, 
and Messrs. Hirshfeld and Jaroslowsky later on. A Hebrew, 
German and English school was opened in connection with, 
this synagogue, with W. Armhold and Josiah Cohen as 
teachers. The Presidents of the congregation, at a later 
period, were Joseph Morganstern, Henry Rosenbach, N. 
Gallinger, Louis Morganstern, Emanuel Wertheimer and S. 
Kaufman. The Congregation Etz-Chayini, meanwhile, 
acquired a synagogue on Ross Street, Messrs. Herzman, 
Weil, Crone and Bernstein, occupying the pulpit at various 
periods. The Hebrew Benevolent, organized in 1847, 
together with the Ladies Benevolent Society, accomplished 
much good during the Civil War, in conjunction with their 
Christian friends. A Sewing Society >was organized in 1883, 
by the young ladies of Pittsburg and Alleghany, to provide 
clothing for the sick and needy. 

INDIANAPOLIS. 

The first settlers in Indianapolis, Ind., were Moses Woolf, 
Alexander and Daniel Franco. They came from London, 
England, in 1849. -^ Family of Hungarian Hebrews named 
Knefler arrived soon afterward. Adolph Rosenthal and Dr. 
J. M. Rosenthal reached there in 1854, and remained many 
years, finally removing to Louisville. Herman Bamberger 
reached Indianapolis in 1855, and has resided there ever 
since. He has always shown much public spirit and led most 
movements looking to the amelioration and advancement of 
his race. He now occupies a seat in the school board and 
is a leading merchant. Jacob Goldman arrived from Ger- 
many the same year, and in 1859 came Joseph, Morris and 
Henry Solomon, originally from London, but direct from 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. Ill 

Philadelphia. Adolph Dessar, now of New York, was 
among the settlers in 1853. Max Glazier and Max Durn- 
ham reached there the same year, establishing themselves in 
the clothing business. The late lamented Leopold Feible- 
man settled in Indianapolis in i860. He was a successful 
lawyer for many years, and was a candidate for the State 
Legislature at the time of his death. Among other earlier 
settlers were David Newman, Henry Rosenthal, Emanuel 
M. Hays, Samuel Kahn, Isaac Kahn, Levi Kahn, Jacob 
Kahn, Solomon and Morris Greisheimer. The regular 
religious body called the " Hebrew Organization " was 
organized in 1856. 

MOBILE. 

A number of Hebrews arrived at Mobile, Ala., early in the 
Forties. The most prominent among them was I. I. Jones, 
who came from Charleston, S. C, who organized the first 
congregation of which he served as President for quarter of a 
century ; B. L. Tim, who came from Hamburg, Germany, I. 
Goldsmith, a Barvarian, S. Lyons and D. Markstein, both 
Germans, Solomon Jones, brother of I. I. Jones and A. Gold- 
stucker, from Germany, the Frank brothers, who removed to 
New York, H. Marks, M. Marks ; Isidore Newman, now 
residing at Starkville, Miss., Messrs. Kyler, Elkus and Wal- 
dauer. 

The Congregation Shaaray-Shamayim is the oldest in 
Alabama, and was organized in 1844. Service was first held 
in the residence of B. L. Tim, Mr. Tim and other lay mem- 
bers ofificiating. The first synagogue was dedicated Decem- 
ber 27, 1846, with Israel J. Jones as President, and Rev. Mr. 
De Silva, Minister. Mr. Jones remained in office for thirty 



112 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

years. Mr. De Silva died in New Orleans, in 1848, and was 
succeeded by Baruch M. Emanuel, who served five years. 
The building now in use was purchased in 1853, from the 
Mobile Musical Association, and dedicated March 11, 1853, 
by the Rev. Dr. J. K. Gutheim, Rev. J. Ekman, being the 
Minister. The year following Rev. J.. Epstein, now of St. 
Louis, arrived from Germany, and was chosen Minister of 
the congregation which then numbered forty families. He 
remained in office ten years. In the fall of 1865, the con- 
gregation established an English and Hebrew day-school 
with Lawrence Moor as Superintendent, and Rev. Dr. L. 
Wintner, now of Brooklyn, as Superintendent of the 
Hebrew department. The school was open to all sects, and 
was for many years one of the leading educational institu- 
tions in the South. With the introduction of the Public 
School system it yielded to these, and is now open only in 
the Hebrew department, and forms the regular religious 
school of the congregation. Dr. Wintner was succeeded by 
Dr. M. Fleugel, as Rabbi, and Rev. A. Laser as Assistant 
Minister and Teacher. During the yellow fever epidemic 
in 1870, Dr. Laser died at his post, though admonished by 
his constituents to leave. The community being disorgan- 
ized, a certain commercial traveler was appointed to occupy 
the pulpit, but not proving satisfactory and the congregation 
being unwilling to elect him permanently, he withdrew and 
joined the Baptist Church. Rev. Dr. Adolph Moses, then 
stationed at Montgomery, and now at Louisville, Ky., was 
chosen as his successor. He remained in Mobile ten years. 
Rev. Dr. Emanuel Schreiber, of Bonn, Germany, was the 
next incumbent, occupying the pulpit for two years. He 
was succeeded by the present Rabbi, H. Berkowitz. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. II 3 



AUGUSTA. 



At Augusta, Ga., there arrived about 1825 a Mr. Florence, 
a Hollander, bringing his wife. Isaac Hendricks arrived 
with his family in 1826, coming from Charleston, S. C, and 
it is believed that Isaac and Jacob Moise, also Charleston- 
ians, reached Augesta about the same period. In 1820 or 
thereabouts, Isaac Henry came from Newport, R. I. 
Charlestonians came in large numbers from this time on ; 
Isaac and Lewis Levy arrived about 1840, and John J. 
Cohen 1840. Samue-l Levy arrived from Germany in 1844, 
and Abraham Levy from Germany in 1847. Isaac Levy was 
for many years City Sheriff and Samuel Levy for two years 
Judge of the Superior Court and ten years Judge of the 
Court of Ordinary. The Congregation B'nai-Israel was 
organized in 1 846. 

WILMINGTON, N. C. 

Aaron Lazarus and Aaron Riviera were the first settlers in 
Wilmington, N. C. Aaron Lazarus, born in Charleston, 
S. C, August 26, 1777, was one of the earliest Hebrews 
to reach Wilmington, coming there in early manhood, 
and dying at Petersburg, Va., October 2, 1841. He was 
one of the first directors in the Wilmington & Weldon 
Railroad Company, to which he was a large subscriber. In 
1803 he was married to Esther Cohen, who died November 
21, 1816, leaving nine children, and March 28, 1821, he mar- 
ried Rachel Mordecai, by whom he had four children. 
Aaron Riviera was also an early settler in Wilmington. He 
was Cashier of the Bank of Fear. In 1849 ^^^ number of 
Hebrews in the town did not exceed twenty. An organiza- 



114 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

tion was formed for burial purposes in 1852, under the name 
of " True Brothers' Society." Previous to that time no 
Hebrew burial place existed in the State. In 1861 the 
Hebrew population numbered but seven families, all of 
whom removed to Charlotte with the exception of one. In 
1867 a congregation was formed and Rev. E. C. Myers 
elected Minister. In the fall of 1872 the Temple of Israel 
was permanently organized, with Solomon Baer, President ; 
Abraham Weill, Vice-President ; N. Jacoby, Treasurer, and 
J. I. Macks, Secretary. The corner-stone of the building 
being laid with Masonic ceremonies, July 15, 1875, Rev. S. 
Mendelsohn was elected Minister, and the Temple was dedi- 
cated by him May 12, 1876. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

The heavy tide of travel towards the Pacific Coast on the 
announcement of the discovery of gold was the occasion of 
an influx of Hebrews, who went there in large numbers 
and were among the first to foresee the opportunities 
offered by a residence in that section. The population 
was of a heterogeneous and shifting character. While some 
settled permanently in San Francisco, others ventured in the 
direction of the gold fields, and others again took up their 
residence at various interior points. Of those in San Fran- 
cisco many returned to the Eastern States after a few 
months' stay, while of others remaining many subsequently 
ranked among the leading citizens of the State. The 
numerous changes occurring in the numbers and character 
of the population during the period named renders it dififi- 
cult to secure reliable data concerning the first Hebrew set 
tiers in the State. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. II 5 

Two congregations were organized in the year 185 1, 
named respectively, Emanu-Ela.nd Shearith-Israel. Rudolph 
Wyman had brought with him from New York the first 
Scrolls of the Law seen in San Francisco. These were used 
in one of the temporary synagogues during divine worship, 
which was first conducted by Albert Priest, a wealthy resi- 
dent of Long Island, who had reached the Pacific Coast in 
the wake of Fremont's expedition. These Scrolls of the Law 
proved a bone of contention and led to curious complica- 
tions at one time. It appears that the Rothschilds, of Lon- 
don, on learning of the heavy emigration to San Francisco, 
generously donated and transmitted a Sephar Torah for the 
use of the synagogue, which, however, failed to reach its 
destination until a second house of worship had been 
formed. Both congregations claimed possession of the 
Scrolls, and the title to ownership was not adjusted until 
much unpleasant feeling had been engendered. 

PORTLAND. 

The prosperity of the Hebrew colony at Portland, Oregon, 
is attested by their wealth, which, in proportion to their num- 
bers, is more widely distributed than in any other section of 
the Union, and by their prominence in public affairs. The 
influx to that State commenced as early as 1850. The first 
to arrive were Messrs. May and Goldsmith, A. Kaufman, 
David Abrahams, S. Blumauer, D. Simon, J. Cohn, Gus. El- 
feld, Edward Kahn, Moses Kahn, H. F. Bloch, A. Kahn, J. 
Seller, H. Seller, the Weinshenks and Mansfields. Most of 
these were Bavarians by birth. About 1855, the first He- 
brew Benevolent Society was organized. A burial-ground 
was purchased by this organization, which now holds a fund 



Il6 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

of $30,000 in its treasury, as the nucleus for a Home to be es- 
tablished at an early day. The Congregation Beth-Israel 
was founded in 1857 with Rev. H. Bories as first Hazan and 
Rev. E)r. Eckman first Rabbi and Preacher. Rev. Dr. Schwab, 
now of St. Joseph, Mo., next occupied the pulpit. During 
his ministrations reform was introduced in the synagogue. 
The present Ritual is the Minhag-America, and Rabbi J. 
Bloch, M.A., a native of Bohemia, occupies the pulpit. A 
quarter of a century ago Rev. Dr. Elkan Cohn, of San Fran- 
cisco, assisted in the dedication ceremonies. The increase 
in the Hebrew population in recent years has necessitated 
the erection of a more commodious building, which will soon 
be completed at a cost of $70,000. The Sunday-school is 
attended by 150 scholars and is conducted by Rabbi Bloch 
and seven assistant teachers. 

ALBANY. 

The year 1837 witnessed the arrival of the first Hebrew 
settlers in Albany, N. Y. These numbered but nine, and 
were : Mayer Rice, Simeon Schwartz, Bernhard Schmidt, 
Louis Sporburg, Julius Gershon, Mayer Isaac, Anshel Lind, 
Samuel Lindenstein and Morris Herrman. Two years later 
came Philip Altman, Michael Hydeman, Gotlieb Schmidt, 
Myer Stern, Moses Simpson, Myer Stein, Cushman Stern, 
Veit Traut, Ferdinand Schuetz, Isaac Cohn, Joseph Erich, 
Jacob Erich, Nathan, Moses and Simon Kastamenbaum, 
Sampson Rosendale, Joseph Sparburg, Isaac Smith, Myer 
Friend, Henry Blatner, Judah Bettman, Moses Schloss, Philip 
Schloss. Most of these were Bavarians. In 1840, the He- 
brew population of Albany numbered thirty families. To- 
day it numbers five hundred families. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. II 7 

The Congregation Beth-El wi^s organized in 1838, the Con- 
gregation Beth-Jacob, in 1845 ^nd the Congregation Anshe- 
Emeth in 1850. Nathan Nathanson, a merchant, who ar- 
rived at an early period from Portland, Maine, was a talented 
man, and the mouthpiece of the Hebrews for many years. 
He officiated in the pulpit of the Qon^x&^^Won Anshe-Emeth 
pending a vacancy. Rev. Isaac M. Wise took charge of the 
Congregation Beth-El, in 1846, and four years later was 
called to the Synagogue Anshe-Emeth, where he remained 
until 1854. Rev. Dr. Elkan Cohn, now of San Francisco, 
succeeded him, and later on came Dr. Maurice Mayer whose 
stay was a brief one. The late Rev. Samson Falk, of Buffalo, 
settled in Buffalo as a teacher, and was finally chosen Minis- 
ter of the Congregation Beth-El. In 1886, the Congregations 
Anshe-Emeth and Beth-El, were consolidated, a consumma- 
tion due in a great meas-ure to the untiring zeal of Rev. Dr. 
Max Schlessinger, for twenty-two years the incumbent at 
Beth^Emeth. Jacob Labushiner was for a period of thirty 
years, prior to 1880, a prominent teacher of the Hebrew 
youth. 

ROCHESTER. 

The city of Rochester, with its present Hebrew population 
of 2,500 souls, contained but a few individuals of that faith 
previous to 1848, although some were found there as early 
as 1840. As in all new communities, the organization of a 
religious association engrossed the attention of the first 
settlers at a very early period after their arrival, with the 
result of the organization of a congregation in the year 1848. 
This event took place in a house at the corner of Clinton 
Street and Clinton Place, the following gentlemen taking 



Il8 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

part in the proceedings : Messrs. M. Rothschild, Joseph 
Wile, Samuel Marks, Joseph Katz, Gabriel Wile, Henry- 
Levi, Jacob Altman, Joseph Altman, A. Adler, Elias Wolff, 
A. Weinberg and J. Ganz. After six months a permanent 
organization was effected under the name of Berith-Kodesh, 
more desirable quarters having been meanwhile secured at 
the corner of Main and Front Streets ; and on May 23, 1848, 
a burial ground was purchased at Mount Hope. Mayer 
Rothschild was chosen first President of the Congregation, 
which was incorporated October 8, 1854. The purchase of 
a site for a Temple took place 1856 (the ground being 
acquired from Louis Deane) and a building previously 
occupied as a Baptist Church, was remodelled and occupied 
until 1876, when the synagogue now occupied was erected at 
a cost of $25,000, the dedication taking place on September 
15, 1876. Hitherto several ministers had occupied the pulpit, 
the first incumbent being a Mr. Tusky. From 1856 to 1859, 
Rev. Dr. Isaac Mayer acted as spiritual head. Upon his 
retirement the Rev. Dr. Sarner officiated for nine months. 
For a period of three years, i860 to 1863, a vacancy occurred 
when Rev. Dr. Ginsberg was chosen to the pulpit, which he 
occupied until 1868. Another vacancy occurred at this time, 
when, after a lapse of two years and six months, the Rev. 
Dr. Max Landsberg, the present incumbent, was appointed 
Rabbi of the congregation and entered upon his duties in 
the spring of 1871. The congregation, up to 1862, was 
classed as orthodox, but in that year a tendency to Reform 
manifested itself. The movement spread slowly but surely, 
and the year following witnessed some changes in the ritual, 
an organ having been already introduced some months 
before. Further innovations took place from time to 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. II9 

time, culminating in the introduction of family pews 
in 1870, and the almost total abolishment in the year 
1883, of the use of Hebrew in the service, a new ritual 
being agreed upon in which the Vernacular is almost wholly 
employed. 

In the year 1884, the Rev. Dr. Landsberg officiated for. 
seven consecutive weeks, in the pulpit of the Unitarian 
Church of Rochester, whose pastor was confined to his home" 
by illness. The incident produced a profound impression in 
Central New York at the time, and gave rise to unfavorable 
Criticism in some quarters, which, however, was soon silenced 
when it appeared that Dr. Landsberg's " new departure " met 
with the approval of the mass of Hebrew and Christian 
citizens. 

BUFFALO. 

The growing city of Buffalo, N. Y., attracted Hebrew 
emigrants as early as 1835, when a Mr. Flersheim, a teacher 
of the German language and a native of Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, took up his abode there. Bernard Lichtenstein 
arrived in Buffalo in 1838, and continued to reside there for 
over forty years until his removal to Waupun, Wisconsin. 
From this time" on the colonists rapidly increased in num- 
bers, Solomon Phillip, Elias Bernheimer, Joseph E. Strass, 
Mark Moritz, Samuel Altman and Michael W. Noah being 
among the earlier arrivals. All were Germans with the ex- 
ception of the latter, who came from England. The organi- 
zation of the Synagogue Beth-El took place in 1847, with 
Mark Moritz as President and Rev. Isaac M. Slatky as 
Minister. The congregation worshipped in the Hoyt build- 
ing on the northeast corner of Main and Eagle Streets. Here 



I20 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

they remained for over two years. The late Rev. Dr. 
Samson Falk relates the following amusing incident, which 
occurred at this place : 

It was on a Day of Atonement that Rev. Mr. Slatky stood in the 
synagogue the whole day, as the custom was, in his white linen 
robe and white cap, with a white girdle about his loins. Towards 
dusk he again began to officiate. The congregation could no 
longer read without lights ; but it being strictly forbidden to the 
Hebrews of the orthodox school to kindle a light or touch a candle- 
stick on such a day, they sent for some non-Israelite to light their 
hall. They happened to procure a tall negro. He, on entering 
the synagogue, seeing Mr. Slatky with his pallid face and his 
long white beard, in keeping with his white attire and scarf, 
with the fringes prescribed in the Bible, was seized with terror, 
ran out as quickly as he could, and, reaching the stairs, fell head- 
long down the whole flight causing a sensation by his precipitate 
exit. 

This congregation in 1850 purchased an old school house 
on Pearl Street, near Eagle, which was remodelled and dedi- 
cated on July 22d of that year. Rev. Dr. Isaacs, of New 
York, delivered the dedication sermon, the first in the Eng- 
lish language ever delivered in Buffalo. This building was 
abandoned in 1873, when a more spacious and handsome 
edifice was erected on Elm Street, between Eagle and North 
Division, the dedication taking place August 14, 1874. The 
use of the Polish liturgy caused the withdrawal of several 
members in November, 1850. These formed a congregation 
(according to the German liturgy) which they named Beth- 
Zion, with Rev. Mr. Slatky as Minister. For his services he 
received five dollars per month the first five months, and 
$100 per annum thereafter, his duties being confined to read- 
ing the prayers and the Torah. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 121 



NEW HAVEN. 



The permanent settlement of Hebrews in New Haven, 
Conn., dates from the year 1840, and was hastenad by prox- 
imity to the city of New York. Trading with the farmers 
of the surrounding country engaged the attention of many 
of them, and by honesty and frugality they soon won the 
respect of their Christian neighbors. The early pioneers 
came principally from Bavaria, and among them were the 
Lehmans, Ullmans, Bretzfelders, Rothschilds, Kauffmans, 
Watermans, Milanders, Williamses, Kerns, Lauterbachs, 
and others. The growing colony received rapid accessions, 
Messrs. Heller, Frankall, Zunder, Mailhouse, Asher, Strouse, 
Shoninger, Coleman, Kreitzer, Rosenberg, Mandelbaum, 
reaching New Haven soon thereafter. In 1842 the ac- 
quisition of a burial ground was determined upon, and a 
plot of ground was purchased for the purpose in the adjoin- 
ing town of Westville, the first interment being that of Mr. 
Lehman. The Congregation Mishkan-Israel had already 
been organized at this time and worship was held in various 
halls dedicated for the purpose until 1856, when with the 
aid of $5,000, a bequest from Judah Touro, an edifice 
formerly occupied by the Third Congregational Church 
in Court Street, was purchased and dedicated. In this 
building the congregation has worshipped ever since. In 
1857 ^ division was caused in the congregation by the prog- 
ress of the Reform movement which is believed to have 
been the direct result of the leading members of a lodge of 
ffnai-Berith which had been formed the year before. The 
founders of the lodge, it is alleged, were imbued with the 
principles of the order, and declared that " light and truth 



122 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

should take the place of darkness and superstition." The 
result was the withdrawal of the orthodox members and the 
formation of the Congregation B'nai-Shalome, of which 
Solomon Cahn has been an earnest and indefatigable worker. 
The Congregation Mishkan-Israel to-day ranks as one of 
the liberal congregations of the country. In recent years the 
Russian Hebrew exiles, a considerable number of whom were 
attracted to New Haven have formed several congregations. 

NEWARK, N. J. 

The first synagogue in the State of New Jersey was dedi- 
cated June 29, 1857, in Washington Street, Newark, by the 
Congregation Enai-Jesurun which had been organized nine 
years prior to that time. They started with fifty members, 
Bernard Hauser being President, Jacob Rothschild, Aaron 
Trier and B'erthold Weil, Trustees, and Rev. Mr. Schwartz, 
Minister. The synagogue had a seating capacity for 200 
persons, and cost $3,500. 

MEMPHIS. 

One of the best known of the old-time residents of Mem- 
phis, Tenn., was Joseph I. Andrews, who reached that city 
about 1850, his family joining him seven years later. After 
conducting a general store he became a cotton factor. He 
took a deep interest in the welfare of his co-religionists, and 
donated the ground for a Hebrew cemetery, in which the 
first interment was his brother. His wife was Miriam, daugh- 
ter of the late Joseph B. Nones, of New York City. Their 
daughter, Sally, married N. D. Menken. Mr. Andrews 
built the first brick house in Memphis, and also the first large 
brick hotel, known as " The Commercial." David Kauffman 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 23 

was another of the settlers arriving between 1850 and 1865, 
as were the brothers, John Walker, Jacob Walker, William 
Walker and Louis Walker. These were dry-goods and 
clothing merchants. A. E. Frankland, M. Simon, E. Bar- 
inds and M. Bloom, were all useful and prosperous citizens 
about the same period. Hart Judah was the first regular 
Minister of the first synagogue, Mr. Stanheimer, a layman, 
having officiated previous to his installation. Dr. Simon 
Tuska was the third Minister. 

DETROIT. 

The Congregation Beth-El, the first at Detroit, Mich., was 
organized in 1850 and re-organized in 1853. Rev. L. Marcus 
was the first Rabbi. His successors were Rev. Drs. L. 
Marcus, L. Adler, L. Laser, I. Kalisch, K. Kohler, L. Wint- 
ner, H. Zirndorf and L. Grossmann. The membership at 
the start was twelve. In 1887 the number had increased to 
130. A Sabbath-school was formed in 1863 with seventy 
pupils. In 1888, the membership was 200. The Presidents 
of the Congregation from 1859 to 1888, were, Emanuel 
Schloss, Simon Freedman, David J. Workum, Simon Heaven- 
rich, Martin Butzel, Seligman Schloss and Julius Robinson. 
On September 27, i86i,a second congregation was organized 
with seventeen members, under the name of Shaaray-Zedek, 
of which the following gentlemen were the Ministers, from 

1865 to 1887: Kontrowitsch, A. Goldschmidt, B. Mos- 

kowitz, J. Rappaport, R. Kaplan. 

GALVESTON. 

Prior to 1857, ^^^ following Hebrews settled in Galveston, 
Tex.: J. Osterman, I. Dyer, Samuel Mass, Jacob Harman, 



124 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

R. M. Elkes, I. Jalonick, A. Prochovonick, Michael Seelig- 
son, Joel Adler, Simon Ruff, Henry Gros, Louis Gros, 
I. C. Levy. Later on came M. Kopperl, J. W. Frank, 
L. C. Harby, A. Blum, Jacob Block, A. Lippmann, J. Pos- 
ner, Louis Block and Samson Heidenheimer. On the Day 
of Atonement, in 1856 the first religious service was held. 
The Congregation B'nai-Israel, organized July 12th, was the 
first in the city. J. W. Frank was the first President, and 
the first Board of Trustees were Leon Blum, S. E. Loeb and 
L Dyer. M. Kopperl, was the first President, F. Halff, 
the second, and Leo N. Levy, the third. The present 
synagogue was erected at a cost of $30,000 for the ground 
and building, and was dedicated on Shebuoth, 1871, Rev. A. 
Blum being the first Minister. He continued in office until 
1885, and was succeeded by the Rev. Dr. J. Silverman, who 
occupied the pulpit until February 20, li 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 

In the District of Columbia, the first Hebrew resident, as 
far as known, was Morris Fisher, who reached Washington 
in 1847. ^- Fisher, his son, was the first child of Hebrew 
parentage born in that city. Between 1847 ^"^^ 1850 Hirsh 
Lissberger, Abraham Strasburger, Jonas Glueck, Leopold 
Oppenheimer, Captain Jonas P. Levy and Captain M. Lulley 
arrived there. Religious service was held for some time at 
the residence of Mr. Strasburger, on Pennsylvania Avenue, 
with Rev. Mr. Jacoby as Minister. In 1855, the Washing- 
ton Hebrew Congregation was chartered by Congress. The 
instrument provided that the congregation should be allowed 
from time to time by a vote of two thirds to elect their own 
trustees, the same to be displaced by a like vote at pleasure. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 12$ 

The charter was approved and signed by Franklin Pierce, 
President of the United States, on December 3, 1855. 
A Methodist Church was purchased on Eighth Street, near 
H. and fitted up for synagogue purposes. The introduction 
of pews and an organ in i866, caused the withdrawal of 
several members who organized the Congregation Adath- 
Israel. 



126 



IN THE ARMY AND NAVY. 



OWING to the destruction of valuable records in the 
War Office at Washington, in 1800, and in the 
Southern States during the Civil War, reliable data concern- 
ing the part taken by the Hebrews in the various wars is not 
obtainable. Solomon Etting, of Baltimore, wrote in 1824, 
that there were many Hebrews in the army during the Revo- 
lution " who were always at their post and always foremost in 
all hazardous enterprises." One of these was Colonel Solo- 
mon Bush. In 1769 a corps of volunteer infantry was raised 
in Charleston, S. C, composed chiefly of Hebrews residing on 
King Street. They were commanded by Captain Lushing- 
ton, and aferwards served under General Moultrie, at the 
battle of Beaufort. Major Benjamin Nones, of Philadelphia, 
and Captains Jacob De Lamotta and Jacob De Leon, of 
Charleston, served as aids on De Kalb's staff, and when their 
chief fell mortally wounded at the battle of Camden, S. C, the 
three carried him from the field. Major Nones was a native 
of Bordeaux, France, and came to this country in 1777, set- 
tling in Philadelphia. Early in the war he formed the 
acquaintance of Lafayette and Washington, and subsequently 
served on the staffs of both. His first service was under 
Pulaski, as a private, and what he accomplished under the 
gallant Pole is shown in a testimonial, now in possession of 
the Nones family, of New York, and signed by Captain 
Verdier, of Pulask's staff. The following is a translation of 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 27 

the document, which is written in French, and dated at 
Charleston, December 15, 1779: 

It is but just that I should render an account of the conduct of 
those who have most distinguished, themselves for bravery in the 
Legion. I take advantage of the occasion, and with much pleasure in 
my capacity of captain of volunteers attached to the suite of General 
Pulaski to certify that Benjamin Nones has served as a volunteer in 
my company during the campaign of this year and at the seige of 
Savannah in Georgia, and his behavior under fire in all the bloody 
actions we fought have been marked by the bravery and courage 
which a military man is expected to show for the liberties of his 
country, and which acts of said Nones gained in his favor the es- 
teem of General Pulaski, as well as that of all the officers who wit- 
nessed his daring conduct. For which reason I have delivered to 
him this certificate, having been an eye witness to his bravery and 
good conduct on the field of battle, and which I make it a duty to 
certify to with truth, satisfaction and pleasure. 

On his retirement from the army. Major Nones was ap- 
pointed sworn interpreter for the United States government 
at Philadelphia. Captains De Lamotta and De Leon re- 
turned to Charleston after the war, where they were 'for 
many years engaged in the auction business.. 

During the second war with Great Britain Myer Moses, 
of Charleston, father of the Chief Justice of South Carolina, 
was commissioned as Captain. Abraham Mitchell, who died 
in Philadelphia in 1857, and who for many years was Parnass 
of the Congregation B' nai-/esurun, of New York, was also a 
defender of his adopted country in the war of 1812. Another 
Hebrew taking part in the war was Mordecai Myers, who 
was born at Newport in 1776 and lived to the ripe age of 
ninety-five. He held the rank of Captain in the 30th 
United States Infantry, and at the battle of Chryslersfield was 
wounded in the arm. He was at one time a merchant at 



128 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Richmond, Va., and then removed to New York, where he was 
prominent in financial affairs. He resided at Schenectady, 
N. Y., where he was twice elected Mayor of the city, served 
with distinction in the State Senate and was honored with 
the office of Grand Master of Free Masons and Grand High 
Priest of Royal Arch Masons of the State of New York. 

Two sons of Joshua Moses, a prominent New York mer- 
chant engaged in the China trade, and who died in 1837, 
have held commissions in the United States Army. These 
are Israel and Isaac Moses. The former was appointed 
Assistant-Surgeon of the United States Army in 1847, ^.nd 
served with the army of occupation at Vera Cruz and Toluca, 
Mexico, at Fort Crawford, Fort Leavenworth, in Oregon, 
Washington Territory and Texas, until his resignation in 
1855. In the Civil War he was appointed Lieutenant- 
Colonel of a regiment attached to Sickle's Brigade, but owing 
to ill-health he resigned. He was appointed Surgeon of the 
United States Volunteers, and was placed in charge of camp 
hospitals in the Army of the Potomac, and subsequently 
served with General Gordon Granger in the West. He was 
mustered out of service in 1865, after receiving the brevet of 
Lieutenant-Colonel for faithful and meritorious services. 
Isaac Moses was Adjutant-General of the Third Army Corps 
of the Army of the Potomac, commanded by General 
Heintzleman, during the Civil War, and participated in all 
the battles of the Peninsular Campaign. Subsequently he 
served in General Banks' army. Previous to the war he was 
engaged in the East India trade, with a branch house at 
Canton, and then he settled in Galveston, Texas, and 
lived there several years, remaining during the yellow fever 
epidemic of 1868. General Charles Griffin died of the 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I2C) 

fever at Mr. Moses' house during the epidemic. Another 
brother, Joseph Moses, at the age of twenty-four, fought a 
desperate duel in Texas with Colonel Hickey, of Mississippi, 
with double shot-guns at twenty paces. He killed Hickey 
at the first fire. 

The late Major Alfred Mordecai ranked second to none in 
the military world, in the field of scientific research and 
accomplishments and in practical application of mechanical 
deduction to war uses. He was born at Warrenton, N. C, 
in 1804, and graduated at the head of his class at the United 
States Military Academy, in 1823. He rendered valuable 
service in the Mexican War, as Major of Ordnance, and in 
company with Captain George B. McClellan and Major 
Delafield, was sent by the Government to witness and 
report upon the operations in the Crimea. Major Mordecai 
was the author of " Experiments on Gun-powder," and 
other works. He died at Philadelphia, towards the close 
of 1887. 

President Lincoln's call for troops in 1861, was promptly 
responded to by Louis M. Emanuel, of Philadelphia, who 
was appointed Surgeon, and rose to the rank of Brigade 
Surgeon, before the close of the war. Lyon L. Emanuel, a 
brother, was a Lieutenant in Shaler's brigade of the Army of 
the-Potomac, and rose to the rank pf Major. Both died of 
disease contracted while in the service. Leopold C. Newman 
was mustered in service as Captain of the 31st Regiment 
New York Volunteers. He rose to the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel, his term of service expiring a few days prior to the 
battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia, in 1863. In view of the 
pending battle, he expressed a desire to remain at the front, 
and during that terrible struggle his foot was shattered by a 



I30 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

cannon ball. He was carried to Washington where he died 
of his wounds. David Ezekiel, of Cincinnati, was severely- 
wounded while serving in an Ohio regiment, his life being 
saved by the loving attention of his mother, who hastened to 
the battle-field on learning of his injuries. The death of 
Elias Leon, of the 5 th Pennsylvania Cavalry, at Anderson- 
ville prison, was the result of a gallant soldier's solicitude for 
a comrade in his command. His regiment being surrounded 
by the enemy and threatened with annihilation, young Leon, 
in the midst of a terrific onslaught, dismounted to assist a 
fellow-soldier who, like himself, was attempting to escape. 
His companion being restored to the saddle, eluded the 
enemy, but the delay resulted in Leon's capture and his con- 
finement in Andersonville prison, where he died. 

Among the Hebrew officers in the Federal Army, were : 
Lieutenant Sulchman, 44th New York Volunteers ; Captain 
Gremitz, 62d Pennsylvania ; Lieutenant Colonel E. S. Salo- 
mon, 82d Illinois; Sergeant Cohen, 626 Pennsylvania; 
Corporal Gisner, I42d Pennsylvania ; Sergeant Myers, 62d 
Pennsylvania; Lieutenant E. Davis, 115th Pennsylvania; 
Captain A. Goldman, 17th Maine ; Lieutenant A. Rhine- 
hardt, 148th Pennsylvania ; Lieutenant Nieman, 103d New 
York ; M. Stergean Asher, 103d New York ; Lieutenant 
Leo Derdinger, 39th New York ; Lieutenant Philip TrufT- 
inger, 57th New York ; Lieutenant Hermann Mussehel, 68th 
New York ; Lieutenant Herman Krauth, 103d New York : 
Lieutenant Julius Franck, 103d New York ; Captain Henry 
R. Schwerin, 119th New York ; Lieutenants Max Von Bosh, 
Julius Niebergall, Levi Keuhne and Henry Lauterman, all 
of 3d Battery Artillery, New York. Lehman Israels, a 
brother of Josef Israels, the famous Dutch painter, was a 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I3I 

Lieutenant in the S 5th Regiment, New York Volunteers, and 
served in the Army of the Potomac. 

Frederick Knefler, of Indiana, attained the highest rank 
reached by any Hebrew during the Civil War. He enlisted 
as a private in the 79th Indiana Volunteers of Infantry, and 
rose, step by step, until he became Colonel of his regiment, 
soon rising to the rank of Brigadier-General and then Brevet- 
Major-General, for meritorious services at the battle of Chick- 
amauga. He participated in all the principal battles of the 
Army of the Cumberland, under Generals Rosecrans, Thomas, 
Sherman and Grant, and took part in all the engagements 
under Sherman in his march to the sea. General Kneflier 
has the reputation of having been one of the most gallant 
soldiers in the Army of the Cumberland. After the War he 
was appointed Pension Agent at Indianapolis, where he now 
resides. He is a native of Hungary, and was born in 1833. 

Leopold Blumenberg, of Baltimore, on the breaking out 
of the Civil War, abandoned his mercantile pursuits, entered 
the army and gained honorable distinction. He was a native 
of Frankfort-on-the-Oder, and was born in 1828. In the 
Prussian-Danish war of 1848 he rendered meritorious service 
in the Prussian Army, for which he was decorated. On re- 
turning home at the close of hostilities, the strong anti- 
Semitic feeling prevailing at the time in some portions of 
Germany caused a number of fanatics to strip him of his 
decoration, which so incensed him that he at once deter- 
mined to sail for America. Arriving in Baltimore in 1854, 
he embarked in business, in which he continued up to the 
attack on Fort Sumter, when he helped organize the 5th 
Regiment, Maryland Infantry, of which he was appointed 
Major. His first service was near Hampton Roads, and he 



132 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

was soon thereafter attached to Mansfield's corps, and took 
part in the Peninsular Campaign, and subsequently in Mary- 
land, where his regiment was engaged in the battle of 
Antietam, under his command as Colonel. Here he was 
shot in the thigh by a sharpshooter and compelled to 
return home, where he was confined to his bed for many 
months. President Lincoln appointed him Provost-Marshal 
of the Third Maryland District, with headquarters at Balti- 
more, and the stringency with which he executed the con- 
scription laws while holding this office incurred him the 
animosity of many citizens. On the death of President Lin- 
coln Colonel Blumenberg was appointed by President John- 
son to the rank of Brevet-Brigadier-General, United States 
Volunteers. During his long residence in Baltimore he was 
immensely popular, especially with the German and Hebrew 
element. Prior to his death, which occurred in 1876 and 
was the result of the terrible wound received at Antietam, 
General Blumenberg was elected President of the National 
Schuetzen Verein of America, and was a prominent and 
active member of the Congregation Haar-Sinai and Hebrew 
Orphan Asylum. 

During President Grant's administration the member of 
Congress from Nevada decided to appoint as a cadet at 
West Point such scholars from the public schools of 
that State as should pass the best competitive examination. 
Albert A. Michelson, a native of Poland, was one of the 
competitors, and at the close of the examination, it was 
found that he and another boy stood equal, the result being 
a tie. Three subsequent examinations were held with like 
results, a tie at each. It was then decided that as young 
Michelson was a native of California, and had been educated 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 33 

in the public schools of that State, where the opportunities 
were better, and his competitor had been educated in 
Nevada, where the opportunities were less favorable, that 
the Nevada boy should be awarded the appointment. Presi- 
dent Grant, upon recommendation of the examining com- 
mittee, then appointed young Michelson to a cadetship in 
the Annapolis Naval Academy, in 1869. He graduated in 
1873, served on board the Steamers " Roanoke " and " Wor- 
cester," was promoted an ensign in 1874, was on duty at 
the Naval Academy two years, and served on board the 
practice ship " Constellation." In 1879 he was promoted 
to Master, and resigned from the service in 1881. 

David M. Cohen, a native of Norfolk, was for fourteen 
years an officer in the Marine Corps of the United States 
Navy, receiving his appointment as Lieutenant in 1855. He 
was First-Lieutenant in 1861, and Captain the same year. 
In 1867 he was appointed Major, and in 1869 was trans- 
ferred to the Retired List on account of physical disability. 
Edward David Taussig, of St. Louis, Mo., was appointed a 
Midshipman in the Navy in 1863, when sixteen years of age. 
He rose to the rank of Ensign, Master and Lieutenant, and 
has performed fourteen years sea service and seven years 
shore duty. 

Major A. Mordecai, an engineer of high repute, and son of 
the late Major Alfred Mordecai, is now Chief of the Ordnance 
service on Governor's Island, N. Y. Major Massias was a 
paymaster in the Regular Army in 1820. In the Ordnance 
Department, Capt. Otho E. Michaelis, of the Regular Army, 
rendered valuable service during the Civil War. During the 
last twenty-five years a number of Hebrews have graduated 
from West Point, including Lieutenant J. E. Bloom, who re- 



134 THE HEBREWS INf AMERICA. 

signed shortly after his graduation, and Lieutenant Ostheim, 
of Philadelphia, who is still in the service. Jonathan M. Eman- 
uel, Passed Assistant-Engineer, United States Navy, has been 
in the service since 1861. He took an active part in the Civil 
War, serving under Commodore Mead and was twice ship- 
wrecked. Solomon Harby, son of Isaac Harby, was a Lieuten- 
ant in the Navy and died at an early age while in the service. 

One of the best known American naval ofificers of former 
days was Commodore Uriah P. Levy, the highest ranking 
officer in the United States Navy at the time of his death 
in 1862. He served in the war of 1812, being then Master pf 
the brig-of-war " Argus," and in the contest with the " Peli- 
can," in the British channel, was captured and confined in 
Dartmoor prison. While Lieutenant he became involved in 
a dispute with Lieutenant Potter, at a ball in Philadelphia, 
which was followed by a duel in which Potter lost his life. 
The young Hebrew demanded a court-martial and was hon- 
orably acquitted. In recognition of his valuable services to 
the nation the Common Council of New York honored him 
with the freedom of the city. His intimacy with Thomas 
Jefferson and affectionate regard for the author of the Declar- 
ation of Independence led to the purchase of Monticello, 
which upon his death was bequeathed to his nephew, Jeffer- 
son M. Levy, the well-known lawyer of New York. Com- 
modore Levy vigorously opposed the application of the lash 
to seamen, and upon his tombstone at Cypress Hills is 
recorded the fact that " he was the father of the law for the 
abolition of the barbarous practice of corporal punishment 
in the Navy of the United States." 

When Henry Clay, Gallatin, John Quincy Adams and 
Bayard sailed for Europe on the Ghent mission, on board 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 35 

the frigate " John Adams," in 1814, they were accompanied 
by Joseph B. Nones, who was Mr. Clay's private secretary. 
Mr. Nones was but seventeen years of age at the time. Two 
years previous he had entered the United States Navy as 
Midshipman, and upon Mr. Clay's return home was assigned 
to the frigate " Guerriere," commanded by Commodore 
Decatur. He was attached to the staff of that famous naval 
officer two years, during which time he took part in the 
engagement with the Algerian battle ship " Mesusa," on the 
coast of Algeria. Several wounds received in this contest 
caused Mr. Nones' retirement from the naval service in 1822. 
Most of the prominent men of the nation were numbered 
among his friends. Mr. Nones died in the city of New York 
shortly after entering upon his ninety-first year, in the spring 
of 1887. It was his proud boast that while in swaddling 
clothes he had been frequently dandled on the knee of the 
Father of His Country. Mr. Nones was, for forty-five years 
prior to his death, a Commissioner of Deeds for every State 
in the Union. Five other members of the Nones family 
have served in the Navy, Henry B., who was a Captain in the 
Revenue Service at the time of his death, and Henry B., Jr., 
at present Chief Engineer. Captain J. P. Levy, a brother of 
the Commodore and father of Jefferson M. Levy, was Com- 
mander of the United States ship " America." During the 
Mexican War he assisted in the landing of the United States 
troops at Vera Cruz, and was by General Scott appointed 
Captain of that port. Emanuel J. Phillips, of Philadelphia, 
and Jonas Barnett, of the same city, were both Paymasters 
in the Navy, many years ago. Barnett was attached to the 
frigate " Essex," and lost his life by falling from the rigging of 
his vessel while at sea. 



136 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Levi Myers Harby, a prominent naval officer, known as 
Captain " Livi Charles Harby," and also as Captain " Charles 
Levi Harby," was a brother of Isaac Harby. He was born 
in Georgetown, S. C, September 21, 1793, and died in Galves- 
ton, Texas, December 3, 1870. At the age of fourteen, he 
was a Midshipman in the United States Navy. During the 
war of 1812-14 he was taken prisoner by the British and 
confined for over two years in Dartmoor prison, from which 
he escaped by swimming. In December, 1823, he served as 
Sailing Master on the United States vessel " Beagle." He 
served for fifty-two years under the United States flag, and 
rose to the rank of Captain. He was on leave of absence at 
the time of the Texan War and went to Texas, where he 
participated in its fight for independence. For thus serving 
under a " foreign " government, he was cashiered, but when 
that State was admitted into the Union, he was restored to 
the service. He afterwards took part in the Mexican War 
and also served in the Seminole War of Florida, and had 
command of a vessel in the expedition against the pirates of 
Algiers and Tripoli. He also fought in the Bolivian War of 
Independence. When South Carolina seceded, he resigned 
his commission and entered the Confederate service, with the 
rank of Commodore in the navy, and afterwards distinguished 
himself, under General Magruder, in the defence of Galves- 
ton, where he commanded the " Neptune " at the capture of 
the " Harriet Lane," and, later on, when in command of a 
fleet of gun boats on the Sabine River. Though his real 
name was Levi Myers Harby, he was, early in life, nick- 
named " Charley," but was best known as " Captain Livi 
Charles Harby." He made a romantic love match. When 
about forty-six years of age he eloped with Miss Leonora, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 37 

the accomplished and talented daughter of Judge De Lyon, 
of Savannah, Ga., the bride being but sixteen years old. By 
her he had three children, all of whom (with his widow) sur- 
vived him. 

One of the heroes of the Civil War was Dr. Marx E. 
Cohen, of Charleston, only son of the late Marx. E. Cohen, 
of that City. He studied surgery and dentistry at the Med- 
ical College in Baltimore, and had just been graduated, at 
the age of twenty-one, when the Civil War broke out. He 
immediately enlisted in the Confederate Army, serving with 
distinction in various States. Towards the close of the last 
battle of the war, at Bentonville, N. C, some shells contain- 
ing explosive materials were thrown into the Confederate 
ranks from the guns of the Union forces. The Captain of 
Hart's Battery, in which Dr. Cohen was a soldier, called for 
volunteers to hurl them aside before they should burst and 
cause destruction to the company. But three men had the 
courage to undertake so dangerous a task. Dr. Cohen being 
one of them. He and his companions were successful, but, 
while returning to their own ranks, all of the three were 
shot dead by Federal bullets and buried on the field 
where they had fallen. The body of the brave young man, 
was subsequently removed from the battle-field, and carried 
to his native city, where it was interred, with military and 
civic honors, in a plot in the Hebrew Cemetery, donated by 
the Congregation for that express purpose. 

Louis P. Levy, of Richmond, entered the Confederate 
Navy as Midshipman in 1863, when fifteen years old. His 
appointment was secured through the influence of ex-Presi- 
dent Tyler, and Governor Brown, of Mississippi. He was 
assigned to duty on the gun-boat " Chicora " which was 



138 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

stationed at Richmond and Charleston, and accompanied 
Jefferson Davis and his Cabinet in their flight from Rich- 
mond, as far as Georgia. 

Adolph Proskauer, a prominent citizen of Mobile, Ala- 
bama, entered the Confederate Army as a private and was 
appointed Color Sergeant of the 12th Alabama Infantry. 
He rose to the rank of Captain, and was four times wounded. 
He also served as a member of the Alabama Legislature, 
has been Honorary Secretary of the Board of Trade, was 
for ten years President of the Hebrew Congregation and 
was the first President of the first lodge of the order of B'nai- 
Berith formed south of Memphis. A. T. Moses, of Sheffield, 
Alabama, was attached to the United States Survey, and 
during the Civil War served on the staff of the Confederate 
General Richard Taylor. Edwin I. Kursheedt was Adju- 
tant of the Washington Artillery of New Orleans, and 
Alexander Hart was Major of the 5th Louisiana Regiment 
from the same city. In another Louisiana regiment was 
found N. Kraus, now of Alabama, who served as Lieuten- 
ant, and subsequently on detached service as Adjutant to 
General Miller in the Department of Florida. From 
1 87 1 to 1872 Mr. Kraus was a member of the Alabama 
Legislature. Jacob J. Jacobus, Lieutenant of the Washing- 
ton Artillery of Georgia, lost his life at the battle of Shiloh. 
George W. Rush, a Georgia Captain, was killed while in 
command of his regiment. W. E. Levy, Lieutenant in a 
Georgia regiment, was killed while in action. Jacob Levy 
was Lieutenant in a Georgia regiment. Leon Jastremski, of 
Baton Rouge, La., enlisted in the Confederate Army, and 
rose to the rank of Captain in the loth Louisiana Infantry. 
In 1876 he was elected Mayor of Baton Rouge. 



m 



IN COMMERCIAL LIFE. 



WITHIN the past twenty-five years the American 
Hebrews have been making such strides in the 
commercial world as to attract attention in every depart- 
ment in which they are engaged. A review of the career 
of those who have attained a commanding position in this 
field shows that most of them started in life in a modest 
way, the majority being penniless and friendless on landing 
on these shores. Patient labor and application have brought 
them to the top round of the ladder, and to-day the Hebrews 
are foremost in nearly every department of commercial activ- 
ity in the United States. On all New York commercial 
exchanges they are now recognized as among the most 
influential members. 

In banking alone the Hebrews of New York City repre- 
sent a capital of $100,000,000. As early as 1792 the finan- 
cial operations of the city were in part controlled by 
Hebrews. In that year twenty-five brokers, in anticipation 
of the growth of the metropolis and foreseeing the necessity 
of some joint action for the conduct of their business, held 
a meeting and solemnly promised and pledged themselves 
" not to buy or sell for any person whatsoever any kind of 
Public Stock at a less rate than one-quarter of one per cent, 
commission on the specie value, and that we will give a 
preference to each other in our own negotiations." Among 
the Hebrews who attached their signatures to this agree- 



I40 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

merit were Isaac M. Gomez, Bernhard Hess, Benjamin 
Seixas and Ephraim Hart. Since that period the Hebrews 
have been among the most active and leading members of 
the Stock Exchange, the outgrowth of the organization so 
quietly formed in 1792. In 1824 Jacob Isaacs was elected 
Secretary of the Exchange, and continued in office until 
1830. He was succeeded by Bernard Hart in 1831 and 
Benjamin Hart in 1853. In 1851 the latter was elected 
Vice-President. Bernard Hart had been a partner of 
Leonard Lispenard, with whom he engaged in business 
in 1 8 12 under the firm name of Lispenard & Hart. In 1806 
he married Rebecca, daughter of Benjamin Seixas, a promi- 
nent merchant of Hanover Square as far back as 1780. Mr. 
Hart was also Quartermaster of a brigade of State troops 
and a prominent Freemason. During the yellow fever 
scourge, in 179S, he earned the admiration and gratitude 
of his fellow-citizens by his attention and devotion to the 
sufferers. 

Among the members of the Exchange from 1820 to 1830 
were Joseph L. Joseph, S. I. Joseph and M. Henriques (who 
constituted the firm of J. L. and S. L Joseph & Co., agents 
of the Rothschilds), M. J. Cohen, Seixas Nathan and Joseph 
Leon. These were followed some time after by Joseph 
Brandon, whose son, Edward Brandon, has been a promi- 
nent member of the Board of Governors for many years 
and Chairman of the Committee on Securities. The Open 
Board of Stock Brokers, which was formed in 1861, and con- 
solidated with the New York Stock Exchange in 1869, had 
among its charter members George Henriques, Emanuel B. 
Hart, Charles C. Allen, S. M. Schafer and Simon Schafer. 

In the New York Stock Exchange D. C. Hays, son of the 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I4I 

famous High Constable, was for many years Treasurer, and 
Jacob and Edward Hays, grandsons of the High Constable, 
have been members. Among the more prominent Hebrew 
members of the present Stock Exchange are Alexander 
Henriques, Harmon, Frederick and Julian Nathan, A. 
Wolff, of Kuhn, Loeb & Co.; Theodore W. Myers, James 
Seligman, Julien L. Myers, Henry Budge, S. Neustadt, B. 
Mainzer, of Hallgarten & Co.; Charles Minzesheimer, Leo- 
pold Cahn, S. Cantoni, Noah Content, H. H. Hart, Alfred 
De Cordova, E. L. Frank, W. B. Bonn, Richard Limburger, 
of Ladenburg, Thalmann & Co.; P. J. Goodheart, Albert 
Goodheart, B. Neumogen, H.P. Goldschmidt, Simon Worm- 
ser, Isidor Wormser and Leo Speyer. Alexander Henriques 
has been for many years Vice-Chairman of the Exchange, 
and is one of the most efficient and popular officers who has 
ever presided over that body. He was born in 18 18, in the 
Island of Jamaica, and is the son of an Englishman who came 
to the United States when Alexander was a lad. He was 
educated at Columbia College and went to Texas at the age 
of eighteen, where he was made private secretary to Presi- 
dent Houston. Mr. Henriques has been a conspicuous 
figure in Wall Street for over forty years. 

The first of the eight Seligman Brothers to reach this 
country, was Joseph, the eldest, who came to the United 
States in 1838, after graduating at the University of Erlang- 
en. He soon found employment as cashier in the bank of 
Asa Packer, of Philadelphia. Joseph Seligman remained in 
Mr. Packer's bank several years, meanwhile economizing, in 
order to accumulate a fund wherewith to bring his brothers 
to this country. Before long he was enabled to send for his 
brother Jesse, who secured employment in New York. At 



142 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

the end of three years his savings amounted to $i,000. 
Joseph had meanwhile removed to Greensburg, Alabama, 
where he had successfully carried on a clothing store. Re- 
turning to New York, he established himself in a similar 
business on Church Street. Among the first to arrive in 
San Francisco, during the gold fever of 1848, was Jesse Selig- 
man, who opened a store ^nd conducted a thriving business. 
When the city was visited by a conflagration, every business 
house in the town was destroyed excepting his. The thriving 
business which followed contributed to his earnings, which, 
during his seven years' sojourn in that city, were swollen to 
considerable proportions. Returning to New York he formed 
a co-partnership with his brothers, Joseph, James and Wil- 
liam, as wholesale clothiers and importers of dry goods, in 
which the other brothers, Leopold, Isaac, Abraham and 
Henry, were later on interested. In this business they were 
engaged on the breaking out of the Civil War in 1861, and 
having met with great success, they determined to embark in 
the banking business. In a short while they opened branches 
in London, Paris, Frankfort, San Francisco and New Orleans. 
Mainly through their instrumentality the government was 
enabled, at the beginning of the war, to place large amounts 
of bonds in the German markets. They were subsequently 
appointed fiscal agents of the government in Europe, and 
are to-day recognized as among the great bankers of the 
world. They rank with the most public spirited of our 
Hebrew citizens, are enterprising and charitable, and identi- 
fied with all the great questions which enlist the sympathy 
and support of the best people in the community. Joseph 
Seligman, the eldest brother, died at New Orleans, April 25 
1880. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I43 

The late Philip Heidelbach, of Heidelbach, Ickelheimer & 
Co., presents another illustration of what can be accomplished 
by perseverence and industry. He was a native of Bavaria, 
and was born in 1 8 14, coming to this country a poor lad and 
engaging for some time in trading as a peddler. In the 
course of time he embarked in the clothing trade at Cincin- 
nati and eventually controlled the largest manufactory in the 
Mississippi Valley. As founder of the firm of Seasongood & 
Co., he was well known throughout the country and is re- 
membered as one of the promoters of the Cincinnati Southern 
Railroad, a director of the Little Miami Railroad, and a 
member of the firm of Espy, Heidelbach & Co., of the Queen 
City. Lazarus Hallgarten, founder of the firm of Hallgarten 
& Hertzfeld, now known as Hallgarten & Co., had very little 
means when he reached this country in 1849. His first oc- 
cupation was note and exchange broker, This yielded a 
moderate income and enabled him to start as a banker. He 
and two sons associated in the business have passed away 
within a brief period. One of them, Julius Hallgarten, who 
died in Germany, bequeathed $100,000 to various charitable 
iustitutions in New York and elsewhere, aside from liberal 
bequests to Hebrew societies. The Wormser brothers started 
in Sacramento, Cal. Like many others, they also were en- 
gaged in the clothing business in their early days. In Sac- 
ramento they were large purchasers of city scrip, which in- 
creased their already handsome capital, and resulted in their 
removal to the East. 

Lewis Seasongood, the Cincinnati merchant and banker, 
and one of the most progressive, influential and respected 
citizens of the West, was born in Bavaria, August 3, 1836. 
He received a public school education in Germany. At the 



144 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

age of fifteen he reached this country, proceeding to Cincin- 
nati, where his uncle, Jacob Seasongood, was engaged in the 
cloth-jobbing and clothing business. He spent two years 
at St. Xavier's College, Cincinnati, and on the completion of 
his studies, was offered an opportunity of entering the firm 
of Heidelbach, Seasongood & Co. His usefulness was ap- 
preciated, and in 1858 he was given an interest in the firm, 
and, in i860, he was admitted as a general partner. In 1869 
he formed a co-partnership with his uncle, Jacob Seasongood, 
his brother, Alfred Seasongood and Elias Moch. The year 
following, he established a banking house, which is regarded 
as one of the strongest financial institutions in Cincinnati. 
Few enterprises looking to the advancement of that city have 
been undertaken without Mr. Seasongood's active support. 
He suggested the first Textile Fabric Exposition, in 1869, 
and was treasurer of the Cincinnati Exposition of 1872. He 
was appointed by President Grant a Commissioner to the 
Vienna Exposition in 1873, and took a leading part in pro- 
moting the building of the Cincinnati Southern Railway. He 
was twice elected a Director of the University of Cincinnati, 
was one of the Sinking Fund Commissioners of the city, 
and has occupied the office of President and Director in 
numerous financial corporations. Mr. Seasongood has served 
for twenty years as Financial Secretary and Director of the 
United Jewish Cemetery Association of Cincinnati ; has been 
an active member of the Young Mens' Mercantile Library 
Association ; was one of the projectors of the great Ameri- 
can Saengerfest, held at Cincinnati in 1870 and 1875, and has 
been prominently identified with the Masonic fraternity, the 
Board of Trade and Chamber of Commerce, Union of Amer- 
ican Hebrew Congregations, the Alliance Israel, of London, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I45 

etc. He is also a Director of the Union Bank of New York, 
In politics Mr. Seasongood is a Republican and has been for 
several terms a member of the State Executive Committee. 
He twice declined a nomination for State Senate, and in 1879 
and 1 88 1, came within a very few votes of receiving the nom- 
ination of Lieutenant-Governor. 

Lazard Freres, the bankers, of New York, San Francisco 
and Paris, laid the foundation of their fortune in California. 
They came from Alsace, and started as merchants, finally 
establishing extensive woolen mills. They now rank among 
the leading bankers of Paris and New York. The Scholle 
Brothers came from Germany with no means whatsoever. 
Settling in San Francisco soon after the discovery of gold, they 
met with success as store-keepers and then came to New York. 

Nathan Bloom was for years one of the leading mer- 
chants of Louisville. When twenty-one years of age he 
came from Hesse-Darmstadt. Landing in New York in 
1848, with a few dollars, he equipped himself with a stock 
of goods which he proceeded to peddle in New York, 
Pennsylvania and the West. In two years his few dollars 
had increased, and he invested in a general store in a 
Kentucky village. The dollars rapidly multiplied and he 
removed to Louisvilje in 1852, where he embarked in the 
wholsale dry goods business, in which he was very success- 
ful. The trade of his firm,- Bamberger, Bloom & Co., which 
extends throughout nearly all of the Southwestern States 
and aggregated at the time of his death, in 1886, $5,000,000 
annually. Not only as a wealthy and respected merchant, 
but as a philanthropic and enterprising citizen, who was 
prominently identified in all public measures, will his nami^ 
be remembered by the people of Louisville. 



146 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Samuel N. Pike, who was of humble origin, became one of 
the greatest merchants of Cincinnati, and amassed several 
millions in the whiskey trade. No man was more respected 
or contributed more to the prosperity and prestige of that 
city, especially in matters pertaining to art. The opera 
house bearing his name was erected by him. He also built 
the magnificent building on Eighth Avenue in New York, 
now known as the Grand Opera House. 

The late Joseph and Max Weil, of St. Louis, were natives 
of Pirmasens, Bavaria, and came to this country in 1836. 
With a combined fortune of twenty dollars, they purchased 
goods in New York, and peddled through Pennsylvania. In 
1 84s they settled in Hopkinsvile, Ky., and opened a general 
store. After four years they removed to St. Louis where 
under the firm name of J. Weil & Bro., they established a 
wholesale dry goods and clothing business. While enjoy, 
ing a degree of remarkable prosperity, the great fire of 1853 
swept away the earnings accumulated by years of patient 
industry. Securing a fresh stock of goods they started 
anew, and by i860 their annual transactions had increased 
to $3,00,000. 

Isaac Friedlander, the late grain king of California, was 
one of the many of his race who rose from obscurity to 
affluence. He left Charleston for the Pacific Coast in 1849, 
and for a time " rocked the cradle of the gold-seeker on the 
sand-bars of the Yuba." He was one of the first to perceive 
that California was destined to be a great wheat-producing 
section, and in 1856 he projected the first exportation of 
oats to Australia. For eighteen years he absolutely con- 
trolled the grain market of the State, his exports in a single 
year requiring a fleet of 270 large ships. He is said to have 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I47 

handled more money in his time than any of the bonanza 
giants of the Pacific Coast, owned one tract of 100,000 acres 
in the San Joaquin Valley, and served two terms as President 
of the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce. He died in 
1878. A New York paper commenting upon his death 
observed : " Not California alone, but the whole world has 
cause to regret the loss of such a man." 

Morris Ranger was one of the largest cotton operators in 
the world previous to his death in 1887. He came from 
Germany in 1855, settled in Kentucky, and in 1866 established 
himself in the cotton business at Galveston, Tex. He 
opened a house in Liverpool, where he for several years 
held the key to the cotton trade of the world. In 1881 he 
engineered a "deal" which resulted in a profit estimated in 
the millions. In 1883 he attempted to "bear" the market 
but his calculations proved erroneous, and he was forced 
to suspend with liabilities of $5,000,000. In 1885 he re- 
turned to New York where he resumed business on a smaller 
scale. 

Emanuel and Mayer Lehman, of New York, are among 
the leading houses in the cotton trade in this country, and 
are natives of Wurtzburg, Germany. They started at Mont- 
gomery, Ala., as store -keepers. Few merchants have shown 
greater enterprise, or contributed more to the prosperity of 
Alabama. They have been connected with numerous rail- 
way projects and manufacturing enterprises in that section 
and are, at the present time, the principal owners of a cotton 
mill on the Tallapoosa River, one of the largest in the South, 
and whose annual output is $1,000,000. When the credit of 
the State of Alabama was seriously impaired, after the panic 
of 1873, ^"'^ ^^ ^^^ found difBcult to negotiate the bonds 



148 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

of the State, Messrs. Lehman promptly subscribed to the 
amount of $100,000, after numerous unsuccessful efforts in 
other quarters. Emanuel Lehman is a Director of the Rich- 
mond and Danville ; Richmond, Terminal and Virgina Mid- 
land Railways, and of the Mercantile National Bank and 
Commercial Insurance Company of New York. Mayer 
Lehman is a Director of the Hamilton Bank of New York, 
and a most influential member and Director of the New York 
Cotton Exchange. 

Adolph Scheftel, one of the largest leather dealers in New 
York, started business with a capital of 300 francs twenty 
years ago. Solomon Loeb, of the banking firm of Kuhn, 
Loeb & Co., of New York, was a poor boy when he left the 
Old World. He is now one of the leading bankers in 
America. His son-in-law, Jacob H. Schiff, a member of the 
same firm, has attracted much attention for some years past, 
by his philanthropy, which has earned him the title of " the 
Montefiore of New York;" Mr. Schiff was born in 1847, at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, where, after a common school educa- 
tion, he was apprenticed for three years in the dry goods 
business, and for two years thereafter served a clerkship in 
a small banking establishment in the same city. Reaching 
this country in 1865, he found employment with the banking 
firm of Frank & Gans, of New York, predecessors of the 
house of Heidelbach, Ickelheimer & Co., with whom he con- 
tinued for nine months. At the end of this time he formed 
a co-partnership with Henry Budge, now of the New York 
firm of Hallgarten & Co., as bankers and brokers. Towards 
the close of 1872, he retired from business and sailed for 
Europe, where he remained for some time. He returned to 
New York in 1875 and entered the firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 



149 



of which he has snice been an active member. In 1881, Mr. 
Schiff was appointed by Mayor Grace, a Commissioner of 
Education, holding the office for three years. He has also 
served as Director of the New York, Lake Erie and Western 
Railway. He now occupies the chair of President of the 
Montefiore Home for Incurables, is a Trustee of the Aural 
and Ophthalmic Institute of New York, a Trustee of the New 
York Free Library, and one of the managers of the Hospital 
Saturday and Sunday Association. 

The late Edward Cohen, of Richmond, Va., son of Ben- 
jamin I. Cohen, of Baltimore, founded the City Bank of Rich- 
mond, Va., and was its President at the time of his death on 
January 18, 1888. He served in the Confederate Arm)- and 
settled in Richmond at the close of the war. Though pen- 
niless and unknown to the business community, his cheerful 
industry, unswerving integrity, and remarkable business 
sagacity, together with great modesty, soon secured a place 
for him. Beginning business on a small scale as a stock- 
broker, he soon established the Richmond Savings Bank, and 
finally became President of the City Bank. Mr. Cohen led 
a life of great public usefulness and won for himself a name 
second to none in the city of his adoption. 

Joseph Fox, another bank President and self-made man, 
was born in 1843. ^^ '^^^ ^o"" many years a member of the 
wholesale clothing firm of Fox, Mendel & Co., of New York, 
and towards the close of the year 1887 was elected Presdent 
of the Columbia Bank, in which position he has shown high 
capacity as a financier. In 1881-82 he was President of 
District Lodge No. i, I. O. B. B., and was for four years 
President of the Home for Aged and Infirm at Yonkers. He 
is an active member of most of the eleemosynary and charit- 



I50 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

able institutions of New York, in all of which he has exer- 
cised considerable influence. 

M. Thalmessinger, President of the Mechanics' and 
Traders' Bank, of New York, is one of the best known 
Hebrews of this country, and one who, like many of his co-re- 
ligionists, has advanced from the lowest round of the ladder 
by his own inherent force of character. He is a native of 
Wiirtemberg. At the school of a neighboring town he dis- 
tinguished himself by his scholarship in all the branches, 
and after leaving college was engaged in various business 
establishments in responsible positions. The year 1848 
found him in Paris, and the revolution which convulsed 
Europe at that time induced his departure for the United 
States. He first secured employment with a drug firm in 
Boston, and soon afterward was offered an engagement as chief 
of the financial department of a prominent New York firm. 
He then determined to engage in business on his own 
account. He opened a book and stationery store in a 
small way, and by his energy and perseverance it soon 
assumed large dimensions and became one of the best 
known concerns of the kind among merchants and bankers. 
In January, 1885, he was elected President of the Mechanics' 
and Traders' Bank. In this position Mr. Thalmessinger 
adopted the same methods of industry and energy which 
marked his mercantile career, and as a result the business of 
the bank has nearly quadrupled since his advent. He has 
occupied numerous offices of honor and trust in banks and 
financial institutions, but, with the exception of a school 
trusteeship for five years, has held no public office. As 
Honorary Secretary of the Executive Committee of the 
order B'nai-Berith, Mr. Thalmessinger's services are greatly 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 151 

appreciated throughout the brotherhood, especially his 
labors in extending the sphere of its operations to Germany 
and the Orient. Equally conspicuous have been his services 
as one of the founders of the Maimonides Library and in 
the creation of the fund for building the Home for Aged 
and Infirm at Yonkers. He is also one of the Directors of 
the Hebrew Technical Institute. 

The most striking evidence of Hebrew progress may be 
witnessed on Broadway, New York, which, within the past 
fifteen years, has undergone a complete transformation by the 
transfer of the retail trade to the uptown thoroughfares, and the 
invasion by Hebrew firms. Of the 400 buildings on Broadway, 
from Canal Street to Union Square, the occupants of almost all 
are Hebrews, over 1,000 wholesale firms out of a total of 
1,200 being of that persuasion. Hebrew firms also predom- 
inate in the streets contiguous to Broadway within the terri- 
tory named. 

Most remarkable has been the growth of the clothing 
trade, of which there are 241 manufacturers in the city of 
New York. Of these, 234 are Hebrew firms, some of which 
employ as many as 2,000 hands, while the great majority of 
the 30,000 people engaged in the clothing trade throughout 
the United States are also Hebrews. The New York He- 
brew firms alone transact a business of $55,000,000 annually 
in the manufacture of clothing. Fifteen years back the num- 
ber engaged in this business was insignificant compared with 
the present day ; now as many firms are found on a single 
block in New York as then existed in the entire city. In the 
city of New York the leading manufacturers are: Alfred 
Benjamin & Co., August Brothers, Banner Brothers, Bern- 
heim, Bauer & Co., Bierman, Heidelberg & Co., H. & B. 



152 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Brown, Fechheimer, Goodkind & Co., Hammerslough 
Brothers, Heavenrich, Hirschberg & Co., Hornthal, White- 
head & Co., Jerkowsld & Ernst, Kaufman, Isidor & Co., 
Korn & Holzman,A. Levy & Brother, Levy Brothers & Co., 
L. Lippman & Sons, Mamlock & Green, A. W. Mann & 
Co., Marks, David & Sons, Mendel Brothers & Co., Myres &, 
Wallach, Naumburg, Kraus, Lauer & Co., Peck & Hauch- 
haus, Rindskopf & Barbier, M. Sampter, Sons & Co., Mark 
Samter, N. S. Schloss & Co., Seligman, May & Co., Sins- 
heimer, Levenson & Co., Stark, Isidor & Brothers, Stein. 
Bloch & Co., Stern, Falk & Co., B. Sturman & Son, Swartz 
& Jerkowski, S. Sykes & Co. 

Less than ten years back the manufacture of cloaks in this 
country was upon a very small scale, the entire business in 
New York being confined to less than one dozen firms all 
told. The Hebrews were not slow to recognize the import- 
ance of this industry. They were among the first to perceive 
that it was destined to expand to an extent far beyond its 
proportions at that time, and many plunged into the busi- 
ness, the result being that there are now in New York a large 
number of manufacturers, the great majority of whom are 
Hebrews whose annual production is $15,000,000. 

In the manufacture of shirts the Hebrews have secured a 
monopoly, it being estimated that 25,000 men and women 
are directly and indirectly employed in New York City by 
Hebrew firms alone. The wealthiest concerns in the trade, 
which include several millionaires, were all in moderate cir- 
cumstances when they embarked in the business. 

In the manufacture of undergarments the Hebrews of 
New York control the greater part of the trade. Those 
in the business carry the names of 10,000 employees 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 53 

on their pay-rolls, and their annual transactions are 
$5,000,000. 

It is estimated that the Hebrew capital engaged in the 
importation, manufacture and jobbing of diamonds, watches 
and jewelry in this country, will not fall short of $25,000,000. 
Of the 400 jobbers in New York, the Hebrews constitute 
the bulk. The leading New York firms sharing in the 
annual trade of this department are : L. Adler & Co., A. 
Bernhard & Co., D. & M. Bruhl, Solomon Davidson, 
Henry Dreyfus & Co., Samuel Eichberg, Falkenau, Oppen- 
heimer & Co., Max Freund & Co., Adolph Goldsmith, 
Goodman Brothers, L. Hammel & Co., Louis Herzog & 
Co., L. M. Kahn & Co., Keller & Untermeyer, Krohn, 
Clovis & Co., Levy, Dreyfus & Co., Lissauer & Sondheim, 
Albert Lorsch&Co.,Marx & Weis, Henry May, S. F. Myers 
& Co., Oppenheimer Brothers & Veith, Pforzheimer, Keller 
& Co., Adolphe Schwob, Stern & Stern, Stern, Brothers & 
Co., Louis Strasburger & Co., Sussfeld, Lorsch & Co., 
Traitel Brothers, D. L. Van Moppes, Leopold, Weil & 
Co. 

David Keller, of Pforzheimer, Keller & Co., came to Amer- 
ica a poor lad. He worked for years at the bench as a cigar 
maker, and is to-day a member of the above jewelry firm. 
He is also Grand Treasurer of the Order of Free Sons of 
Israel. 

Seligman Oppenheimer, senior member of the firm of 
Oppenheimer Brothers & Veith, was a school-master in 
Germany. He came to this country some years ago, and by 
industry and shrewdness has amassed a considerable fortune. 

In the wholesale jewelry trade the house of S. F. Myers & 
Co., of New York, stands in the front rank. From the 



154 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

smallest beginning, some fifteen years ago, it is to-day the 
nly firm in the metropolis who manufacture, import and 
export everything appertaining to the jewelry trade, while 
their establishment is the largest in their line, and their 
yearly sales of immense proportions. The firm is composed 
of two brothers and a brother-in-law, American born, whose 
age averages thirty-three years. Much of their remarkable 
success is due to the untiring energy, shrewd business tact 
and great executive ability of the senior member, Samuel 
F. Myers, whose first experience in commercial life was in 
the humble capacity of a New York newsboy, and to whose 
ability is due the foundation and wonderful prosperity of the 
present extensive house. He is at present the youngest 
member of the Executive Committee of two trade organiza- 
tions. 

Louis Strasburger, a Bavarian, who arrived here almost 
penniless, was for many years one of the leading importers 
of Swiss watches in this country in which business he amass- 
ed a fortune. He is now one of the heaviest importers of 
diamonds ; conducts an establishment of his own at Paris, 
and owns a diamond cutting house at Amsterdam. 

H. Muhr & Sons' jewelry manufactory at Philadelphia, is 
one of the most extensive establishments of the kind in the 
United States, and is conducted by Simon, Joseph and 
Jacob Muhr, sons of H. Muhr, who established the busi- 
ness in 1853. They employ 400 workmen. They are also 
extensive importers of diamonds, and are the owners of the 
largest black diamond in the world, which is valued at 
$25,000. 

Over 300,000 cases of leaf tobacco are dealt in in this 
country every twelvemonth. Two-thirds of this amount 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 55 

is controlled by the Hebrew merchants on Pearl and Water 
Streets, New York. 5ome of the most extensive of these 
merchants gained their first knowledge of the leaf as work- 
men in cigar factories, many of the wealthiest having worked 
their way up from this humble beginning. The leading 
New York houses in this line are : S. Auerbach & Co., I. 
Bijur, J. Berliner, Basch & Fischer, E. Bach & Son, S. Bar- 
nett, J. J. Bunzl & Son, A. Cohn & Co., Cullmans & Rosen- 
baum, Cohn & Leopold, W. Dessauer, Davidson Brothers, 
G. Falk & Brother, E. & G. Friend & Co., Henry Friend- 
man, Friedman, Leonard & Co., L. Goldschmidt & Co., L. 
Gershel & Bro., Gans Brothers & Rosenthal, L Hamburger 
& Co., E. Hoffman & Son, Hirsch, Victorius & Co., H. Koe- 
nig & Co., Joseph Lederman, D. Levy & Son, Lichtenstein 
Brothers, M. Lindheim, N. Lachenbruch & Brother, Land- 
man & Bernheimer, M. Levy & Brother, Joseph Mayer's 
Sons, Meyer & Mendelsohn, L. Newgass, Pretzfeld & Co., 
S. Rossin & Son, G. Reismann, E. Rosenwald & Brother, 
A. S. Rosenbaum & Co., Julius Shack, J. Seligsberg, Gustav 
Salomon & Brothers, L. Sylvester, Son & Co., C. Spingarn 
& Co., L. Spear &~Co., M. & E.Salomon, Theo. Wolf, Jr., L. 
& E. Wertheimer and Weil & Co. 

Equally surprising has been the growth of the cigar trade, 
in which the Hebrews have risen higher and higher, until 
almost the entire business has passed under their control. 
Some idea of their operations may be had when it is 
stated that their production, in the city of New York alone, 
reaches the enormous figure of 600,000,000 cigars per annum. 
The manufacture of this immense stock involves the em- 
ployment of 8,000 hands. With few exceptions the mam- 
moth manufactories in this line scattered throughout the 



IS6 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

city of New York, are owned by Hebrew firms whose annual 
transactions foot up $15,000,000. The National Cigar Man- 
ufacturer's Association, of which Morris S. Wise is counsel, is 
composed of sixty-five of the leading manufacturers in this 
country, of whieh forty-five are Hebrew firms. In the city 
of New York the bulk of the cigar trade is controlled by : 
Louis Ash & Co., Bondy, Lederer & Co., D. J. Boehm & 
Co., Julius Ellinger St Co., Foster, Hilson & Co., Louis 
Fromer, Frey, Brothers & Co., David Hirsch, Hyman 
Brothers & Lowenstein, Hahn, Brussel & Co., Frederick 
Hofmann, S. Jacoby & Co., Samuel Josephs & Co., Jacoby 
& Bookman, Kaufman Brothers & Bondy, Kaufman Brothers 
& Co., L. Kahner & Co., Kerles & Spies, Lichtenstein Brothers 
& Co., Levy Brothers, A. Lichtenstein, Son & Co., Lewyn 
& Martin, Landauer & Kaim, M. W. Mendel & Brother, 
Morris & Batt, Emil Ney & Co., S. Ottenberg & Brothers, 
P. Pohalski, Prowler, Lehman & Co., Rosenthal Brothers, 
Sutro & Newmark, M. Silberth'au & Co., M. Stachelberg & 
Co., Seidenberg & Stiefel, Schlosser & Co., Wertheim & 
Schiffer. Elsewhere the largest concerns are : Baron & Co., of 
Baltimore ; Rothbruner & Feist, Cincinnati ; Krohn & Feiss, 
Cincinnati ; Gumpert Brothers, Philadelphia ; Mange, Weiner 
& Co., Philadelphia ; Louis Graf & Co., Milwaukee ; and 
S. Hernsheim, Brothers & Co., New Orleans, the latter em- 
ploying one thousand hands. 

In the cities of New York and Brooklyn the're are 4,000 
retail and 300 wholesale butchers, one-half of whom are 
Hebrews, including several millionaires and many whose 
wealth is represented by six figures. They employ in this 
business an army of 6,000 men, and their annual trade is 
$25,000,000. The abattoir of Schwarzschild & Sulzberger, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 57 

occupies an entire block and they employ 500 men. Joseph 
Stern's establishment covers half a block. 

The manufacture of hats and caps, the importation and 
manufacture of hides and leather, furs, laces and embroideries, 
artificial flowers and feathers, is largely controlled by the 
Hebrews, while the wine and liquor trade is one of the most 
extensive in which they are engaged. It is estimated that 
the Hebrew capital represented on the New York Cotton 
Exchange is not far from $6,000,000. 

According to carefully prepared estimates of the Hebrew 
wholesale trade in the city of New York, the annual trans- 
actions in the leading lines are as follows : 

Manufacturers of clothing $55,000,000 

Jobbers of jewelry 30,000,000 

Wholesale butchers 25,000,000 

Wines, spirits and beer 25,000,000 

Jobbers of leaf tobacco 15 ,000,000 

Manufacturers of cigars 15,000,000 

Manufacturers of cloaks 15,000,000 

Importers of diamonds 12,000,000 

Leather and hides 1 2,000,000 

Manufacturers of overshirts 10,000,000 

Importers of watches 6,000,000 

Artificial flowers and feathers 6,000,000 

Importers and jobbers of furs 5,000,000 

Manufacturers of undergarments 5,000,000 

Lace and embroidery importers 4,000,000 

Manufacturers of white shirts ". 3,000,000 

Manufacturers of hats 3,000,000 

Manufacturers of caps 2,000,000 

$248,000,000 

The holdings of real estate by the Hebrews of New York, 
is estimated at $150,000,000. Five-eighths of the transfers in 



158 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

real estate, in the city of New York, are for their account. 
The following are the most prominent holders of real estate 
in the city: Estate of Max Weil, Siegmund T. Meyer, J. 
B. Smith, Max Danziger, Simon Sternberger, Jacob Roth- 
schild, Jacob Scholle, Sylvester Brush, estate of Edward 
King, Lewis Seasongood, Schwarzschild & Sulzberger, Stern 
Brothers, Ottinger Brothers, Solomon Loeb, Benjamin Lich- 
tenstein, Adolph Kerbs, Edward Oppenheimer, Henry Brash, 
A. S. Rosenbaum, Frederick Haberman, Newman Cowen, J. 
Jacob's estate, Isaac Neustadter, J. Reckendorfer's estate, 
Simon Herman, Isaac Meyer, Isaac Wormser, Simon Worm- 
ser, Adolph Bernheimer, Isaac Bernheimer, Simon Bern- 
heimer, S. M. and B. Cohen, Morris Liftman, Henry Schubart's 
estate, Lieberman Brothers and Jacob H. Schiff. 

In the city of New York most of the mammoth retail 
dry goods and fancy goods establishments are owned by 
Hebrews. That of Benjamin Altman on the west-side, is 
one of the most extensive. Mr. Altman began business 
about twenty-one years ago, with his brother Morris, who 
died in 1876; his business has steadily increased and now 
requires the services of about 1,600 persons. Mr. Altman is 
not only one of the most enterprising and liberal citizens of 
New York City, but he has devoted much of his time and 
money to the encouragement of the fine arts, and is a liberal 
patron of our American productions. His collection of 
paintings is valued at $200,000. Most of these are the work 
of American artists. His collection of antique and rare 
Chinese porcelains is also one of the finest in this country, 
being valued at $80,000. 

On the east side, the firm of Bloomingdale Brothers, con- 
duct one of the most extensive establishments in this coun- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 59 

try. The firm is composed of Lyman G. Bloomingdale and 
Joseph B. Bloomingdale, sons of Benjamin Bloomingdale, 
who emigrated from Bavaria in 1837. Both gentlemen are 
natives of New York, the former having been born in 1841, 
and the latter in 1842. In 1872 they opened a small dry 
goods establishment with a stock of $6,000 and two sales- 
women to assist them. Having had some experience in the 
business as clerks for their father and others, they were not 
slow to profit thereby. They determined at the outset to 
give good values and polite service. Their progress was 
steady, and they have succeeded in building up one of the 
greatest bazaars on the continent. The stock of $6,000 was 
steadily increased, and at the present time they carry a 
line of nearly $1,000,000, while their annual transactions 
foot up to $3,000,000. Their force of employees numbers 
1,000. The Bloomingdale establishment is a representative 
Hebrew house, their employees being largely of that persua- 
sion, while due observance of the principal Hebrew festivals 
has been adhered to ever since the house was founded. 
Lyman G. Bloomingdale is a Director of the Young Men's 
Hebrew Association and of the Montefiore Home, and 
Vice-President of the Mutual Relief Association. Joseph 
B. Bloomingdale is Director of the Hebrew Technical 
Institute. 

Messrs. Samuel W. and Julius S. Ehrich constitute the 
firm of Ehrich Brothers, proprietors of the great Eighth 
Avenue dry and fancy goods bazaar. The business was 
founded in 1856 by Samuel E. Ehrich, their father, who died 
in 1858. The firm ranks as one of the most progressive in 
the metropolis. The Messrs. Ehrich were the first New 
York merchants to inaugurate a line of free stages between 



l6o THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

their establishment and various ferries and other prominent 
points in the city with a view of attracting custom. 

The growth of the house of Stern Brothers, in West 
Twenty-third Street, has been phenomenal. Messrs. Isaac 
and Louis Stern, who compose the firm, were in early life 
engaged in the jewelry business at Albany, N. Y. On 
reaching New York City, just after the close of the Civil 
War, they secured situations as clerks in a Bowery fancy 
goods house, and in 1867 established themselves in a similar 
business on Sixth Avenue, starting with a small stock in a 
store with one window. Several hundred persons are now 
given employment in their establishment. 

The most extensive pottery and glassware establishment 
in this country, and probably in the world, is that of L. 
Straus & Sons, of New York. Lazarus Straus, founder of 
the firm, came to New York from Georgia at the close of 
the Civil War with a view of temporarily gaining a respite 
from the four years' turmoil he had witnessed in the South. 
He opened a small wholesale crockery establishment in 
Chambers Street, and, meeting with unexpected success, 
removed three ye^rs later to No. 44 Warren Street, gradu- 
ally taking in the adjoining premises until four buildings 
passed under his control. The firm is now composed of 
L. Straus, his sons Isidor, Nathan and Oscar S. (the 
latter now United States Minister to Turkey) and L. 
Kohns. They carry a stock of several million dollars, and 
have factories and offices at London, Paris, Limoges, Carls- 
bad, Rudolfstadt, Stein-Schonau and other cities. The 
number of employees in all parts of the globe engaged in 
the manufacture, purchase and distribution of their wares is 
upwards of seven hundred. Few examples of such remark- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. lOI 

able growth are found in any country. On January i, 1888, 
Messrs. Isidor and Nathan Straus associated themselves with 
the firm of R. H. Macy & Co., the largest retail dry goods 
and fancy goods bazaar in America, whose establishment 
. occupies a block and gives employment to 2,000 men and 
women. This alliance, however, in no wise changed their 
relationship with the house of L. Straus & Sons, in which 
they still retain their interest. 

The Kursheedt Manufacturing Company, of New York, 
the largest establishment in this country engaged in the 
manufacture of laces, embroideries, ruchings, braids, etc., 
and employing about 800 hands, was founded by Asher 
Kursheedt, whose sons conduct the business. Mr. Kursheedt 
is a son of the late Israel B. Kursheedt. He, Asher Kur- 
sheedt, was the originator of the Board of Delegates of 
American Israelites, having suggested the formation of the 
Board at a meeting of prominent Hebrews, held at his 
residence to take action in the Mortara abduction case. 

Since 1878, Messrs. Joseph Stettheimer and David Bett- 
man, both of New York, have been among the most promi- 
nent and enterprising producers of oil in the Pennsylvania 
fields. Their first venture was a well which produced forty 
barrels of oil per day. After this they leased and bought 
lands extensively in various localities, and at the present 
time, are the owners of over 180 wells in the Bradford region 
alone. In 1885, they interested themselves in the Washing- 
ton, Penn., fields. Their first operations in that section were 
unsuccessful. Instead of striking oil they struck a roaring 
gas well, which they sold. This well is now heating and 
lighting the city o'f Washington, Penn. In drilling for oil in 
one of their fields, they struck "a well which produced 250 



l62 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

barrels per day, and a few weeks later they struck one of the 
largest wells ever known, its daily production being almost 
3,000 barrels. This " gusher," which is still flowing, has pro- 
duced over 1 50,000 barrels of oil. The present production 
of Messrs. Stettheimer and Bettman's various wells is about 
20,000 barrels of oil a month. . 

Frederick Haberman is a member of the Central Stamping 
Company, of New York, a combination of five of the leading 
firms in the United States, engaged in the manufacture of tin 
and house-furnishing goods, and employing 2,000 men. Mr. 
Haberman was born in Bavaria in 1840. He came to this 
country in 1854, and for some time worked on the tow-path 
of the Morris Canal in New Jersey. After acquiring a 
knowledge of the tin-ware trade, in a New York establish- 
ment, he opened a small store of his own. By frugality, in- 
tegrity and activity, he made steady progress, and his former 
employers are now his business associates. 

Prominent among the great trunk manufacturing firms of 
this country is that of Edward Simon & Co., of Newark, 
N. J., founded by Edward Simon in 1863. William and 
Samuel Simon and Morris Schwerin became members of 
the firm later on. In the manufacture of their goods 1,500,- 
000 feet of lumber are required annually, fifty hides of 
leather are used daily, and 800 workmen are given em- 
ployment. 

Lagowitz & Co., another Newark firm, have been promi- 
nent in the trunk and bag trade for over forty years. They 
give employment to 400 persons, and turn out each week 
2,000 trunks and 2,000 bags. The members of the firm are 
Jacob Lagowitz and Arnold Tanzer. 

In the leather trade of the United States, R. G. Salomon, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 63 

of Newark, has within a brief period grown to be a recognized 
power. He was born at Lunenburg, near Hamburg, Ger- 
many, and having mastered the trade of a tanner, came to 
the United States in 1866. His beginning was a humble 
one and his success has been attained by remarkable prompt- 
ness in opening new fields of industry as soon as they ap- 
peared inviting and likely to lead good results. Thus, some 
years since, he began the manufacture of Cordovan leather, 
the name by which leather made from hides of horses is now 
known. Like almost every new product, it met with oppo- 
sition, but through Mr. Salomon the superiority of the stock 
soon became acknowledged and it is now a staple. He also 
turned his attention to the tanning of alligator skins, which 
fifteen years ago were a curiosity and used only for boots. 
Perceiving the qualities possessed by leather made from 
the skin of the kangaroo, he began its tannage, and the shoe 
trade was not slow to recognize its merits. He now tans 
350,000 kangaroo skins and 100,000 alligator skins annually. 
Mr. Salomon was also the first to introduce the manufacture 
of porpoise leather in this country. His factory is one of 
the largest of its kind in America, employing 400 workmen. 
The retail fancy goods establishment of L. S. Plaut & Co., 
in Newark, known as the " Bee Hive," has grown from a 
very small store with two clerks to be the largest business of 
the kind in the State of New Jersey. The managing part- 
ners are Louis and Moses Plaut, E. Plaut and Oscar 
Michaels. They employ 200 clerks. Leopold S. Plaut, who 
died in 1885, was the founder of the firm. He was born in 
1849, ^^'^ ^^^ employed as a boy in the dry goods store of 
Gerson Fox, of Hartford, Conn. In 1871 he formed a part- 
nership in Newark with Leopold Fox, son of his former 



164 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

employer, which continued up to 1882, when Mr. Fox re- 
tired. Meanwhile, the business had amazingly increased. 
Mr. Plaut was an incessant worker, not a single detail of the 
business escaping his attention. His generosity and liber- 
ality during his lifetime kept pace with his accumulation of 
wealth, and numerous charitable institutions, both Hebrew 
and Christian, were liberally provided for in his will. 

Hon. Nathan Barnert, ex-Mayor of Paterson, N. J., has 
been prominently identified with the silk business and the 
manufacture of paper screens. He is a native of Prussia, 
and is now in his forty-seventh year. He located in Pater- 
son in 1858 in the tailoring business. During the Civil War 
he manufactured clothing for the Army and continued in 
the business until 1878, when he retired from mercantile life 
and gave his attention to real estate. He is the owner of 
valuable property in New York City and Long Branch. 
The Barnert Mill, at Paterson, with its massive Corliss engine, . 
is one of the finest structures in the United States. In 1883 
Mr. Barnert was elected Mayor of the city, and his benevo- 
lence and liberality were illustrated by the distribution of 
his official salary among the various city charities. Mr. 
Barnert is a man of rare tact and foresight and 'is justly 
regarded as one of Paterson's foremost citizens. 

The development of the organ and piano trade and manu- 
facture throughout the United States is due in no small 
measure to Bernard Shoninger, of New Haven, Conn., who 
is President and proprietor of the B. Shoninger Organ and 
Piano Company. Mr. Shoninger came from Bavaria in 1841 
when fourteen years of age, with a capital of $14.50. In 
1850 he founded the B. Shoninger Organ Company. The 
story of his rise to fame and fortune is the old story of 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 165 

industry and enterprise combined with manly and honorable 
traits. It is unnecessary to follow his career step by step 
from his first entrance into the vortex of business life up to 
the present time. Suffice it to say that his establishment 
to-day is one of the largest in New England, covering an 
area of 300 by 130 feet on Chestnut Street, and 95 by 130 on 
Chapel Street. It is six stories high and gives employment 
to 4C)0 people. Mr. Shoninger has kept fully abreast of the 
times, as is attested by thirty patents owned by him cover- 
ing improvements in the construction, compass and action 
of the instruments made by his firm, which now ranks 
among the leading musical manufactories of the world. Not 
only as a successful business man is Mr. Shoninger known 
in New Haven ; he has contributed liberally to the pros- 
perity of the city on numerous occasions. He commands 
the respect of his fellow-citizens of all classes by reason of 
his honorable and upright career during a residence of thirty- 
eight years in their midst, and his commercial and social 
station is surpassed by none in the community. 

The largest establishment in the world devoted to the 
manufacture of corsets and corset-clasps is that of Mayer, 
Strouse & Co., of New Haven, Conn. It was founded in 
1 86 1 by Isaac Strouse. Abraham Strouse, Max Adler and 
S. I. Mayer now constitute the firm. They employ a force of 
1,500 men and women. The capacity of the establishment 
is 800 dozen corsets a day, and the annual transactions exceed 
$1,000,000 per annum. They occupy an entire block in the 
heart of the city, the building thereon having cost $150,000. 

Hirsch & Brother, of Philadelphia, are proprietors of the 
largest umbrella manufactory in this country. The busi- 
ness was founded in i860 by Mason Hirsch. Their em- 



l66 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

ployees number 500, and their factory occupies six floors, 
the area of each being 180 by 75 feet. Mason, Henry, A. 
C, Harry and William Hirsch and Otto J. Lang, constitute 
the firm. 

Nelson Morris, of Chicago, who is engaged in the cattle 
trade and packing interests, arrived in this city a poor lad. 
By application, integrity and good management, he has come 
to be regarded as one of the wealthiest and most enterpris- 
ing men in the West. He is a director of the First National 
and Union Stock Yard National Banks, is proprietor of the 
Fairbanks Beef Canning Company, and supplies fresh beef to 
the leading cities of the United States and the continent of 
Europe. 

Henry Greenebaum was for nearly a quarter of a century, 
a prominent banker in Chicago. Since 1882, he has been a 
representative of a New York life insurance company. He 
was born on June 18, 1833, at Eppelsheim, in Hesse-Darm- 
stadt, was graduated at the public school when eleven years 
old, and after further studies emigrated to Chicago in his 
sixteenth year. His intellectual ability, industrious. habits, 
and unselfish character, made him immensely popular, both 
at home and abroad, and he has numbered amongst his 
warmest friends, such men as Stephen A. Douglas, Abraham 
Lincoln, General Grant, John A. Logan and James A. Gar- 
field. Mr. Greenebaum led the Republican State Ticket of 
1872, as Presidential Elector-at-Large, and had previously 
declined a nomination for Lieutenant-Governor of Illinois, 
as well as Mayor of Chicago. He has contributed much to 
the development of Chicago, in every direction. 

The firm of Selz, Schwab & Co., of Chicago, are managers 
of the boot and shoe manufactory at Joliet, 111. Charles 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 167 

Schwab, of this firm, has served as Comptroller of the city of 
Chicago, in which office he displayed great executive capa- 
city. He is a native of Mulhouse, in Alsace. 

The firm of Hart Brothers, control the largest gentlemen's 
furnishing manufactory in Chicago. Abraham Hart, of this 
firm, is known as " the Montefiore of Chicago," and is Presi- 
dent of the Cleveland Orphan Asylum. 

In the State of Georgia, Hebrew firms control the bulk of 
the trade in the leading cities, and constitute the most useful 
and respected element in the community. At Savannah 
we find the shipping and commission house of A. Minis & 
Son, one of the largest concerns in the city, the members 
of which are descendants of the first settlers, under Ogle- 
thorpe's administration, 150 years ago. The members of 
the firm of Meinhard Brothers & Co., who embarked in 
business in 1865, have by industry and integrity established 
a wholesale business in boots, shoes and clothing, amounting 
to more than $1,000,000 annually. Henry Meinhard, Isaac 
Meinhard, Samuel Meinhard and E. A. Weil, constitute the 
firm. Mr. Weil has been President of the City Council 
and is now a director in the Southern Bank of the State of 
Georgia. The firm of H. Myers & Brothers is the largest 
in that section engaged in the manufacture of cigars and 
tobacco, and are the owners of factories in Virginia and 
Florida. Herman Myers, the head of the firm, is also Presi- 
dent of the Savannah National Bank. Leroy Myers, another 
prominent tobacco merchant, transacts an annual business 
estimated at half a million dollars. He is also a director of 
the Southern Bank of the State of Georgia. A like amount 
of goods is disposed of each year by A. R. Altmayer & Co., 
who conduct one of the largest retail fancy and dry goods es- 



1 68 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

tablishments in the South. Eckman & Wezburg and Gug- 
genheimer & Son, are the leading wholesale grocers in 
Savannah. Lippman Brothers control the wholesale trade, 
and Solomons & Co., the retail drug trade. The wholesale 
dry goods and notion house of S. Waxelbaum, at Macon, is 
one of the largest in the Southern States. 

The city of Baltimore boasts of numerous Hebrew capital- 
ists and merchants, of whom it may be said that no class are 
more respected or more distinguished for their liberality. 
Among these are : Stein Brothers & Frank, Rosenberg & Co., 
bankers ; Henry Sonneborn & Co., Ambach, Burgunder & 
Co., Strouse Brothers, H. & E. Hartman & Co., I. & H. 
Mann, and Hamburger Brothers, wholesale clothiers ; Frank 
& Adler, Cohen, Adler & Co., and Pretzfelder & Kline, 
wholesale dealers in boots and shoes ; Robert Austrian & 
Co. and Mandelbaum Sz; Frank, hats and caps ; Joel Gutman 
& Co. and Hutzler Brothers, dry goods; Albert Gottschalk 
and Albert Ulman, distillers. 

The firm of Tim, Wallerstein & Co., of Troy, N. Y., manu- 
facture a larger number of shirts, collars and cuffs, than any 
other house in the business. They occupy six buildings. 
The concern is composed of Solomon Tim, Louis Tim, E. 
Wallerstein, Max Herman, J. O'Sullivan and M. Ober. 

The Hebrew merchants of San Francisco are among the 
wealthiest and most public-spirited in the United States. A 
large proportion of trade on the Pacific Coast is controlled by 
Martin Sachs & Co., fancy goods ; Sachs Brothers & Co., 
dry goods ; Levi Strauss & Co., dry goods ; Louis Sloss and 
Louis Gerstle, of the Alaska Commercial Company; M. 
Heller Sz: Sons, dry goods; L. Dinkelspiel & Co., dry goods; 
Esberg, Bachman & Co., tobacco ; L. & E. Wertheimer & 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 69 

Co., tobacco; M. Ehrman & Co., groceries; Haas Brothers 
& Co., groceries ; S. Lachman & Co., wines ; B. Dreyfus & 
Co., wines ; W. & I. Steinhart & Co., clothing ; Louis Sloss 
& Co., hides, wools and furs ; Neustadter Brother, men's 
furnishing goods ; Livingston & Co., segars ; Lewis & Co., 
jewelers ; Ignatz Steinhart is manager and Philip Lilienthal 
cashier of the Anglo-California Bank. 

The Hebrew community at Galveston, Texas, is one of the 
most respected and influential to be found in any city in the 
Union. Foremost in the business world are Messrs. Leon 
and Hyman Blum, H. Kempner, M. Lasker, Sampson Hei- 
denheimer and Albert Weiss. The two former constitute 
the firm of Leon & H. Blum, importers and wholesale deal- 
ers in dry goods, who carry a stock valued at $1,000,000, 
transact an annual business of $5,000,000, and employ a staff 
of 125 persons. The house, which has been established over 
thirty-five years, is second to none in the State in enterprise 
and liberality. The Leon & H. Blum Land Company, of 
which they are the head, is the largest land and live stock 
company in Texas, the lands controlled by them in almost 
every county in Texas being valued at $1,000,000. H. 
Kempner, one of the oldest citizens and most prominent 
merchants and real estate operators in Texas, is President 
of the Island City Savings Bank, one of the soundest finan- 
cial institutions in the State. M. Lasker, a brother of the 
late distinguished German statesman, is President of the M. 
Lasker Real Estate Company. His investments in lands, 
cattle and other interests have made him one of the noted 
men in Texas. He is also a director in numerous banks in 
the State, including the First National at Galveston. Samp- 
son Heidenheimer, of the wholesale grocery house of 



IJO THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Heidenheimer & Co., one of the largest establishments of 
its kind in the State, is' prominent in every public movement 
and prominently identified with all railway and financial 
enterprises. The progress and development of the State 
has always enlisted his encouragement and active support. 
Albert Weiss, another wholesale dry goods merchant, enjoys 
the respect of all classes of citizens. He is director in 
many banking and commercial institutions, and also occu- 
pies the honorable ofifice of President of the Union Club, 
the leading social organization in Galveston, and numbering 
among its members the best classes of Hebrew and Chris- 
tians. 

Among the prominent citizens of Cincinnati is Louis 
Krohn. He was, a few years since, President of the Cincin- 
nati Board of Trade, and has also been a director of the 
Union National Bank and Vice-President of the Metropolitan 
Bank. Bernhard Bettman, a leading Cincinnati merchant, has 
shown much interest in educational affairs and is one of the 
most prominent members of the School Board. He is one 
of the Governors and main promoters of the Union Hebrew 
College of Cincinnati and holds high rank in the Masonic 
fraternity. M. J. Mack, of Cincinnati, is the representative 
of one of the largest life insurance companies in the West. 
He comes from Alten-Kinstadt, Bavaria, and was born in 
183 1. He also stands high in the Masonic fraternity. 

One of the great mercantile firms of the South is that of 
B. Lowenstein & Brothers, of Memphis, wholesale and retail 
dry goods merchants. Benedict, Bernard and Elias Lowen- 
stein founded the firm in 1862. The business is now con- 
ducted by Bernard, Elias and Abraham Lowenstein and 
I. D. Marks. When the Lowensteins reached this country 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I/I 

in the Fifties they were without money or friends. Securing 
a small stock of wares with a few dollars saved from their 
weekly wages as clerks in a Memphis store, they purchased 
a " ticking bag " which they filled with goods, and trudging 
through Shelby County as peddlers accumulated sufificient 
means to open a little store in Paris, Tenn. They then 
removed to Memphis. Their career since that time is " one 
of the most remarkable commercial episodes connected 
with a single generation of Memphis history." They now 
employ 350 clerks, their annual transactions are $4,000,- 
000 and they have just erected a magnificent seven story 
building, at a cash outlay of $^50,000. Elias Lowenstein 
was for many years President of the synagogue, has taken 
an active part in municipal affairs, and though repeatedly 
urged to do so has invariably declined to accept a public 
office. 

The immense dry goods firm of Menken & Company, of 
Memphis, Tenn., which is comprised of J. S. and J. A. Menken, 
William Horgan and J. S. Andrews, has been for years one 
of the largest establishments of its kind in the Southwest, 
occupying five lots on the principal streets of the city and 
conducting an extensive trade in that section. An incident 
connected with this firm is well worth recording, and occur- 
red at Cincinnati where they were engaged in business dur- 
ing the Civil War. They were engaged in a large business 
on the Southern border States, and the war forced them into 
bankruptcy. Subsequently they compromised their de^bts 
at fifty cents on the dollar, but later on when fortune 
favored them they paid the additional fifty per cent, in full 
with interest. This unusual act of mercantile honor made 
such an impression on their creditors that the brothers were 



172 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

tendered a banquet at Delmonico's in New York City, on 
which occasion each was presented with a solid silver service. 
The late Nathan D. Menken, of the present firm of Men- 
ken & Co., was, during his residence in Memphis for fifteen 
years, a most public-spirited, charitable and enterprising 
citizen, and died a martyr in the cause of humanity amid the 
horrors of a raging pestilence. The son of Solomon Men- 
ken, one of the early Cincinnati settlers, he spent some years 
at St. Xavier's College in that city, whence he entered the 
law office of Stanley Matthews, now a Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court. He soon tired of law, and in i860 
joined his brothers, Jules A. and Jacob S., merchants of Cin- 
cinnati. Inspired by patriotic ardor, he organized a body of 
cavalry in the early days of the Civil War, and was chosen 
Captain, and was engaged in over thirty battles and skirmishes 
in West Virginia. At the second battle of Bull Run his 
horse was shot under him. As commander of General 
Pope's body-guard, he won the esteem and admiration of all 
for his bravery, courtesy and firmness. At the solicitation of 
his brothers he resigned his commission and joined them in 
business at Memphis. In 1869 he travelled abroad, and at 
Paris married Sallie A., daughter of Joseph J. Andrews, a 
wealthy pioneer citizen of Memphis. At home he was 
ever ready to lend his influence, his labor and his 
money to deserving objects. In State and National politics 
he was mainly interested and did herculean work in bringing 
about an honest administration in municipal affairs. His 
devotion to principle, his gentle heart and his love of justice 
were conspicuous traits. Born and reared a Hebrew, and 
practicing that faith, his religion was of that broad and deep 
character which includes all mankind within its folds. At 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 73 

the first alarm, when the yellow fever scourge of 1878 visited 
Memphis, when nearly all who had the means — men, women 
and children — rushed in dismay from the panic-stricken city, 
Nathan D. Menken remained and joined the little band of 
the Howard Society, formed for the relief of the poor, the 
sick and the dying. By day and by night he walked from 
house to house, paying no heed to letters and telegrams bid- 
ding him leave the hot-bed of pestilence, until he, too, fell a 
victim at the age of forty-two. No citizen of Memphis was 
esteemed more highly than Nathan D. Menken, and his 
memory is dearly cherished by all who appreciate moral 
worth and true manhood. 



174 



IN PUBLIC OFFICE. 



IN National, State and Municipal affairs, the Hebrews of 
America have taken a leading part. They have been 
represented in the United States Senate, in the House of 
Representatives, in the Consular Service, and have held high 
official positions in leading States and cities. A place in a 
President's Cabinet was tendered to a Hebrew, President 
Grant having offered the Secretaryship of the Treasury to 
the late Joseph Seligman. The offer was declined by Mr. 
Seligman for personal reasons. 

In the consular service of the government Hebrews have 
been conspicuous for many years. During the first decade 
our Consul-General to Portugal was Solomon B. Nones, a 
son of Major Nones and brother of Joseph B. Nones. 
While proceeding to his post he was captured by corsairs on 
the Mediterranean. All of his shipmates were killed and he 
alone was spared by giving a Masonic sign. Abraham B. 
Nones was United States Consul-General to Maracaibo in 
1837, and died during his term of office. Samson M. Isaacs, 
the "patriarch" of the New York Custom House, was for 
upwards of forty years connected with that institution in an 
official capacity. He was born at Norwalk, Conn., in 1776, 
and resided for a while at Newport, whence he came to New 
York. He witnessed the inauguration of Washington, and 
served as Private Secretary to General Knox. 

Mordecai M. Noah was appointed by President Madison as 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 75 

Consui-General at Tunis. He next occupied the office of 
Surveyor of the Port, and then that of Sheriff of New York. 
On his accession to the latter office he was taunted with the 
remark : " Pity Christians have to be hung by a Jew ! " to 
which he promptly replied : " Pity Christians require hanging 
at all!" Mr. Noah was subsequently elected Judge of the 
Court of Sessions. He was a man of high literary attainments 
and the author of numerous plays, including " Fortress of 
Sorrento," " Paul and Alexis," " The Siege of Tripoli," and 
" The Grecian Captive." He edited the " National Advo- 
cate," " Enquirer," " Evening Star," " Commercial Adver- 
tiser," " Times" and " Messenger." He died in New 
York in 185 1. 

Henry M. Phillips was for many years one of the most 
prominent citizens of Philadelphia, and was honored with nu- 
merous public offices. He was a son of Zeligman Phillips, 
the noted criminal lawyer, and was born at Philadelphia in 
181 1. Having been educated in private schools he read law 
and was admitted to the bar in 1832. For some years 
he followed criminal law with marked success, and after- 
wards gave his attention to civil law in which he amassed 
a fortune, finally ranking as one of the best constitu- 
tional lawyers in the country. In 1856 he was elected 
to the Thirty-fifth Congress, and during his term fig- 
ured conspicuously in the debates, especially during the 
discussion on the admission of Kansas as a State of the 
Union. On the expiration of his term he declined to accept 
any other political office, though frequently urged to be- 
come the Democratic candidate for' Mayor of Philadelphia. 
He was prevailed upon, however, to accept numerous high 
positions in educational, charitable and financial institu- 



1/6 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

tions, and was a Commissioner of the Board of City 
Trusts, having control of the Stephen Girard Estate 
and was made President of the Board. He was also chosen 
President of the Board of Directors of the Academy of 
Music; President of the Fairmount Parle Commission; 
Director of the Pennsylvania Company of Insurance and 
Annuities ; Director of the Pennsylvania and other railroad 
companies, of the Jefferson Medical College, Western Union 
Telegraph Company and other corporations. He also served 
as Grand Master of Free Masons of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania. Mr. Phillips was for some years interested in the 
affairs of the Congregation Mickve-Israel, and was a member 
of the Board of Managers. He died April 28, 1884. 

In 1845 Lewis C. Levin was elected Representative in 
Congress from the First District in Philadelphia. Born in 
Charleston, S. C, November 10, 1808, he was educated 
there and at the Columbia (S. C.) College. In early man- 
hood he located at Woodville, Miss., and taught school for 
several years. While residing in Mississippi, he fought a 
duel with Alfred Bynum, Jefferson Davis acting as Mr. 
Levin's second. Rifles were the weapons used, and Mr. 
Levin was seriously wounded. He then adopted the pro- 
fession of the law, which he practiced in several States. In 
1838 he removed to Philadelphia where he attracted much 
attention as an impassioned speaker in the cause of temper- 
ance. He published and edited a temperance paper entitled 
"The Temperance Advocate," and established a daily paper, 
known as "The Sun," its editorial columns being devoted to 
the principles of Native Americanism. On May 6, 1844, 
Mr. Levin was addressing a large audience in Kensington, 
when the meeting was fired upon and several American citi- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 77 

zens killed. This act caused great excitement throughout 
the city and was followed by riot and bloodshed. Mr. Levin 
used persistent efforts to check the fury of his friends and 
partizans, and on several occasions exposed his life by bold 
and fearless denunciation. He was indicted for treason to 
the Commonwealth and was acquitted. The following year 
his popularity secured him a seat in Congress and he was 
twice re-elected, occupying the office six years in all. He 
served his constituents with great credit, and while holding 
the Chairmanship of the Committee on Naval Affairs, was 
instrumental in the building of the Dry Dock at Philadel- 
phia. He died March 15, i860. He was a man of genius 
and remarkable eloquence, and was likewise distinguished 
for his kind-heartedness and benevolence. 

Henry Michael Hyams was elected Lieutenant-Governer 
of Louisiana in 1859. He came from Charleston, where he 
was born in 1809, in company with Judah P. Benjamin. In 
New Orleans he found employment as a bookkeeper, and in 
1832 removed to Donaldsonville, La., where he acted as 
Cashier of the Canal Bank. After studying law "and being 
admitted to practice he married and removed to Alexandria, 
La., where he engaged in practice as a member of the law 
firm of Dunbar & Hyams. Having returned to New Orleans, 
he was elected to the State Senate and, after the expiration 
of his term of ofifice, was elected Lieutenant-Governor of the 
State. From 1858 up to his death in 1875, Governor Hyams 
was associated in the practice of law with Hon. B. F. Jones. 

Judah P. Benjamin attained eminence as a member of the 
United States Senate, as cabinet officer of the Confederate 
Government and as a member of the bar. He was born at 
St. Croix in 1811, and reached Charleston, S. C, about 1816. 



178 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

His parents being in straitened circumstances, opened a 
small reta-il store in King Street, that city. Not prospering, 
they removed to Beaufort, S. C, but meeting with no better 
success there, they returned to Charleston. Judah devel- 
oped such remarkable talent as a youth as to attract the 
attention of Moses E. Lopez, a member of the Hebrew 
Orphan Society, who, from his own means, bestowed a 
classical education upon his protege. Fayetteville and 
Wilmington, North Carolina, also claim the honor of his 
residence early in the century. From Charleston young Ben- 
jamin was sent to the Columbia (S. C.) College. He finally 
settled in New Orleans, where his classical scholarship and 
eloquence soon secured for him a host of friends and a large 
clientage at the bar. In 1834 he wrote " A Digest of Re- 
ported Decisions of the Supreme Court of Louisiana." Six 
years afterward he became a member of the law firm of 
Slidell, Benjamin & Conrad. In 1845 he was a member of 
the State Constitutional Convention ; in 1847 a United 
States Commissioner; in 1848, a Presidential Elector for 
Louisiana, and in 1852 he was elected to the United States 
Senate, and re-elected in 1859, resigning his seat on the 
secession of his State. At the bar of the United States 
Supreme Court no man stood higher, even his opponents 
conceding his profound knowledge of the law and elo- 
quence. The Provisional Government of the Southern 
Confederacy found Mr. Benjamin occupying the offices of 
Attorney-General and Acting-Secretary of War, and in 
February, 1862, he was appointed Secretary of State of the 
Confederacy, which position he filled until the fall of the 
Confederacy in 1865, when he left Richmond disguised as a 
farmer. On his way southward he passed two days at 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1/9 

Charlotte, N. C, as the guest of A. Weill, now a resident of 
Wilmington, N. C. Reaching the Florida coast he made his 
way to Nassau, N. P., in an open boat fifteen feet long, 
proceeded to Havana, and thence sailed for England, where 
he determined to resume the practice of law. He eventually 
rose to the very highest rank at the bar. Sir Henry James 
and Sir Charles Russell declared that Mr. Benjamin was 
facile princeps the leader of the English bar at the time of 
his death. During his residence abroad he wrote his cele- 
brated treatise " On Sales," now the standard authority in 
England and the United States. Mr. Benjamin died in 
Paris, France, in May, 1884, after a brief illness occasioned 
by a fall from a street car. 

Franklin J. Moses, the late distinguished Chief Justice of 
South Carolina, was born at Charleston, August 13, 1804, 
and was the son of Myer Moses, an officer in the war of 
1 812, and a representative in the Legislature of South Caro- 
lina in 1 8 10. After graduating at the South Carolina Col- 
lege in 1823, he studied law with Hon. James L. Pettigrew, 
and being admitted to the bar, located at Sumter, S. C. In 
1841 he was elected to the State Senate over two competitors, 
and re-elected for thirty years. For twenty-five years hq 
served as chairman of the Judiciary Committee of that body. 
In 1866, while yet a member of the State Senate, Mr. Moses 
was elected Circuit Judge, and after the reconstruction 
period was elected Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 
the State. In 1872, he was honored with a re-election and 
still occupied the office at the time of his death, which 
occurred at Columbia, March 6, 1877. He was also at the 
time Professor of Law at the University of South Carolina. 
In early life Mr. Moses married Miss McClellan, a Metho- 



l8o THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

dist lady with peculiarly beautiful traits of character. 
Several daughters were the fruit of the union, the youngest 
child being an only son who became the Republican Gov- 
ernor of South Carolina — Franklin J. Moses, Jr. 

Emanuel B. Hart, of New York, was born in that city in 
1811. His aspiration for ofifice was early rewarded by his 
election to Congress from 185 1 to 1853, after which he was 
made Surveyor of the Port of New York, and subsequently 
appointed an Excise Commissioner. David L. Yulee, of 
Florida was United States Senator from Florida for many 
years prior to the Civil War. His wife was a daughter of 
Governor Wickliffe, of Kentucky. 

By appointment of President Pierce, Isaac Phillips was 
made General Appraiser of the Port of New York, which 
position he occupied for fifteen years. He also filled the 
Grand Master's chair of New York Free Masons from 1849 
to 1854. He was for ten years a Public School Commis- 
sioner and Trustee, and has been for thirty years one of the 
most active and influential members of the Chamber of Com- 
merce of New York. William Lovenstein has been for 
nineteen years a member of the Virginia Legislature. He 
served five terms in the Assembly, and is now a member of 
the State Senate. He also holds high rank in the Orders of 
Free Masons, Royal Arcanum and B'nai-Berith. He was 
born near Richmond in 1840. 

Raphael J. P loses, a distinguished lawyer and statesman 
of Georgia, was born in Charleston, S. C, in 181 1, and is the 
only child of Israel Moses, of Philadelphia,. He opened a 
dry goods store in Charleston in 1832, and in 1837, having ac- 
quired a little knowledge of law, removed to Apalachicola, 
Fla., and was admitted to practice. He soon won a high repu- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. l8l 

tation at the bar and took an active part in politics. In 1849 
he removed to Columbus, Ga., with his family, and at once 
entered into the politfcal contests of the day with Joseph E. 
Brown, Linton Stephens and Charles J. Jenkins. In 185 1 he 
purchased a large fruit farm (the Eskeline) a few miles from 
Columbia, where he removed with his family. He was prom- 
inent in the Presidential contest of i860 and when the War 
began he and three sons, aged respectively twenty-one, nine- 
teen and seventeen, all enlisted. The eldest son served as a 
private throughout the war ; the second Albert, served as a 
Lieutenant in a North Carolina regiment, and was killed at 
Seven Pines, and the third, Raphael J. Moses, Jr., was a 
Lieutenant in the Confederate Navy. Mr. Moses, the 
father, was appointed on the staff of General Robert Toombs, 
and General Japies Longstreet, and in 1864 was made Chief 
Commissary of Georgia with the rank of Major, in which 
capacity he received the last official order issued by the Con- 
federate Government, which was to provide 250,000 rations 
to General Johnston's troops. He also received from 
the train bearing the Confederate Cabinet in their flight 
through Georgia, $40,000 in bullion for transfer to another 
official. After the War Major Moses resumed the practice 
of law, and, in 1866, was elected to the Legislature of 
Georgia, where he attracted attention as a legislator and 
orator of uncommon ability. Major Moses has been for 
years a conspicuous figure at all political assemblages, and 
with Robert Toombs, Benjamin H. Hill and Howell Cobb, 
formed one of what was known throughout the South as a 
" rare and unequalled quartette of popular speakers." The 
esteem in which he is held by the great men of Georgia 
attests his right to the place he occupies as the foremost 



1 82 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Hebrew at the Bar and in the politics of the Southern 
States. 

Samuel Weil, of Atlanta, Ga., represents that city in the 
Georgia Legislature. He has been prominent in the politics 
of his section for thirty years and is known as one of the 
best lawyers in the South. He read law under Joseph E. 
Brown, now United States Senator from Georgia, and came 
from Germany in 1847, when twenty-three years old. At 
the meeting of Grand Lodge, No. 5, L O. B. B., in Jan- 
uary, 1888, Mr. Weil was elected First Vice-President. 

Dr. Herman Bendell, of Albany, N. Y., was appointed by 
President Grant, in 1871, Superintendent of Indian Affairs 
for Arizona. Resigning in 1873, he accepted from the same 
source the position of Consul to Elsinore, Denmark. He and 
Dr. Joseph Levi, also of Albany, were for several years mem- 
bers of the Board of Public Instruction in that city as was 
Henry W. Lipman, another popular Albanian. M. L. Moses, 
a native of South Carolina and the leading spirit in all enter- 
prises involving the progress and prosperity of the State, has 
been Mayor of Montgomery for two terms. 

Phillip Schloss has been for some years and still occupies 
the office of State Senator for Vigo County in the Indiana 
Legislature. The late Bernhard Schweitzer, of Indianapolis, 
served both in the Lower and Upper Houses of the Indiana 
Legislature from Owen County. C. B. Feibleman has been 
for eight years Justice of the Peace of Marion County, 
Indiana, and has acted as Mayor of the city. 

In New Haven, Conn., Louis Feldman has been Grand 
Master of Odd Fellows of the State of Connecticut and a 
representative to the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the World. 
Paul Weil has been honored with high ofifice in the Masonic 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 83 

fraternity. Maier Zunder has been for years a member of 
the Board of Education, in which capacity he has been con- 
spicuous for his services in building up the magnificent 
school system in operation in his city. Charles Kleiner has 
been President of the Board of Councilmen and is now an 
Alderman. Isaac Rosnosky, of Boston, was elected a mem- 
ber of the City Council for five terms and to the State 
House of Representatives for one term. He is President of 
the Congregation Ahab-Shalome. Henry Muck is' now a 
member of the Ohio Senate. M. Bauer is Chairman of the 
Board of Control of Cincinnati. Victor Abraham is Vice- 
President of the Mercantile Library of Cincinnati. Mayer 
Cahn was a member of the Louisiana State Senate in 
1878, and a delegate to the Constitutional State Convention 
about the same time. At Philadelphia, Alexander Reinstine, 
a native of Germany, has been returned several times to the 
City Council. He has also been officially connected with 
various Hebrew institutions. Emanuel Furth, a Philadel- 
phia lawyer, has served two terms in the Pennsylvania 
House of Representatives. 

At Portland, Oregon, B. Goldsmith, a native of Worms, 
is Chairman of the Democratic State Central Committee, 
and has been Mayor of the city. The construction of the 
Oregon City Falls locks, which made navigation possible on 
the Willamette River, was effected through his instrumen- 
tality. Philip Wasserman, of Bavaria, a wholesale tobacco 
merchant, has also been Mayor of the city and a member of 
the Public School Board and its President. Col. Louis 
Fleischner has been State Treasurer. Sol. Hirsch is the 
leader of the Republican party in Oregon. For some years 
he was Chairman of the Republican State Central Commit- 



184 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

tee. He served one term in the Lower House of the Legis- 
lature as the Speaker, and was State Senator for three con- 
secutive terms of four years each, and President of that 
body. In the contest for United States Senntor in 1886 he 
was the choice of many df his constituents for the ofifice, 
and lacked but a few votes of election. Edward Hirsch, a 
brother, residing at Salem City, Oregon, has occupied the 
office of State Treasurer. Joseph Simon, the leading law- 
yer in Oregon, is an ex-State Senator and at present Chair- 
man of the Republican State Central Committee. 

At Detroit, Mich., Edward Kanter has been a member of 
the Legislature, and State Treasurer. Adam E. Bloom was 
a member of the Legislature in 1881, and a School Inspector 
in 1878. 

At Jacksonville, Fla., Morris Dzialinsky served twice as 
Mayor of the city. Jacob A. Huff was for many years City 
Treasurer. Bernhard M. Baer, a leading merchant and Direc- 
tor of the National Bank of the State of Florida, was chosen 
to the City Council. Philip Walter has been for fourteen 
years Clerk of the United States Court, and was in 1885 a 
member of the Constitutional State Convention of Florida. 

The following are some of the Hebrews who have held ofifice 
during the period named : Michel W, Ash, of Pennsylvania, 
a member of Congress from 1835 to 1837; Adolph Brandt, of 
Atlanta, Ga., served two terms in the Georgia Legislature ; 
Edwin Einstein, a member of Congress from the city of 
New York, in 1876; Moritz Ellinger, Coroner of New York 
City for a number of years ; S. H. Fishblate, of Wilmington, 
N. C, Mayor of the City, 1878-79; Morris Friedsam, Inter- 
nal Revenue Collector of the city of New York ; Solomon 
Hcydcnfelt, Justice of tlic Supreme Court of California 1851 ; 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 185 

Julius Houseman, member of Congress from Michigan, i88oto 
1881 ; Israel Jacobs, member of Congress from Pennsylvania 
1791 to 1793 ; Leonard Meyers, member of the Thirty-eighth, 
Thirty-ninth and Fortieth Congress from Philadelphia ; Philip 
Phillips, member of Congress from Alabama, 1853 ^o '^SS ! 
Charles H. Schwab, Comptroller of Chicago, 1886; Edward S. 
Solomon, appointed Governor of Washington Territory 1870 ; 
Myer Strouse, member of Congress from Pennsylvania, 1848 
to 1852 ; David Eckstein, Consul to Van Couver's Island and 
Amsterdam ; Louis Barkhouse, four times elected a member of 
the Louisville, Ky., School Board, and the first Hebrew chosen 
to the office ; Gerson N. Hermann, Coroner, New York City. 
Marcus Otterbourg, of New York, the first American 
Hebrew to occupy the high office of Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary, was born at Landau, Rhenish- 
Bavaria, in 1827. He was educated in Paris and after secur- 
ing a position as teacher in England, took up his residence in 
Mannheim, in the Grand Duchy of Baden, where he was 
very successful as teacher of French and English. Being 
marked as a Revolutionist, he concluded to come to this 
country in 1852. Directly after Lincoln's election he was 
appointed Consul at the City of Mexico, Thomas Corwin 
being Minister to that country at the time. Mr. Otterbourg's 
position, in consequence of the then contemplated European 
intervention and Mr. Corwin's retirement, became an exceed- 
ingly delicate and important one. After the surrender of 
General Lee, Mr. Otterbourg tendered his resignation as 
Consul, which was accepted in a very complimentary letter 
signed by Clarence Seward, Acting-Secretary of State. After 
returning to the United States Mr. Otterbourg was urged by 
Secretary William H. Seward to withdraw his resignation. 



1 86 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Thereupon he returned to Mexico and assumed charge of the 
United States Legation and Consulate until June, 1867, 
when he was nominated as Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary. In conformity with an understand- 
ing with Mr. Seward, Mr. Otterbourg, as soon as the 
Republican Government was restored in the City of Mexico, 
resigned his office. On his return to New York he took an 
active part in municipal politics. He was admitted to the 
Bar in 1871. On the election of Mayor Havemeyer, Mr. 
Otterbourg was appointed a Police Justice, which office he 
creditably filled for nine years. Since that time he has 
been engaged in the practice of his profession. 

Oscar S. Straus, United States Minister to Turkey, was 
born in Germany in 1851. Emigrating with his parents to 
this country he settled in Talbotton, Ga., where he resided 
until 1862, and removed to New York after the close of the 
Civil War, entering Columbia Grammar School and gradu- 
ating from Columbia College as an " honor man " in 1871. 
Two years afterwards he graduated from the law school of 
Columbia College and began the practice of law as a mem- 
ber of the firm of Stern, Hudson, Straus & Thompson, 
Counsel to the Board of Trade, and a firm of high repute, 
especially in corporation law. Mr. Straus retired from the 
practice of law in 1880 on account of ill-health, and spent 
some time in Europe, entering the business house of 
L. Straus & Sons, the well known pottery and glassware 
firm, upon returning home. Mr. Straus has been for years 
a close student, being specially interested in American his- 
tory. One of the results of his researches in this field is a 
volume on " The Origin of Republican Form of Government 
in the United States of America." He has appeared as a 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 87 

contributor to the " Westminster Review," on " The Develop- 
ment of Religious Liberty in America," and has frequently 
lectured on historical subjects. During the Presidential 
Campaign of 1884, Mr. Straus was Secretary of the Execu- 
tive Committe of the Merchants' and Business Men's organ- 
ization which supported the Democratic nominee, and was 
an industrious and influential co-operator in that movement. 
His nomination for the Turkish Mission was an honor unex- 
pected and unsought, and was the result of a spontaneous 
effort on the part of the many leading merchants, and 
received the endorsement of the Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions. The Rev. Henry Ward Beecher also 
interested himself in Mr. Straus' appointment, in a letter 
to President Cleveland urging his nomination as follows : 

It is because he is a Jew that I would urge his appointment as a 
fit recognition of this remarkable people, who are becoming large 
contributors to American prosperity, and whose intelligence, moral- 
ity and large liberality in all public measures for the welfare of 
society deserve and should receive from the hands of the Govern 
ment some such recognition. Is it not also a duty to set forth in this 
quiet but effectual method the genius of American government, 
which has under its fostering care people of all civilized nations, 
and which treats them without regard to civil or religious race 
peculiarities as common citizens ? We send Danes to Denmark, 
Germans to Germany; we reject no man because he is a Frenchman. 
Why should we not make a crowning testimony to the genius of our 
people by sending a Hebrew to Turkey ? The ignorance and super- 
stition of rnedi;eval Europe may account for the prejudices of that 
dark age. But how a Christian in our day can turn from a Jew I 
cannot imagine. Christianity itself suckled at the bosom of 
Judaism ; our roots are in the Old Testament. We are Jews our- 
selves gone to blossom and fruit. Christianity is Judaism in evolu- 
tion, and it would seem strange for the seed to turn against the 
stock on which it was grown. 



1 88 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Benjamin F. Jonas was born in Williamstown, Ky., July 
19, 1834. He resided for some years in Adams County, 
III., where he was educated, and thence removed to New 
Orleans, where he graduated in the law department of the 
University of Louisiana. On the breaking out of the Civil 
War he entered the Confederate Army as a private and rose 
to the rank of Adjutant. He was elected to the Louisiana 
Legislature in 1865, was a delegate to the Democratic 
National Convention of 1868, elected to the State Senate 
in 1872, and then elected City Attorney of New Orleans. 
After a second term in the State Legislature he was elected 
in 1889 United States Senator from Louisiana. Upon the 
accession of Mr. Cleveland to the Presidency he was made 
Collector of the Port of New Orleans. 

Leopold Morse, of Boston, who is now serving his fifth 
term as a member of Congress, received a common 
school education at Wachenhein, Bavaria, his birthplace. 
He was born August 15, 1831, and arrived in Boston in 1848. 
He resided for awhile in New Hampshire and later at New 
Bedford, Mass. In 1854 he entered the employ of Henry 
Haverman & Co., and in 1864 started in business for his own 
account. His clothing business is now one of the most 
extensive in this country. 

Isidore Rayner member of Congress from Baltimore, was 
born in that city, April 11, 1850, and is the son of W. S. 
Rayner. He was educated at the University of Virginia, 
where he graduated with honors. He has for some years 
been an acknowledged leader at the Baltimore Bar, where 
his legal talents and eloquence have brought him a large 
clientage. His first public office was in 1878, when he was 
elected to the Maryland Legislature, after which he served 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 1 89 

four years in the State Senate. In the fall of 1887, he was 
elected a member of the Fiftieth Congress, and on taking 
his seat immediately attracted attention by his participation 
in important legislation and the delivery of several eloquent 
speeches, notably one on the subject of trusts and monopo- 
lies. His public utterances in Congress have made a deep 
impression upon his fellow-members of the House and 
have also evoked favorable comment from the press through- 
out the country, his efforts showing scholarship, vigor and 
a readiness to grapple with the questions of the day. 

Joseph Blumenthal was born in Munich, Bavaria, Decem- 
ber I, 1834, and came to this country in 1839. ^^ '^^^^ edu- 
cated in the public schools of New York City, and in 1853 
removed to California, where he resided five years. Re- 
turning to New York in 1858 he engaged in business until 
1874. He participated actively in the reform movement in 
1870 and 1 87 1, and was a member of the Committee of 
Seventy. He represented the Fifteenth District of New 
York City in the Assembly in 1873 and 1874, and was suc- 
cessful in placing the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of New York 
on the same footing as other institutions, whereby an annual 
sum is allowed for each inmate. In the fall of 1887 he was 
elected to the Assembly from the Twenty-Second District of 
New York City. Mr. Blumenthal is President of the Jewish 
Theological Seminary Association and is ex-President and 
present Trustee of the Congregation Shearith-Isracl and a Di- 
rector of the Young Men's Hebrew Association. He is a mem- 
ber of all the Hebrew charitable and educational societies 
and was the first President of the Sanitary Aid Society. 

Jacob A. Cantor, Senator from the Tenth District of New 
York, was born in the city of New York, December 6, 1854. 



igo THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

His inclinations led him to enter the ofhce of William Wall 
Peck for the purpose of studying law, and in 1872 he became 
a reporter on the "New Vork World" remaining on the 
staff of that paper until 1877. While thus employed he en- 
tered the Law School of the University of the City of New 
York, graduating with distinction in 1875. As a lawyer he 
has shown exceptional ability. He has been a delegate to 
various Democratic conventions and was chosen a member of 
the New York Assembly in 1884, and was triumphantly re- 
elected in 1885-86. During his term in the Legislature he 
introduced numerous bills, including almost one hundred 
during his last two terms. Among the more important 
which passed were those requiring certain sanitary improve- 
ments in the construction, alteration and building of tene- 
ment houses in the city of New York ; providing that a resi- 
dent of the city of New York should be included on the 
Board of State Assessors and the prevention of indiscrimi- 
nate marriages and divorces by Rabbis without legal au- 
thority. Mr. Cantor was the father of numerous bills in the 
interest of various Hebrew institutions in which he always 
evinced a warm interest. 

Leo C. Dessar, Justice of the Eleventh District Court of 
the city of New York, was born in Germany in 1847, and is 
a son of the late Dr. Julius H. Dessar, who was President of 
a Hebrew Institute of Cincinnati. After a preliminary edu- 
cation he was sent to Columbia Law School, New York, 
where he graduated, and at an early age became interested 
in political affairs. For seventeen years he was a prominent 
leader in local politics. In 1875 he was elected a member of 
the Assembly from the Seventeenth District and served on 
the Judiciary Committee. He was active in securing the 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I9I 

passage of the Elevated Railroad bills and before the expira- 
tion of his term was appointed a member of the famous 
Committee on Crime. In 1884 Mr. Dessar was elected Civil 
Justice of the Eleventh District Court, which had but re- 
cently been created by act of Legislature. During his term 
of ofifice not one of his decisions have been reversed by a 
higher tribunal. 

Hon. Simon M. Ehrhch is a native of Boston. He 
was born January 6, 1852. He received a preliminary edu- 
cation in the public schools of New York, and then entered 
the New York University where he graduated with honor, 
subsequently attending the Columbia Law College, associa- 
ting soon after his graduation with the Hon. Leo C. Dessar, 
now one of the Civil Justices of New York. Later on he 
was associated with the well-known criminal lawyer, Charles 
W. Brooke. In 1884 Mr. Ehrlich was elected Judge of the 
City Court by a decisive majority, and during his incumbency 
has deservedly won the respect and esteem of his brethren at 
the Bar by the painstaking, courteous and consistent dis- 
charge of his judicial duties. Judge Ehrlich is a member of 
various Hebrew fraternal organizations and charitable insti- 
tutions and manifests a deep interest in all matters bearing 
upon the interest and welfare of his co-religionists. 

Henry M. Goldfogle, one of the Civil Justices of the city 
of New York, was born in that city May 23, 1854. He was 
educated in the public schools and then received private in- 
struction. When fifteen years old he entered the law office of 
J. J. Rogers and made rapid progress. On reaching his major- 
ity he was duly admitted to the Bar, and shortly afterward 
formed a connection with Henry Fisher, now of San 
Francisco. In 1884 he associated with Charles L. Cohn. ^ 



192 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Mr. Goldfogle, previous to 1887, had never been a candidate 
for public office. In the fall of that year he was nominated 
for the Civil Justiceship of the Sixth Judicial District, and 
was elected by a plurality of 287 votes out of a total 
vote of about 25,000. Mr. Goldfogle is a member of most 
of the Hebrew charitable institutions and fraternal organiza- 
tions. 

Jacob Hess is a native of Germany and was born in 1847. 
He has resided in New York since 1850 and has been prom- 
inent in municipal politics since 1874, when he was elected a 
member of the New York Assembly, serving one year. 
The following year he was elected Alderman-at-Large. In 
1876 he was appointed by Mayor Wickham an Inspector of 
Schools, and after serving two years and a half resigned 
to accept the appointment of Commissioner of Charities and 
Correction tendered by Mayor Cooper. This office he oc- 
cupied with credit for six years. At the expiration of his 
term of office he was appointed a Commissioner of Electrical 
Subways, and is now President of the Board. Mr. Hess is a 
member of various Hebrew institutions and societies and 
has been prominently identified with the National Guard, 
having for twenty years been private, color-sergeant and 
Commissary of the 71st Regiment, and is at present a 
member of the Old Guard. 

Joseph Koch, of New York, was born in that city in 1844, 
and graduated from the Free Academy at the age of eight- 
een. During the Civil War he served as Lieutenant and 
Captain, and in 1868 was appointed Law Clerk of the 
Supreme Court, afterwards Deputy County Clerk. He 
received the appointment of Civil Justice of the Fifth Dis- 
trict Court of the City of New York in 1869, and the year 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I93 

following was appointed School Trustee of the Eleventh 
Ward. After serving for two years as State Senator, he was 
appointed a Dock Commissioner. Mr. Koch has been Presi- 
dent of District Lodge No. i, of the Order of B'nai-Berith, 
and was chairman of the general convention of the order 
held at Chicago in 1874. 

Samson Lachman was born in New York in 1855. He at- 
tended the Public Schools, and graduated at the College of the 
City of New York in 1874. He was Salutatorian of his class 
and took ten out of eleven medals in his class on graduating. 
He is also a graduate of Columbia College Law School, 
where he secured the prize for an essay on Municipal Law. 
He was with the firm of Vanderpoel, Green & Cuming a 
number of years, and then became a member of the firm of 
Lachman, Morgenthau & Goldsmith. At the election in 
1887 he was elected Justice of the Sixth District Court on 
the Democratic ticket by a large majority over two opposing 
Candidates. Mr. Lachman has been Chairman of the County 
Democracy Committee in his District for the past three 
years, is a member of various clubs and associations, includ- 
ing all the Hebrew Charitable Societies, and has been promi- 
nently connected with the Order of B'nai-Berith, and has 
been the President of the Mount Sinai Lodge and a member 
of the Grand Lodge of the order. 

Ferdinand Levy, of New York, was born in Wisconsin, in 
1842, and is the son of Simon Levy, who served in the Civil 
War as Colonel of a New York regiment. He was educated 
in his native State and at the age of fifteen came to New 
York where he has resided ever since. He was one of the 
first to volunteer on the breaking out of the Civil War, 
participated in many important engagements during three 



194 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

years' service in the field and rose from the ranks to a 
Captaincy. Since his return to civil life Mr. Levy has been a 
conspicuous member of the Democratic party. As such he 
has been a delegate to numerous conventions, and has been 
a member of the Tammany Hall General Committee. In 
1872 he was elected Alderman-at-Large and was an active 
member of the Board, retiring at the close of his term with 
the respect and confidence of the citizens irrespective of 
party. In 1882 Mr. Levy was elected Coroner by a majority 
of 20,000 votes, and re-elceted in 1885. He is a member of 
various Hebrew societies and German organizations and is 
very popular with the German element. In February, 1888, 
he was elected Grand Master of the Order Sons of Benjamin. 
Theodore W. Myers, Comptroller of the city of New York, 
was born in that city in 1844, and is a son of the late Law- 
rence Myers, for many years a prominent importer of 
wines. After completing a course of study in a private 
school, young Myers was sent abroad to complete his educa- 
tion in the Elysee Bonaparte of Paris, and a private educa- 
tional school in Frankfort-on-the-Main. He travelled exten- 
sively abroad and, returning home was associated for 
several years with William M. Fliess in the rectifying busi- 
ness. He was then appointed cashier of the banking and 
brokerage firm of Polhemus & Jackson, and subsequently 
formed a co-partnership with H. S. Camblos in the same 
business. He was also special partner in the firm of N. E. 
De Rivas & Co., and then established the firm of Theodore 
W. Myers & Co., as now conducted. Mr. Myers was an 
ardent supporter of Mr. Cleveland in the Presidential Cam- 
paign of 1884, previous to which time he had taken no active 
part in politics. In 1887 he was appointed by Mayor 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I95 

Hewitt one of the Park Commissioners of New York City, 
and was elected by his colleagues as Treasurer of the Board. 
In the fall of the same year he was elected Comptroller of the 
city by a majority of 47,000 votes. Mr. Myers is a member 
of the Congregation Shearith-Israel, of which his father was 
for many years a Trustee, and is a member of various He- 
brew charitable and benevolent associations. 

Jacob Shroder, of Cincinnati, was elected Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas of the County of Hamilton, Ohio, in 
1886. 

Alfred Steckler, Justice of the Fourth Judicial District of 
the city of New York, was educated in the public schools 
and in his seventeenth year was appointed managing clerk 
in the office of a prominent law firm. He entered the law 
department of Columbia College, graduated with honors 
and soon thereafter undertook the practice of law on his own 
account. The abuses which had grown up in the adminis- 
tration of the affairs of the Fourth District Court having 
aroused a storm of indignation, in the fall of 1881 Mr. 
Steckler, who had not yet attained his twenty-fifth year, 
determined to enter the canvass as an independent candidate. 
He was elected by a handsome majority. In November, 
1887, Judge Steckler was re-elected to the office by a plur- 
ality of over 4,000 votes. He is a member of various Hebrew 
secret and benevolent associations and his firm are counsel 
for numerous trade unions and beneficial organizations. 

Philip Benjamin was elected an Alderman of New York 
City in 1887. Samuel D. Rosenthal was elected a member 
of the New York Legislature from New York City in 1886, 
and re-elected in 1887. 



196 



BIOGRAPHICAL 



ABRAHAM B. ARNOLD, M. D., of Baltimore, is 
a German by birth and has resided in this country 
since 1832. He began the study of medicine in the 
office of his relative, Dr. Lehwess, of New York, and 
matriculated in the University of Pennsylvania. His pro- 
fessional studies were completed in the Washington Uni- 
versity of Baltimore. For the past forty years he has 
been actively engaged in an extensive practice, and has 
taken a deep interest in the establishing of a Hebrew 
Hospital and Orphan Society in his city. He was elected 
to the Professorship of the Practice of Medicine in the 
Washington University and was appointed to fill the chair 
of Professor of Clinical Medicine and of diseases of the 
nervous system on the consolidation of that institution with 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons. He is the author 
of a "Manual of Nervous Diseases," and his professional 
brethren have repeatedly honored him by electing him to 
fill the chairs of President of the Medical and Chirurgical 
Faculty of Maryland, the Medical Association of Baltimore 
and the Medical Academy. In the Ninth International 
Medical Congress, which was held in Washington in 1887, 
Dr. Arnold presided in the Section of General Medicine. On 
the nomination of Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency in 
i860. Dr. Arnold arrayed himself with the Republican party 
and was made a member of the State Executive Committee. 
His contributions to the medical press are numerous. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I97 

Joseph Aub, M. D., of Cincinnati, son of the philanthro- 
pist, Abraham Aub, has attained high rank as an oculist and 
is authority on diseases of the ear. He was born in Cincin- 
nati in 1846, was educated in the pubHc schools, and is 
a graduate of the Medical College of Ohio and the Univer- 
sity of Erlangen, Bavaria. After a residence in New York as 
Surgeon in the Ophthalmic and Aural Institute, he entered 
the Cincinnati Hospital as oculist and lecturer on diseases of 
the ear. In 1877 he made a transplantation of skin from the 
arm to the eye-lid for ectropion, the size of the flap being 
2 3-8 inches in length by i 1-4 in width, the second opera- 
tion of the kind in this country. 

Herman Baar was born at Hanover in 1826. He received 
a thorough classical and Hebrew education under various 
eminent tutors, and after graduation at the University of 
Gottingen was appointed teacher at a school near Brunswick. 
At the age of thirty Dr. Baar was elected Minister of a con- 
gregation at Liverpool, England. While here his sermons 
attracted wide attention, one, delivered on the death of 
Prince Albert, drawing from Prince Ernst, of Coburg-Gotha, 
an autograph letter of thanks. An affection of the throat 
compelled his resignation, and he opened a school at Brus- 
sels. He afterwards accepted a call to a synagogue in 
Washington, D. C, subsequently removed to New Orleans, 
where he conducted a Hebrew school, and since 1875 has 
been the Superintendent of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of 
New York over which he so creditably presides. 

Simon Baruch, M. D., was born at Schwersenz, Province 
of- Posen, Prussia, July 29, 1840. He graduated at the 
South Carolina Medical College and Medical College of 
Virginia, and resided for many years at Camden, S. C. 



IQS the HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

In 1874 he was President of the South Carolina Medical 
Society. In 1880, Dr. Baruch was appointed by Governor 
Hagood, a member of the State Board of Health of 
South Carolina, and as Acting-Chairman of the Board he 
published a report on vaccination, demonstrating the 
exposed condition of the State, which led to the adoption 
by the Legislature of measures to introduce general vac- 
cination. In 1 88 1, he removed to New York in order to 
obtain educational advantages for his sons. He has published 
numerous monographs, among which are " Malaria as an Etio- 
logical Factor in New York City," " The Diagnosis of Malarial 
Fevers," " The Therapeutic Significance of the Cervical 
Follicles," and "The Prevention of Puerperal Infection." In 
1886, Dr. Baruch was appointed Chief of Staff of the 
Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids, and Attending 
Physician to the New York Juvenile Asylum, and in 1887 
he was made Attending Physician at Manhattan Hospital. 
Dr. Baruch attained additional prominence in the spring 
of 1888, by his connection with the musical prodigy, Josef 
Hofmann. It was urged by Dr. Baruch that the continued 
appearance of the child in public was an overstrain which 
threatened serious results, while three of the most eminent 
New York physicians, acting in the interest of the young 
musician's manager, did not share in this belief. Dr. Baruch, 
however, succeeded in withdrawing the boy from the stage. 
Jefferson Bettman, M. D., of New York, was born in Cin- 
cinnati, October 9, 1858, where he graduated from St. Francis 
Xavier's College at the age of seventeen. He entered the 
Ohio Medical College in 1876, graduating with high honor 
three years afterwards. He then took up the special treat- 
ment of diseases of the ear and throat and served for two 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. I99 

years in the New York Ophthalmic and Aural Institute as 
Clinical Assistant under Dr. Knapp. Two years were spent 
in the various hospitals devoted to the same specialty in 
Paris, Vienna, Heidelberg and London. In the latter city he 
was appointed assistant in the London Throat and Ear 
Hospital, and later on became chief private assistant to 
Doctor now Sir Morell Mackenzie. The laws of England 
regulating the practice of medicine by foreigners being 
very stringent and Dr. Bettman, possessing no qualifica- 
tion under English law, it was under the title of "Acting 
Resident Medical Officer '' that he could accept the re- 
sponsibility of those positions. Dr. Mackenzie at this time 
was actively engaged in writing his treatise which is now the 
standard on "Diseases of the Nose and Throat," and while 
acting as his private assistant. Dr. Bettman was also 
selected to help in the compilation of the great work. 
In 1883 Dr. Bettman returned to America and as- 
sociated himself with his brother who had in the mean- 
time located in Chicago as oculist and aurist. Laryn- 
gology had not then gained a firm footing in the West 
and Dr. Bettman may be said to have been the first to de- 
vote himself exclusively to that branch in Chicago. In 1885, 
Dr. Bettman removed to New York City, and immediately 
received the appointment of Assistant Surgeon to the New 
York Ophthalmic and Aural Institute. Several of his ori- 
ginal articles have been published in English and French 
journals, and are referred to in leading works on diseases of 
nose, ear and throat. 

Julius Bien, proprietor of one of the most complete and 
best known lithographic establishments in the world, is a 
native of Hesse-Cassel, Germany, and has resided in the 



200 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

United States since 1849. His name has been more or less 
connected with the most important works of the Govern- 
ment, including the Coast Survey reports and the great map 
of the United States published by authority of the General 
Land Office. Since 1870, Mr. Bien has been a shining light 
in the order of B'nai-Berith and now occupies the ofifice of 
Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Grand Lodge. 
Intrusted with a general direction of the affairs of the order, 
he has exercised much influence in shaping its policy and to his 
industry, energy and mental acquirements the steady growth 
and present prosperity of the order is in a large measure due. 
He has also been active in the affairs of the Hebrew Orphan 
Asylum, the Hebrew Technical Institute and other institu- 
tions. 

Isidor Binswanger, a prominent Philadelphia merchant, 
reached this country from Bavaria in 1841, when twenty-one 
years old. He has been engaged in the dry goods business 
in Baltimore and Cumberland, Md., and in 1848 formed a 
partnership with David Eger in the wholesale notion busi- 
ness at Philadelphia, which was continued until 1862. He 
was also a member of the firm of Charles Hern & Co. of St. 
Louis. In 1868 he was elected President of the Richmond 
Granite Company, of which he has since been the head with 
the exception of two years. Though unceasingly active in 
his business, Mr. Binswanger has devoted much of his time 
and energies to the promotion of educational and charitable 
institutions, in many of which he has been a Director and 
President. He has served as Director of the Union National 
Bank, a member of the Union League, Director of the 
Wills Hospital, and for twelve years a Director of the 
Mercantile Club. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 20I 

Mark Blumenthal, M.D., of New York, is a native of 
Bavaria, and was born in 1831. He studied in Philadelphia 
and New York, and graduated in 1852. He is a member of 
the New York Academy of Medicine, New York Pathologi- 
cal Society, New York County Medical Society, and has 
been President of the New York Medical Union. He has 
also been honored with the Presidency of the New York 
Articulating School for Deaf Mutes and of the New York 
Physicians' Mutual Association. His literary contributions 
are numerous. 

Isidor Bush, of St. Louis, was born at Prague, Austria, 
in 1882. He is the only son of a wealthy cotton merchant, 
Jacob I. Bush. Young Bush received a careful home educa- 
tion and studied ancient and modern languages, music, 
painting, mathematics, etc., until 1837, when his father with- 
drew from the cotton trade and purchased the large Oriental 
publishing house and printing establishment of Von Schmidt, 
in Vienna. When eighteen years old he became publisher 
and four years later editor of many valuable works. Ex- 
perience as a publisher and editor in early youth, together 
with a peculiar gift to recognize and appreciate genius, led 
him to first introduce Leopold Kompert, the Ghetto poet, 
Simon Szanto, the journalist, and Leopold Low, the Hun- 
garian historian, to the literary world. During the Revolu- 
tion of 1848 young Bush was a Liberal, and sought safety 
by flying to America. Arriving in New York in 1849, with 
but ten dollars in his pocket and aided and encouraged by 
co-religionists, he opened a small book and stationery store 
in Grand Street, and published a German weekly called 
" Israel's Herald." Lack of means and insufficient knowl- 
edge of the language induced his removal to St. Louis where 



202 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

he opened a grocery and later on a hardware store. At 
Carondelet, Mo., he also started a general store. In 1857 
Mr. Bush founded the People's Savings Bank, and under 
his Presidency, which continued for some years, it became 
one of the most successful savings institutions in the city. 
In 1868 he was elected representative of St. Louis to the 
Constitutional Convention, and in 1864 he was again elected 
a member of the State Convention. In 1866 and 1867 he 
served as Alderman, and from 1881 to 1884 was a Director 
of the St. Louis Public Schools. He was an Aide-de-Camp 
on the staff of General Fremont in 1862, with the rank -of 
Captain, and was subsequently appointed General Agent of 
the St. Louis & Iron Mountain Railroad, which he held for 
several years. While occupied with his official duties he 
prepared and laid the foundation to his present great wine 
business. He bought a large tract of forest land, specially 
adapted to grape growing, which is now famed even beyond 
the limits- of this country, as " Bushberg," the largest grape 
nursery in the United States. Mr. Bush is recognized in the 
agricultural world both in Europe and America as authority 
on American grapes and their culture. France acknowl- 
edges itself indebted to him for the salvation and reconstruc- 
tion of its phylloxera — ravaged vineyards. In 1872 Mr. 
Bush was elected Grand President of District No. 2 of the 
order B'nai-Berith, and in 1874 one of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Constitution Grand Lodge of the United 
States. He is one of the founders and first trustees of the 
Jewish Orphan Asylum at Cleveland, Ohio, and the Chair- 
man of the Board of Trustees of the Covenant Widow's 
Fund. His humanitarian labors are not restricted to his co- 
religionists. As President of the German Emigrant Aid 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 203 

Society, which office he held for many years, he was ap- 
pointed a member of the State Board of Emigration and 
its Secretary, and was retained in this position by every 
succeeding Governor of the State since 1865, irrespective of 
party. 

Michael H. Cardozo was born in the City of New York 
in 185 1, and received his elementary education at the Gram- 
mar School. In 1865 he entered the College of the City of 
New York, from which he was graduated in 1870. He then 
entered the law office of Morris & Billings, and also pursued 
his studies at the University Law School until his admission 
to the bar in 1872. He subsequently formed a copartner- 
ship with the members of the above firm. Coles Morris and 
Oliver P. C. Billings, under the firm name of Morris, Bil- 
lings & Cardozo. The firm has represented a large number 
of corporations. Mr. Cardozo's attainments in the various 
branches of the profession attracted the attention of the 
General Term of the Supreme Court, and in January, 1883, 
he was chosen one of the committee on examination of 
applicants for admission to the bar. Mr. Cardozo is a mem- 
ber of the Bar Association and various leading clubs. 

Solomon Nunes Carvalho was born at Charleston, S. C. 
April 27, 181 5. He received an educational training at 
Charleston College, and also at the schools of Isaac Harby 
and M. M. Cohen, in his native city. When twenty years 
old he went to Philadelphia and resided for a while in that city 
and at Baltimore. In early life he developed a taste for the 
fine arts and for many years followed the profession of por- 
trait painter. For an ideal portrait of "Moses Receiving the 
Tablets of the Law on Sinai,''' he was awarded a prize at an 
exhibition in Charleston. Later on, when he had removed 



204 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

to New York, Mr. Carvalho painted a masterly portrait of 
Thomas Hunter, now President of the Normal College. In 
1853 he accompanied John C. Fremont upon his famous ex- 
pedition, in the capacity of artist and assistant in various 
scientific investigations. In recent years, Mr. Carvalho has 
been engaged in scientific researches and has been awarded 
several patents for super-heating apparatus and steam engin- 
eering appliances. He has also devoted much of his time to 
the preparation of a volume entitled " The Two Creations ; a 
Scientific Hermeneutic and Etymologic Treatise on the 
Mosaic Cosmogony from the Original Hebrew," a work 
betraying profound scholarship and one calculated to 
awaken much interest in the literary and scientific world. 
Mr. Carvalho's -account of his experience with " The Path- 
finder" was pubhshed in 1857, under the title, "Incident of 
Travel and Adventure in the far West with Colonel Fre- 
mont's last expedition across the Rocky Mountains ; includ- 
ing a three months residence among the Mormons in Utah, 
and a perilous trip across the Great American Desert." At 
the request of John Bigelow, who was in later years United 
States Minister to France, Mr. Carvalho contributed from 
his note-book, incidents of the journey which was embodied 
in Mr. Bigelow's " Life of Fremont." 

Emariuel Cohen, of Minneapolis, Minn., was born in 
Scranton, Penn., in 1855. He pursued his studies at various 
schools and then entered Williams College, where he gradu- 
ated with distinction. He is a close student, especially of 
history and scientific subjects, and has delivered many public 
addresses. During his residence in Philadelphia he frequently 
lectured before the Young Men's Hebrew Association. In 
that city he studied law under ex-Judge F. Carroll Brewster, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 205 

and practiced there for several years until his rennoval to 
Minneapolis in 1886. He is now a member of the well- 
known law firm of Kitchel, Cohen & Shaw, of Minneapolis. 

Jacob Da Silva Solis Cohen, M.D., of Philadelphia, was 
born February 28, 1838. He received a preliminary ed- 
ucation at the Philadelphia Central High School and is a 
graduate of the University of Pennsylvania. During the 
Civil War he received an appointment as Assistant Surgeon 
in the army, and afterwards in the navy. After several years 
experience in various branches of the service, including the 
army hospital at Philadelphia, he tendered his resignation, 
resided for a short time in New York, and returned to Phila- 
delphia where he has gained an enviable record, especially in 
the treatment of diseases of the throat and chest. Dr. Cohen 
is a member of various medical societies, and in 1875 was 
honored with the office of President of the Philadelphia 
Northern Medical Association. His contributions to medi- 
cal literature includes a " Treatise on Inhalation," " Diseases 
of the Throat " and " Croup, in its relation to Tracheotomy." 

Josiah Cohen was born November 29, 1840, near London, 
England, where he acquired his education. In 1857 hecame 
to America, and in i86o entered upon the duties of teacher 
in the school of the Rodef-SJialome Congregation at Pittsburg, 
Penn., and continued that vocation till 1866. During this 
time he was prominently identified with the Public School 
System of Pennsylvania, and flattering commendations of his 
school appear in the reports of State Superintendent of 
Schools. His associates in that profession manifested their 
esteem of Mr. Cohen by electing him Vice-President of the 
Teachers' Association of Allegheny County, Penn. During 
his service as a school teacher, Mr. Cohen also figured promi- 



206 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

nently in the Western part of Pennsylvania, as a public teacher 
where he lectured frequently to public audiences and socie- 
ties of learning. In 1866 he was admitted to the bar of Al- 
legheny County. Since then he has been recognized as a 
most eloquent pleader and without a superior in that regard 
in the legal profession at Pittsburg. Though eminently 
adapted to the life of a political leader, he has vigorously 
resisted many flattering inducements to enter the political 
arena, accepting simply the burden of such labors as would 
foster the interests of the Republican party, which, by his 
powerful eloquence and ability as a parliamentarian, he has 
often promoted and defended. Mr. Cohen has served as 
Chairman of the Republican County Executive Committee 
at Pittsburg. He has been a member of the City Councils 
of Pittsburg and the Central Board of Education of that 
city, and has figured prominently in their deliberations. He 
was appointed by the Governor in 1876, as a member 
of Western Pennsylvania Reform School Board of 
Managers, in which capacity he served for a term of six 
years. He was also a Blaine elector, of Pennsylvania, in 1884. 
Mr. Cohen's eloquence and power as a public speaker 
has been recognized upon nearly every public occasion of 
importance which has taken place at Pittsburg and the sur- 
rounding section. Notably was this the case at the banquet 
tendered to General Grant on his visit to Pittsburg when 
returning from his tour around the world, Mr. Cohen being 
called upon to respond to the toast, "Our Adopted Citizens." 
His eloquent reply stirred the souls of his hearers, General 
Grant himself rising from his place at the table and approach- 
ing Mr. Cohen congratulated him upon his masterly effort. 
Mr. Cohen has been twice President of the conventions of 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 207 

the Union of American Hebrew Congregations at their meet- 
ings in Buffalo, N. Y., and at Pittsburg, Penn., upon which 
occasions he presided witli that ability as presiding officer 
and parliamentarian for which he is so well known. Mr. 
Cohen has been President of the District Grand Lodge, No. 
3, of Independant Order E nai-Berith, and presided at their 
meeting in Philadelphia. During the past twenty years 
he has worked unceasingly for the success and welfare of the 
Order of B'nai-Berith and has never failed to participate in 
all its important deliberations. His devotion to the Order 
was recognized by his election in 1884 as Vice-President of 
the Order of B'nai-Berith in this country. 

Nina Morais-Cohen, wife of Emanuel Cohen, of Minne- 
apolis, Minn., and daughter of the Rev. Dr. Sabato Morals, 
was born in Philadelphia, December 6, 1855. She received a 
thorough education, which was completed at the Girls' High 
School of that city. She early displayed a fondness for lit- 
erature, and devoted many hours to deep reading. She has 
written largely for the secular and the Hebrew press, and for 
magazines, including the " North American Review." Two 
articles from her pen in that publication attracted wide 
attention. They were " The Limitations of Sex," an argu- 
ment in favor of woman suffrage, and " Jewish Ostracism in 
America." She has written many poems, and translated in 
verse poems from the Italian. She is also the author of a 
paper entitled " Circumstances as a Factor," for which she 
was awarded a prize. Her first-named contribution, and 
others pertaining to school discipline, instruction, etc., are 
always in demand, and she has likewise gained distinction 
as an elocutionist. 

Alfred De Cordova, one of the youngest and most promi- 



2o8 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

nent members of the New York Stock Exchange, was born 
at Kingston, Jamaica, on August 19, 1848. He is a son of 
Aaron De Cordova, a wealthy merchant, and has resided in 
New York since boyhood. He was engaged in various mer- 
cantile pursuits until 1875, when he became a member of the 
Board of Brokers of the New York Stock Exchange. When 
he began he had little or no capital, but with genial manners, 
hard work, tact, perseverance, and the strictest integrity, he 
gradually paved the way to his present honorable position. 
The fact that he has succeeded in gaining the esteem and 
friendship of some of the wealthiest and oldest members of 
the Stock Exchange is probably, from a business point of 
view, one of the main causes of his advancement and success. 
He is now able to indulge his early tastes, owns several noted 
horses, and is one of the best amateur drivers on the road ; 
is a disciple of Isaac Walton, owns a beautiful steam yacht, 
and is a member of the " New York," the " Gents' Driving 
Park," the " Turf," the " Jerome," and the " Coney Island 
Jockey" Clubs. He is also a great pigeon fancier, and 
some time since established regular communication between 
his Wall Street ofiSce and his summer residence in New 
Jersey by means of carrier pigeons. Mr. De Cordova, is 
both liberal and generous in giving freely to all charitable 
institutions, and has been for many years a member of the 
Congregation Shearith-Israel. 

Miriam Del Banco, the poetess, was born at New 
Orleans, in 1865, and is the daughter of the late Rabbi 
Max Del Banco. Shortly after the death of her father, 
which occurred during her infancy, she removed to St. Louis 
with her mother. In the public schools of that city she 
already displayed remarkable po^tJ? talent, and was then 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 209 

placed with her uncle Louis Meyer, at Cape Girardeau, Mo., 
where she attended the State Normal School, and received 
a liberal education. After graduating there with honors she 
joined her mother, who had meanwhile settled in Chicago, 
where she finally obtained a position as teacher in the public 
schools. Among her early literary productions are transla- 
tions of " Jewish Women " by Dr. Kayserling, which appeared 
in the " Jewish Advance," and also numerous articles, in- 
cluding poems in various Hebrew journals. 

S. Henry Dessau, M.D., of New York, was born at Macon, 
Ga., July 24, 1847. He graduated from Jefferson College, 
Philadelphia, and was Resident Physician at the Philadelphia 
Hospital. He was connected for five years with the New 
York Dispensary, in charge of the Children's Department. 
For nine years thereafter he acted as District Physician of 
the same institution, and was for nine years connected with 
the New York Foundling Asylum. He was also one of the 
medical staff of the Deborah Nursery. In 1871 Dr. Dessau 
was appointed one of the Health Inspectors of the city of 
New York. While engaged in general practice he has made 
a special study of diseases of children, in which he is con- 
sidered an authority. He is a member of various medical 
societies and his contributions include a treatise on " The 
Value of Small and Frequent Doses of Medicine '■ which ap- 
peared in the " New York Medical Record" of 1877, and an 
article on " Whooping Cough," published in the " Journal 
of Obstetrics and Diseases of Children." 

A. J. Dittenhoefer was born in South Carolina in March, 
1836. His parents moved to the city of New York when he 
was four years old, and he has resided there "continuously 
since. After first receiving a public school education he en- 



2IO THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

tered Columbia College Grammar School and subsequently 
the College, whence he graduated. There he was at the 
head of his class and received, at every examination, a prize 
for Latin and Greek, in which he displayed such proficiency 
that the famous Professor Anthon referred to him as his 
" Ultima Thule." At the age of twenty-one he was admitted 
to the Bar, soon made rapid progress, and within one year 
thereafter he was selected by the Republican party for 
Justice of the Marine (now City) Court. Some years later 
he was appointed by Governor Fenton a Judge of that 
Court, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Judge 
Florence McCarthy. After the expiration of his term he de- 
clined a renomination. While on the bench he donated the 
entire salary to the widow of his predecessor, who had been 
left in destitute circumstances. In i860 he was elected 
Presidential Elector of the State of New York, and had the 
honor of joining with the other electors in casting the vote 
of the State of New York for Abraham Lincoln, with whom 
he was on terms of friendship. He was offered by President 
Lincoln the position of United States Judge for the District 
of South Carolina, which he declined, being unwilling to give 
up his large practice in the city of New York. He was ap- 
pointed by the Republican State Convention a Delegate to 
the Cincinnati Convention which nominated President Hayes. 
Though a Southerner by birth. Judge Dittenhoefer joined 
the Republican party in its infancy, when there seemed to be 
no possible prospect of its ever gaining power in the State or 
nation. This course was adopted against the advice and 
protests of most of his friends and clients, who were all iden- 
tified with the Democratic party, but, being true to his con- 
victions, he allowed himself to be controlled solely by his 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 211 

sense of right. He has never since swerved from his alle- 
giance to the Republican party, serving as Chairman of the 
General Republican Central Committee for twelve terms, 
and has wielded considerable influence in the councils of the 
party. As a lawyer Judge Dittenhoeferhas gained a very high 
reputation, being often engaged in the most important cases. 
While his services have been required in all branches of the 
legal profession, he has been conspicuous in theatrical liti- 
gations, and is recognized as an authority on the law 
relating to the drama and the stage. There have been few 
cases of this character in which he has not appeared upon 
one side or the other ; generally with success. One of the 
most notable victories gained by him in this line was in the 
famous "Mikado" litigation, in which he succeeded in 
behalf of James C. Duff, of the Standard Theatre, in pre- 
venting the injunction that had been applied for by Joseph 
H. Choate on behalf of Messrs. Gilbert & Sullivan. He 
procured the incorporation of the influential association 
known as the Actors' Fund, and has ever since aided it by 
his advice, exacting no compensation therefor. He was also 
chiefly instrumental in securing the repeal of the law which 
for twenty-five years gave to the Society for the Reforma- 
tion of Juvenile Delinquents the license fees collected from 
the theatres of the city of New York, and the stigma thus 
cast upon the dramatic profession as a nursery for young 
criminals has been removed, and a large portion of these 
fees have ever since been donated by the city to the Actors' 
Fund. In recognition of these services he was presented 
with a testimonial, and with President Cleveland, Dr. 
Houghton and others, was elected an honorary member. 
His father, Isaac Dittenhoefer, was one of the founders of 



212 THE HEBREWS IX AMERICA. 

the order of B' nai-Berith and of the Temple Emami-El, and 
the Judge has for years been an influential member of both. 

Henry L. Eisner, M.D., was born at Syracuse, N. Y., 
August 15, 1855. He graduated at the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons of New York in 1877, continuing 
his studies at the Allgemeine Krankenhaus in Vienna, 
Austria. Since 1878 he has been a practicing physician in 
Syracuse, N. Y. From 1882 to 1884 he was instructor of the 
Practice of Medicine at the Medical College of Syracuse 
University, from 1884 to 1886 a lecturer at the same insti- 
tution, and since 1886 he has been Professor of Clinical 
Medicine in the same institution. He has been Visiting 
Physician to St. Joseph's Hospital since 1882. In 1883 Dr. 
Eisner was elected Secretary of the Onondaga County Med- 
ical Society, and the two following years President of 
the Syracuse Medical Society. He has also been Vice- 
President of the Onondaga County Medical Society and 
President of the Boerhaavian Society. His contributions to 
medical literature are numerous and valuable. 

Moses J. Ezekiel, the sculptor, was born in Richmond, 
Va., in 1844, and graduated from the Virginia Military Insti- 
tute in 1866. In 1869 he entered the Royal Academy of 
Arts in Berlin, remaining there two years and then pursuing 
his studies under Professor Albert Wolf. In 1873 he was 
awarded the Michaelbeer prize, which entitled him to two 
years study and residence in Italy without expense. His 
works, which have been exhibited in all the art centres of 
Europe, have elicited universal commendation. Among 
them may be mentioned : "Religious Liberty," now at Fair- 
mount Park, Philadelphia, " Pan and Armor," " The Martyr," 
" The Sailor Boy," " Grace Darling," " Mercury," " Faith " 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 21 3 

and "Consolation." An American writer says of his 
" Religious Liberty ": " He thoroughly understands, vener- 
ates and appreciates Michael Angelo's greatness, and he has 
gone to nature like a confiding, trusting child, with reverence 
for nature's mighty power of superiority." Of the same 
work an Italian critic says : " Usually abstract ideas, incarn- 
ated in marble or on canvass, are mute. Ezekiel gives them 
speech. Modern sentiments of a philosophico-religious char- 
acter utter audible words in his marble. One can see in it 
the synthesis of civilization, the sublime conception of a 
religion which draws one people to another in the bond of 
brotherhood." Ezekiel's bronze bust of Liszt, in the Con- 
servatory of Music at Pesth, is considered a masterpiece, and 
is said to have drawn from one of the great pianist's pupils 
the exclamation, " It is the great master himself! " Ezekiel's 
studio, which is located in the Baths of Diocletian, is said to 
be the quaintest and most artistic of all in Rome. The floor 
is covered with rich antique tiles, 1,500 years old, the walls 
are fragments of the Bath of Diocletian and eight elephants' 
heads hold the candles that light the studio. 

Aaron Friedenwald, M. D., of Baltimore, is a specialist 
in diseases of the eye and ear. He was born in Baltimore, in 
1836, and is a graduate of the University of Maryland. He 
is a member of various Medical Societies, and is the author 
of " Indications for Removing the Eye-ball and Difificulties 
Attending the Wearing of Artificial Eyes." Dr. Friedenwald 
is Professor of Diseases of the Eye and Ear in the Baltimore 
College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

Daniel Frohman, the theatrical manager, has for some 
years given the public first-class theatrical attractions of 
artistic merit and dramatic importance. He is thirty-six years 



214 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

of age, and has been a theatrical manager for thirteen years. 
He is at present manager of the Lyceum Theatre, New- 
York. From 1876 to 1878 he was one of J. H. Haverly's 
managers, and took the control of the Fifth Avenue when 
Mr. Haverly was its lessee. In 1880 he became the business 
manager of the Madison Square Theatre, and upon Mr. 
Steele Mackaye's withdrawal was given the general manage- 
ment. Under Mr. Frohman's management were produced 
" Hazel Kirke," " The Professor," " Esmeralda," " The 
Rajah," " Young Mrs. Winthrop," " May Blossom," and 
other plays, and a dozen companies were kept travelling. 
After five years of profitable management Mr. Frohman re- 
tired from the house, and in 1885 he assumed the sole man- 
agement of the Lyceum, where he has been remarkably suc- 
cessful. In 1887 he produced "The Highest Bidder," "The 
Great Pink Pearl," and " The Wife." He also developed a 
bright star in young Sothern. 

Morris Goodhart was born in Amsterdam, Holland, in 
1838, and came to this country when eight years of age, 
soon after which he was sent to a public school of New York 
City. There he pursued his studies until 1849, when, with his 
parents, he removed to Hartford, Conn., where his studies 
were resumed. In 1865 he graduated at the Law Depart- 
ment of Yale College, and was the first Hebrew admitted to 
practice law in the State of Connecticut. He commenced 
the practice of his profession at New Haven, in which city 
he held the office of Justice of the Peace, and was appointed 
to the responsible position of Clerk of the City Court a short 
time afterwards. In the month of July, 1865, he was ad- 
mitted a member of the Bar of the State of New York, where 
he soon became known, meeting with the success due to a 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 21 5 

painstaking and able lawyer. Mr. Goodhart takes particu- 
lar delight in advising and helping his own countrymen, and 
also members of his faith. He has been for years an active 
member of most of the fraternal societies in this country. 
He has been the President of District Grand Lodge No. i of 
the Order of B'nai-Berith, and President of the B'nai-Berith 
Benevolent Society, and is now Judge of the Court of Ap- 
peal of that Order, having been selected to that honorable 
position by the District Grand Lodge in Germany. He is 
a prominent member and officer of the Knights of Honor, 
American Legion of Honor, Royal Arcanum, Odd Fellows, 
and Fi'ee Masons. Mr. Goodhart is also President of the 
Hebrew Mutual Benefit Society, and a member of the 
Advisory Board of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society 
for children. He is also ex-Vice-Chairman of the Committee 
of the Maimonides Library, L O. B. B. 

William B. Hackenburg, of Philadelphia, has taken a lead- 
ing part in many prominent Hebrew movements through- 
out the country. He presided at one of the Councils of the 
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, and was among 
the first connected with the Jewish Hospital Association of 
Philadelphia. He was for a long period its Treasurer, and 
on the retirement of Abraham A. Wolf as President some 
five years since, was chosen his successor. He is an indefatig- 
able worker and is regarded as one of the most prominent 
Hebrew citizens of Philadelphia. 

Leah Cohen Harby (known as " Lee C. Harby ") is the 
daughter of the late Marx E. Cohen, of Charleston, S. C. 
She married her cousin, J. D. Harby, and removed with him 
to his home in Texas. After her marriage she developed a 
taste for literary pursuits, and is known in her section of the 



2l6 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

country as a writer of verse and fiction. Some years ago she 
contributed religious articles-to the "Jewish South,'' pub- 
Hshed in New Orleans, and also took charge of its woman's 
department. She has frequently written for the "Jewish 
Messenger " and the " New Orleans Times-Democrat." 

Daniel P. Hays, of New York, is a native of Pleasant- 
viUe, Westchester County, N. Y. He was born March 28, 
1854, and was educated in the public schools and Col- 
lege of the city of New York. He entered the law office of 
ex-Judge Elias J. Beach, and in 1875, having graduated from 
Columbia College Law School two years before, he formed 
a partnership with Judge Beach, who died a few months 
later, whereupon Mr. Hays associated with James S. Carpen- 
tier under the firm name of Carpentier & Hays, which was 
dissolved by the death of Mr. Carpentier in 1886. Mr. Hays 
is now head of the law firm of Hays, Greenbaum & Shram, 
and is engaged in general practice in mercantile, corporation 
and real estate law, in which he has been very successful and 
has built up a large practice. Mr. Hays was one of the early 
supporters of the Young Mens' Hebrew Association, served 
for many years as Director, was Vice-President in 1878, and 
in 1879 ^""^ 18S0 was elected President. He was one of the 
founders of the " American Hebrew," and one of the original 
Board of Editors. He is Vice-President of the Congrega- 
tion Temple of Israel, of Harlem, and President of the 
Mount Morris Club, a large and influential social organiz- 
ation in the upper part of the city. In 1880 Mr. Hays 
removed to Nyack, Rockland County, where he lived for 
some years. He was a delegate from that County to the 
Democratic State Convention in 1884, but has never other- 
wise taken any acti\'c interest in politics. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 21/ 

Angelo Heilprin, son of Michael Heilprin, is a native 
of Hungary, and was born in 1853. In London, Florence, 
Geneva and Vienna he studied Natural History, and at the 
age of twenty-seven received the appointment of Professor 
of Invertebrate Paleontology of the Academy of Natural 
Science at Philadelphia, and was also made Curator in charge 
of the Museum of that institution. Five years afterward 
the Wagner Free Institute of Science, in the same city, 
selected him as Professor of Geology. His writings are 
valuable and widely circulated. Among them are " Contri- 
butions to the Tertiary Geology and Paleontology of the 
United States," " Geographical and Geological Distribution 
of Animals," and " Explorations on the West Coast of 
Florida and on the Okeechobee Wilderness," etc. His works 
show an enormous amount of labor and intelligent study, 
and have placed the author in the front rank of naturalists. 

Michael Heilprin was born in Poland, in 1823. He was 
attached to the literary bureau of the Department of the 
Interior of Hungary during the Revolution of 1848, and in 
1856 reached the United States. He has attained eminence 
by his contributions to various literary journals and his labors 
in connection with the " American Cyclopsedia." In 1879-80 
he published " The Historical Poetry of the Ancient 
Hebrews." Under his direction, several Hebrew colonies 
have been successfully established in various parts of the 
United States. 

Louis Heilprin, son of Michael Heilprin, was born at Mis- 
koelz, Hungary, in 185 1. He is the author of "The His- 
torical Reference Book,'' published in 1885. 

Otto Horwitz was born in the city of New York in 
185 1. After a four years' course in the College of the city 



2l8 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

of New York he went to Europe, where his studies were 
continued for two years under the personal supervision of his 
uncle, Dr. Joseph Horwitz, of Berlin, who holds the office of 
" Justizrath," and has been for fifteen years a leading mem- 
ber of the City Government of Berlin and member of the 
Reichstag. He will be remembered in this country by his 
connection as senior counsel in the famous case of Madame 
Kalomine and the Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, son-in-law of 
Queen Victoria. Upon his return to this country Mr. Horwitz 
resumed his studies, and in April, 1872, was admitted before 
the General Term of the Supreme Court of New York, and has 
continued in active practice ever since. Among important 
cases in which he has been retained was that known as the 
Kelly Will Case, in which the Court of Appeals reversed 
the decisions of the lower courts and sustained Mr. 
Horwitz's contentions. In one assignment case by a firm 
with $2,000,000 liabilities, he represented creditors whose 
claims aggregated $100,000, and succeeded in setting aside 
the assignment, being opposed in the course of the contest 
by about seventy of the ablest members of the New 
York Bar. In another assignment case, with $600,000 liabili- 
ties, Mr. Horwitz also succeeded in setting aside the assign- 
ment and recovered the whole amount due his clients. His 
rank at the New York Bar is high and his practice is 
extensive. 

Herman N. Hyneman, the eminent artist, is a son of the 
late Isaac Hyneman of Philadelphia, and a native of that 
city. In 1874, having abandoned mercantile pursuits, he 
commenced his studies at Paris under the renowned Bonnat. 
His success was rapid, and at the Paris Salon of 1879, he ex- 
hibited his picture " Desdemona," which was afterwards pur- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 219 

chased by Mr. Klemm, of Philadelphia. The following 
year he exhibited " Juliet " at the Paris Salon, and remained 
abroad eight years. His later pictures which have been ex- 
tensively reproduced, are " Margarite in Prison," " It Might 
Have Been," and " The Passing Glance." Mr. Hyneman's 
" Desdemona," received the approval of all discriminating 
critics, one of whom has said : " Looking at Shakespeare's 
heroine as one sees her here, one sees no commentary on the 
story of which she was the heroine. Although in the main 
intended as an ideal, Hyneman has represented her after 
one of those stormy interviews with Othello. The face is 
very sad, and the expressive attitudej clasped hands and pa- 
tient resignation, all bring Shakespeare's lovely heroine be- 
fore one's eyes." 

Abram S. Isaacs, son of the late Rabbi, S. M. Isaacs, was 
born in the city of New York in 1853 and educated at the 
University of the City of New York where he graduated in 
1 87 1, receiving the degree of B.A. After graduation he pro- 
ceeded to Europe and completed his studies at the Univer- 
sity of Breslau and the Jewish Seminary in the same city, 
where he received the degree of Ph. D. Returning to 
America he assumed the editorial management of the "Jewish 
Messenger" with which he has since been identified. In 
1886 Dr. Isaacs was appointed Professor of Semitic languages 
in the University of the city of New York. 

Myer S. Isaacs was born in the city of New York, in 1841. 
He is the eldest son of Rev. S. M. Isaacs, and received from 
his parents an exceptional home-training. He attended 
Forests' Collegiate School, and in 1856 entered the New 
York University where he was awarded all prizes of Fresh- 
man and Sophomore years and graduated in 1859. ■'■'^ 18,62 



220 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

he graduated from the New York University Law School, 
and was admitted to the Bar the day he became twenty-one 
years old. He adopted as his particular department of 
practice real estate law, wills and trusts, and his firm of 
M. S. & I. S. Isaacs are now (1888) among the leaders in 
that branch. Mr. Isaacs is Vice-President of the Real Estate 
Exchange, one of the Executive Committee of the Univer- 
sity Alumni Association, and of the Republican Club. He 
has taken an active part in public affairs. While warmly 
interested in politics, he has held public office only once, 
when, in 1880, he was appointed by Governor Cornell, Judge 
of the Marine Court of the city of New York. In 1857 
Judge Isaacs became interested in the establishment of the 
"Jewish Messenger," and was for twenty years associated 
with his father and brothers as editor. In 1859 ^^ aided in 
founding the Board of Delegates of American Israelites, and 
served as Secretary until 1876, when he was elected Pres- 
ident, resigning from the Board in 1885, the Society having 
meanwhile become a Committee of the Union of American 
Hebrew Congregations. In 1881 Judge Isaacs was elected 
to the Central Committee of the Alliance Israelite Univer- 
selle. In 1865 he became one of the founders of the 
Hebrew Free School Association, of which he is now Pres- 
ident. In 1873 he took the initiative in organizing the 
United Hebrew Charities. He also took a leading part in 
organizing a hospital for chronic sufferers, subsequently 
crystallized in the Montefiore Home ; in the foundation of 
the Hebrew Technical Institute (the outcome of the United 
Hebrew Charities, Orphan Asylum and Hebrew P'ree School 
Association) and of the Purim Association, of which he was 
the first President. He called the meeting of December, 1881, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 221 

to consider the • condition of the emigrants fleeing from 
Russia, and was one of the Executive Committee of the Aid 
Society and subsequently Treasurer of the Montefiore Agri- 
cultural Aid Society which founded and assisted colonies in 
Kansas, Dakota and New Jersey, and he was Chairman of 
the Committee in charge of the Cremeiux Memorial of 1880, 
and took part in the obsequies of Lasker and in the Monte- 
fiore Memorial service. Judge Isaacs' activity in Jewish 
organizations has followed a line which keeps in view the 
promotion of education, intellectual and moral, and the 
fashioning of institutions for the Hebrew denomination, akin 
.n method and purpose to the most approved and successful 
institutions among other religious bodies. 

Ephraim A. Jacob, of New York, was a member of the 
class of 1864 of the College of the City of New York, 
and of the class of 1866 of Columbia College Law School. 
He has been practicing law since 1867, devoting much of his 
time to editorial work of a legal nature. His first work, 
" Jacob's Fisher's Digest," which with supplements is com- 
prised in eleven volumes, ran through many editions and 
reached a larger circulation than any other digest. For sev- 
eral years past Mr. Jacob has been engaged in editing the 
reports of the Court of Common Pleas of the City of New 
York, and has now in course of preparation a work of great 
magnitude entitled the " Complete Digest," the first volume 
of which is already in press. 

Abraham Jacobi, M.D., of New York, was born in Hartum, 
near Minden, Westphalia, Germany, May 6, 1830, and edu- 
cated at the Gymnasium of Minden and Universities of 
Greifswald, Gottingen and Bonn. He has resided in New 
York since 1853, and has been President of the New York 



222 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Medical Society and Professor of Diseases of Children in 
New York University. He holds memberships in leading 
medical societies in Berlin and Wiirzburg and honorary 
memberships in societies in many American cities. His 
contributions to medical literature are voluminous and of the 
highest importance. 

Sigismund D. Jacobson, M.D., of Chicago, is known as a 
skillful surgeon. He comes from Copenhagen, Denmark, 
where he was born February 1 3, 1 837. At the age of eighteen, 
having graduated from college, he entered the University of 
Copenhagen, where he studied medicine until his graduation 
in 1862. From 1862 to 1865 he was attached to the staff of 
the Royal Hospital at Copenhagen, serving meanwhile as a 
surgeon during the Schleswig-Holstein War of 1864. He 
was for one year connected with the Royal Lying-in Hos- 
pital at Copenhagen, and in 1866 settled at Chicago, where 
he has resided ever since. In that city he was for eight 
years surgeon at the Cook County Hospital, Honorary 
Physician at Rush College, Consulting Surgeon at Michael 
Reese Hospital, Consulting Surgeon of the German Hospital 
and Professor of Surgery of the Chicago Polyclinic. 

Caroline Cohen Joachimsen, wife of Joseph P. Joachimsen, 
was born in Charleston, S. C, where she resided until after 
the war, at which time she removed to Sumter, S. C. She is 
a daughter of the late Marx E. Cohen, and a granddaughter 
of Isaac Harby. At an early age she developed literary 
ability, composing poems before she was able to write. One 
piece (" The Rainbow ") composed when she was but nine 
years old, is still preserved in her family. Many of her poems 
were published in Southern journals during the war. For 
three years previous to her marriage she was assistant editor 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 22.^ 

of the " Philadelphia Jewish Record." A short time pre- 
vious to her marriage, she severed her connection with the 
" Record," but still continued her literary pursuits, which in- 
cluded articles upon theological subjects and current events, 
poems and romances. Among her writings are " Just One 
Family,'' published in the " Charleston News and Courier," 
and re-published in book form under the title " Our Women 
in the War," " A Royal Secret," a romance of ancient 
Egypt, published serially in the " Hebrew Standard," in 
which the heroine (the Princess Thermutis, daughter of the 
Pharaoh Sesostris) figures as the actual mother of Moses, 
whose life she saved. Her poems include " In the Bed- 
chamber of Elizabeth," and "After the Death of Mary 
Stuart," published in " Donahue's Magazine," of Boston. 
It represents an ideal meeting of the souls of the two queens. 
Poems from her pen have appeared in a number of leading 
newspapers. 

Philip J. Joachimsen was born in Silesia, November 1817. 
Arriving in New York in 1831, he studied law in the offices 
of Clinton & Kane, Samuel Meredith and John L. Law- 
rence, and, having been admitted to the bar, was in 1840 ap- 
pointed Assistant Corporation Attorney of the city of New 
York, and fifteen years later, Assistant United States Dis- 
trict Attorney, and under special provision of an Act of 
Congress, was appointed Substitute United States Attorney. 
During his term of office he secured the first conviction for 
smuggling, the first capital conviction for slave-trading, and 
also the conviction of the Nicaragua filibusterers and the vio- 
lators of the Neutrality Laws during the Franco-Russian War. 
By direction of President Franklin Pierce, Attorney-General 
Caleb Cushing officially conveyed to Mr. Joachimsen the 



224 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

thanks of the Government for the ability with which he dis- 
charged his duties. Tendering his resignation on account of 
differences growing out of the Kansas-Nebraska question, 
Mr. Joachimsen resumed the practice of law, and, in 1870, 
was elected a Judge of the Marine Court of New York City, 
remaining on the bench until the expiration of the term in 
December, 1876, when he returned to active practice. In 
1850 Mr. Joachimsen was elected Vice-President of the He- 
brew Young Men's Fuel Association. In i854he was chosen 
Vice-President of the Hebrew Benevolent Society, and in 
1855 its President. He was elected first President of the He- 
brew Orphan Asylum in 1859 ^-hd secured its charter the fol- 
lowing year. In 1871 he became interested in the progress of 
the Home for Infirm and Indigent Hebrews, and was made 
Honorary Counsel, his wife, Mrs. P. J. Joachimsen, being at the 
time President. He organized the Hebrew Sheltering Guar- 
dian Society for Children, in 1879, ^.nd has since remained 
Chairman of the Advisory Board. Mr. Joachimsen is a 
member of the Congregation Shearith-Israel, the I. O. B. B. 
and the Masonic Order, and has contributed frequently to 
the " New York Staats Zeitung," " Albany Law Journal," 
" Jewish Messenger," and other publications. 

Abner Kalisch was born in Cleveland, Ohio, September 2 
1853, ^^d at an early age removed to Newark, N. J., where 
he read law and attended lectures at the Columbia College 
Law School, New York. In 1875 he was admitted to the 
Bar, and soon after began to practice with considerable 
success, especially in cases of a criminal nature, in which he 
was associated with his brother, Samuel Kalisch. 

Leonard Kalisch was born in Cleveland, Ohio, April 12, 
1849, and received his academic education in the public 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 22$ 

schools of New York City. In 1877 he was graduated L.L.B. 
from Columbia College Law School, and in the same year 
was admitted as an Attorney-at-Law. On receiving his 
license, Mr. Kalisch entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession in Newark, N. J., where he has since resided. 

Samuel Kalisch was born in Cleveland, Ohio, April 11, 
185 1, and received a classical education under the tuition of 
his father the eminent Rabbi, and in the schools of Cleveland 
and Lawrence, Mass. Subsequently he was graduated from 
Columbia College Law School and was admitted to the Bar of 
New Jersey, where his parents had meanwhile settled. His 
successful and ingenious defense of several criminals charged 
with murder, in 1876 and 1878, placed him in the front rank 
of criminal lawyers in that State. In many important civil 
causes he also received a brilliant reputation. In 1875 Mr. 
Kalisch was Corporation Attorney for the City of Newark. 

Ephraim Keyser, the sculptor, was born in Baltimore in 
1850. He studied in the Royal Art Academy of Munich, 
under Professor Widmann, for four years, and at the Royal 
Art Academy of Berlin, under Professor Albert Wolff, where 
he carried off a prize for a life-size figure of " Psyche," which 
entitled him to a year's study at Rome at the expense of • 
the Government. " The Toying Page," another of his pro- 
ductions, is the property of a Baltimore connoisseur. His 
crowning work is a statue of DeKalb in the State House at 
Annapolis, Md. 

Edward Lauterbach was born in the City of New York 
August 12, 1844. He received a common school education, 
and then entered the New York Academy, where he 
graduated in 1864. He first studied, law with Townsend, 
Dyett & Morrison, and then practiced with Henry Morrison 



226 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

of that firm, and Siegmund Spingarn. On the death of Mr. 
Spingarn, he associated with Messrs. William Cohen and 
Louis Adler, under the firm name of Lauterbach & Spin- 
garn, and in the spring of 1887 he associated with George 
Hoadley, ex-Governor of Ohio, and Edgar M. Johnson. 
During the past two years Mr. Lauterbach has engineered 
some of the most intricate problems, many of them involv- 
ing millions of dollars. His familiarity with the law, com- 
bined with a high order of diplomacy, renders him at all 
times a formidable antagonist at the Bar. In earnestness, 
courtesy, thoroughness and remarkable tact in harmon- 
izing conflicting interests, Mr. Lauterbach has attained high 
rank. He is Vice-President and Counsel of the Pacific Mail 
Steamship Company, President and Counsel of the Consoli- 
dated Telegraph and Electrical Subway Company, Director 
and Counsel of the Third Avenue Railway Company, 
Director of the Richmond and West Point Railway and 
Warehouse Company, Counsel for the East Tennessee and 
Virginia Railroad and associate railway companies, and 
Director and Counsel of the Union and Brooklyn Elevated 
Railways. Mr. Lauterbach has been for years an active 
member of most of the New York Hebrew charitable and 
benevolent associations, and has served as Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Society for Ethical Culture, Director of the 
Home for Aged and Infirm, Benevolent and Orphan Asylum, 
Technical Institute, Emigrant Aid Society, and many other 
organizations. 

Henry M. Leipziger, of New York, was born in England 
in 1854, and graduated from the College of the City of 
New York when eighteen years old. He has given much 
attention to educational matters, and is now, and has been 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 22; 

since its organization, Director of the Hebrew Technical 
Institute of New York, the remarkable success of which is 
largely due to his management. Mr. Leipziger taught for 
seven years in the public schools of New York City, and 
resigned in 1888, since which time he has devoted special 
attention to the study of educational problems. He is a 
man of high attainments, and has delivered lectures on the 
philosophy and science of teaching, as well as on religious 
topics, with marked success, having been for many years 
connected with the Temple Enianu-El religious school. 

Joseph C. Levi, who is counsel for numerous corporations 
and estates, is one of the leading real estate, conveyancing 
and probate lawyers in New York. He was born in Cincin- 
nati, in 1839, '"^ ''• house owned by Salmon P. Chase, but has 
resided in New York since he was five years of age. He 
graduated from the Grammar School of Columbia College, 
studied law in the office of Joshua M. Van Cott, and was 
admitted to the Bar in i860. He is one of the best known 
and most respected members of the New York Bar. 

Alexander Blumenstiel graduated from New York College 
in 1863, received the degree of Master of Arts in 1866, 
studied law in Columbia College and commenced practicing 
the same year. Prior to his admission to the Bar he was 
engaged as reporter on various daily papers and was for a 
time Associate Editor of the "Jewish Record," and New 
York correspondent of the " San Francisco Hebrew." His 
practice has been confined almost exclusively to bankruptcy 
cases, and he is the author of " Blumenstiel on Bankruptcy," 
which was issued about the time of the repeal of the bank- 
rupt law and had a large sale. 

Jesse W. Lilienthal, son of the late Rabbi Lilienthal, 



228 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

of Cincinnati, is one of the most promising among the 
younger members of the New York Bar. He graduated at 
the Cincinnati College, and entered upon a course of law at 
Harvard College, but just before graduating, and after having 
been chosen the orator of his class, his health failed him, and 
he devoted upwards of two years to travel in all parts of the 
world. Upon his return home, Harvard College took the 
extraordinary course of conferring on him its degree of 
Bachelor of Laws, without examination, justifying its act 
because of the conspicuous record made by Mr. Lilienthal 
while in attendance at College. Mr. Lilienthal is, in point of 
service, the senior member of the Committee on the Amend- 
ment of the Law of the New York Bar Association. He is 
also one of the standing contributors to the " Harvard Law 
Review," one of the leading law journals of the country. He 
possesses his father's gift of oratory, and is constantly sought 
after for public addresses. In his practice, which is large 
and lucrative, he occupies himself more particularly with 
questions arising under the law of corporations. 

Samuel Lilienthal, M. D., was born in Munich, Bavaria, in 
1816, and graduated in the University of that city. He is a 
brother of the late Rabbi Lilienthal, of Cincinnati. He came 
to this country when twenty-seven years of age, settling in 
Lancaster, Penn., whence he removed to Haverstraw, N. Y., 
and finally took up his abode in the city of New York, where 
he resided from 1856 to 1887. He is the author of a valua- 
able work on therapeutics, of which three editions have been 
published ; a work on skin diseases, and has written a treatise 
on nervous diseases. In the Hahnemann College of the city 
of New York he was Professor of Nervous Diseases and 
Demonstrator at Clinics, and occupied a similar office in the 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 229 

New York Woman's Medical College. He is now engaged 
in like duties in San Francisco, where he settled in 1887. 

Louis Marshall, of Syracuse, one of the most distinguished 
lawyers in the Empire State, was born at Syracuse, N. Y., 
December 14, 1856. He graduated from the High School of 
that city in June, 1874. He studied lawat the Columbia Col- 
lege Law School in New York City, and was admitted to prac- 
tice at Syracuse in January, 1876, and at once entered the firm 
of Ruger, Jenney, Brooks & French, the head of which is at 
the present time (1888) Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals 
of the State of New York. Mr. Marshall was associated 
with this eminent jurist until his elevation to the bench, and 
since that time has been a member of the firm of Jenney, 
Brooks, Marshall & Ruger, the leading firm in Central New 
York. Scarcely an important case arises in that section in 
which Mr. Marshall is not called in as counsel. He gives 
more attention to the purely legal aspects of the cases in 
which he is engaged, although he also takes part in jury 
cases and in the trial of equity cases. During the past five 
years he has argued more cases at General Term and in 
the Court of Appeals than any lawyer of his age in the State 
of New York, and a greater number than any lawyer in Cen- 
tral New York. 

Constant Mayer is a native of Besancon, France, and was 
born in 1831. He studied in I'Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 
Paris, and also under Leon Cogniet. He has resided in New 
York since 1857. His specialty is life-size genre pictures. 
His better known works are " Consolation," " Recognition," 
"Good Works," "Love's Melancholy," "Maud Miiller," 
" Street Melodies," " Dream of Love," " Song of a Shirt," 
" The Oracle of a Field." Among his portraits are those of 



230 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Madame de Lizardi, Lady of Honor to the Empress Car- 
lotta ; Gen. Grant and Gen. Sheridan. In 1869 Mr. Mayer 
was created by the Emperor Napoleon III. a Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. 

Marcus R. Mayer, for some years prominent in the the- 
atrical business, introduced Julia Dean Hayne, and piloted 
Charles Kean, Ellen Tree, Lawrence Barrett, Rose Eytinge, 
Fanny Davenport, Sarah Bernhardt, Edwin Booth, Christine 
Nilsson, Mrs. Langtry, Henry Irving, Ellen Terry and Mary 
Anderson throughout the United States. Mr. Mayer was 
born at New Orleans in 1843, and was educated at Fordham, 
(N. Y.) College. He was a member of the California State 
Senate in 1869, is a practical printer, and has been identified 
with journalism. He has been in the theatrical business 
since 1862. 

The Rev. Dr. Sabato Morals was born in Leghorn, Tuscany, 
Italy, April 13, 1823. He studied Hebrew lore and theology 
under various eminent preceptors, including Abraham Baruch 
Piperno, chief Rabbi of Leghorn. After teaching in Leg- 
horn he went to London in 1846 as master of Hebrew in the 
Orphans' School of the Portuguese congregation in Bevis 
Marks. During a five years' residence in London he became 
intimate with many leaders of the community, among them 
Sir Moses Montefiore. In 1851 he sailed for this country, 
and in March of that year was chosen Minister of the Con- 
gregation Mickve-Israel of Philadelphia, which position he 
still occupies. He at once identified himself with Hebrew 
affairs, writing for numerous secular and Hebrew publica- 
tions upon a variety of topics. He early became known as 
a leader of the orthodox wing of Judaism. He has preached 
to congregations in various cities and has addressed many 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 231 

public meetings. Dr. Morais has been a member of most 
of the leading Hebrew organizations in this country. He 
espoused the cause of Anti-Slavery, and during the Civil 
War was elected an honorary member of the Union League 
of Philadelphia. On June 8, 1887, he received the honorary 
degree of LL.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, being 
the first Hebrew thus honored by that institution. He has 
been somewhat connected with the politics of his native 
land, and enjoyed the friendship of the patriot, Joseph Maz- 
zini, from whom he received a number of autograph letters. 
Dr. Morais was Professor of the Bible and Biblical Litera- 
ture in the Maimonides College, of Philadelphia. In these 
branches he is regarded as second to none in America, and he 
speaks with ease five languages and understands in all seven. 
He was active in founding the Jewish Theological Seminary 
in New York. Dr. Morais is President of the Faculty of that 
institution, and of the Advisory Board of Ministers. His 
correspondents include the leading men in Hebrew circles 
throughout the world. Among his numerous works are 
" Italian-Hebrew Literature," " The Ritual Question," " The 
Falashas," translations of several works by Maimonides and 
Samuel David Luzzatto, articles and lectures on many great 
Hebrew scholars, on the Bible, Post-Biblical history, on the 
Talmud, on the Jewish religion, on Mazzini, Abraham Lin- 
coln, Victor Emanuel, Montefiore, and many others. A 
lecture on the Book of Esther was delivered by him in 
London. He has also revised a number of Hebrew works. 
He has always opposed the permanent publication of his 
writings, some of which have been electrotyped and stereo- 
typed. 

Henry Samuel Morais, son of the Rev. Dr. Sabato Morais, 



232 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

is a native of Philadelphia, and was born May 13, i860. Re- 
ceiving a regular school education, he graduated from the 
senior class of a Philadelphia Grammar School, and then read 
law, which he soon abandoned, in order to follow a literary- 
career. For some years he has contributed articles on vari- 
ous subjects to secular and Hebrew papers, including current 
matters in Judaism, Jewish literary topics, and general ques- 
tions, biographical sketches of Hebrew celebrities, on music, 
the drama, etc. In 1880 he published a book containing 
biographical sketches of 100 personages, men and women, 
distinguished in various lines, calling it " Eminent Israelites 
of the Nineteenth Century." He has also issued a review, 
entitled "The Daggatouns; a tribe of Jewish origin in the 
Desert of Sahara," discovered by Rabbi Mordecai Aby 
Serour, whose pamphlet on the subject written in Hebrew 
was translated into French by M. Isidore Loeb, of Paris. 
Mr. Morals has contributed frequently to most of the 
Jewish papers in this country, and has also written for the 
" Philadelphia Press " and " Philadelphia Times." He made 
the first move towards establishing the " Jewish Exponent," 
of Philadelphia, of which he is now one of the editors, his 
associates being Messrs. Charles Hoffman and Melvin G. 
Winstock, young lawyers of well-known ability. 

J. S. Moore, the apostle of Free Trade, was born in 
Germany in 1822. He received a common school educa- 
tion, and came to this country when quite young, settling 
in Mississippi where he opened a store. In 1849 he went to 
San Francisco, and was there associated with the firm of 
Moore, Phillips & Co., merchants in the China trade, in 
whose interest he established houses at the Cape of Good 
Hope and Sydney. Returning to the United States in 1 865, he 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 233 

formed the acquaintance of Hugh McCullough, Secretary of 
the Treasury, who found Mr. Moore invaluable in the inves- 
tigation of economic questions. Mr. Moore was then made 
Assistant Special Commissioner of the Revenue under David 
A. Wells, and the same time there appeared in the " New 
York World," a series of letters in denunciation of the 
protective policy signed, " Parsee Merchant." Since that 
time Mr. Moore's contributions on the tariff question have 
been numerous and find wide circulation both in the United 
States and Europe. 

Godfrey Morse, of Boston, has attained eminence as a law- 
yer and as the incumbent of numerous important public 
offices. He was born at Wachenheim, May 19, 1846, and 
reached Boston when eight years of age. He graduated 
from the public schools. High School and Latin School, 
and finally from Harvard College in 1870, receiving the 
degrees of A.L.B. and A.B. At Harvard he was for two 
years editor of the college journal, " The Advocate." 
Having graduated at the Law School in 1872, he was admit- 
ted to the Bar, having meanwhile served as a teacher of the 
Boston Evening High School. In 1882-83 he was elected a 
member of the Boston Common Council, serving as President 
of that body for some months during his second term. He 
was also counsel for the United States in the Court of Com- 
missioners of the Alabama Claims. 

Adolph Moses enjoys the respect and confidence of the 
Bench and Bar of Chicago, where he has been since 1869, 
a shining light in the legal fraternity. He was born at 
Speyer, in the Palatinate, on February 25, 1837, and gradu- 
ated at the Gymnasium, in his native city. When sixteen 
years old he came to the United States, settling at New 



234 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Orleans, where he attended the Law Institute and graduated. 
He served in the Confederate Army, rose to the rank of 
Captain, and was made prisoner, and being paroled, took up 
his residence at Quincy, 111., whence, after a few years, he 
settled in Chicago. He has been a most valuable member of 
the Board of Directors of the Public Library and enjoys a 
lucrative legal practice. 

Henry Hosier, an artist of world-wide renown, was born 
at Cincinnati in 1840. After pursuing his studies in Europe 
under the best masters, he made rapid progress as a painter, 
and in 1883 he exhibited at the Paris Salon a picture known 
as " The Prodigal's Return." It portrayed a son kneeling 
at the death-bed of his mother, the priest in attendance at 
religious duties and two lighted candles at the foot of the 
bed. The work, which was much admired, was purchased 
by the French Government and placed in the Luxembourg 
Gallery, whence it was sent to Germany for exhibition. It 
was afterward returned to the Luxembourg Gallery. Mr. 
Hosier now resides in Paris, where he is engaged on 
three pictures depicting Indian life, on an order for W. 
Warner, of Rochester, New York, for which he is to receive 
the sum of $75,000. In order to thoroughly master the 
characteristics of the Red man for the proper execution of 
these works, H. Hosier has visited various Indian tribes in 
America under Government protection. 

Nathan Myers, of the well-known law firm of Stern & 
Hyers, of New York, is a native of St. Louis, where he was 
born August 4, 1848. He was educated in the St. Louis 
High School, and studied law in the office of Glover Shepley 
of that city, and was admitted to the Bar in 1868. In St. 
Louis Mr. Myers established a large practice, which he 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 235 

enjoyed up to 1881, when he removed to New York and 
associated with Simon H. Stern, under the firm name of 
Stern & Myers. 

Benjamin Franklin Peixotto was born in the city of New 
York, November 13, 1834. He is a son of the late Dr. 
Daniel L. M. Peixotto, an eminent physician. His parents 
removed to Ohio in 1836, but returned to New York in 
1841, where Benjamin received his earliest education. In his 
thirteenth year, shortly after his father's death, he settled at 
Cleveland. Here, though engaged in commercial business, 
he completed his education in the classics and the modern 
languages under the tutorship of Prof. Karl Ruger, who 
fitted him for a collegiate course, but circumstances pre- 
vented his realizing this wish. Mr. Peixotto was an early 
favorite of Stephen A. Douglas, under whom he studied for 
a short time, and for whom he showed a sincere attachment, 
which continued uninterrupted until the death of that emi- 
nent statesman in 1861. He early engaged in politics, and 
became an associate with the late Joseph W. Gray in editing 
the " Cleveland Plaindealer," advocating with great force and 
ability Mr. Douglas' election to the Presidency. Conspicu- 
ous in literary circles, he associated with many distinguished 
scholars. Three of his associates on the " Plaindealer " who 
afterward became eminent were Charles F. Brown (Artemas 
Ward), William E. McLaren (now Bishop of Illinois), and 
John B. Bouton (now of the "New York Journal of Com- 
merce "). From youth, affairs pertaining to co-religionists 
excited Mr. Peixotto's warmest^ interest. His voice often 
resounded in societies and in the Hebrew lodges. As a 
member of the Independent Order of B'nai-Berith (Sons of 
the Covenant), he did much to elevate the standing of 



236 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

American Hebrews, and in the year 1863 he was chosen 
Grand Saar or Grand Master of the Order in the United 
States. Under his energetic administration the Order was 
raised in membership from 4,000 to 12,000, about one-half of 
its present number. The idea of estabhshing an Orphan 
Asylum at Cleveland was first conceived by Mr. Peixotto, 
and his influence secured the passage of a bill which led to 
its foundation. Mr. Peixotto went back to his native city in 
1 866, but sailed for California in 1867, and took up his resi- 
dence in San Francisco, where he obtained a lucrative prac- 
tice as a lawyer. This profession, while it demanded con- 
siderable of his time, did not check his zealous labors in 
behalf of his co-religionists. Thus, in June, 1870, when the 
news of the frightful massacres of Hebrews in Roumania, 
followed by dire persecutions, was cabled across the Atlantic, 
Mr. Peixotto, just in the prime of life and in the enjoyment 
of ease, stood up a champion and offered his services in 
behalf of the cause of civilization and humanity. He was 
nominated as Consul-General by President Grant, and unani- 
mously confirmed by the Senate. Arriving at the Court of 
Prince Charles of Roumania, he succeeded at once in arrest- 
ing the tide of persecution, and by his diplomatic skill and 
enlightened conduct created more humane sentiments in 
behalf of the unfortunate Hebrews. He remained nearly six 
years at Bucharest, and during the whole of this time but 
one serious outbreak, the riots of Ismail and Bessarabia, 
occurred, every other attempt at outrage being throttled by 
his sleepless vigilance. His despatches to our Government 
reciting the terrible scenes of Ismail and Cahul led to Sec- 
retary Fish's addressing letters to our Ministers at the 
Courts of St. James, Paris, St. Petersburg, Berlin, Vienna, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 237 

Austria, Italy and Turkey, instructing them to use their dip- 
lomatic and moral power to put a stop to these brutal occur- 
rences which had become a scandal to civilization, and to 
the writing of the famous dispatches of our envoys, Messrs. 
Bancroft, Schenck, Washburne, Jay, Boker, Marsh, Maynard, 
etc. Mr. Peixotto's correspondence also evoked the great 
meeting at the Mansion House, London, presided over by the 
Lord Mayor and having amongst its Vice-Presidents, Cardinal 
Manning, the Earl of Shaftesbury, the Bishop of Gloucester, 
while some forty members of Parliament participated. The 
assembly unanimously adopted the resolution offered by 
Lord Shaftesbury : " That this meeting protests against the 
outrages committed on the Hebrews of Roumania, as a dis- 
grace to modern civilization, and deeply sympathizes with 
the unhappy sufferers." Following this the subject of the 
treatment of the Hebrews in Roumania was made the sub- 
ject of discussion in the British, French, German, Austrian 
and Italian parliaments, and instructions were sent by these 
governments to their respective representatives in Roumania 
to co-operate with Mr. Peixotto in all measures calculated 
to put an end to the infamous riots. In addition to his 
diplomatic offices, Mr. Peixotto effected a vast amount of 
good for the down-trodden, improving their moral condition 
by the formation of schools and associations of various 
natures, notably the Society of " Zion," which he founded in 
1872, with objects similar to the B'nauBeritk in this country. 
During his residence in Europe he was actively engaged in 
correspondence with the leading philanthropists and states- 
men, and enjoyed particularly the personal confidence of 
Adolph Cremieux, Sir Francis Goldsmid, Baron Lionel de 
Rothschild, Ritter Joseph von Wertheimer and Berthold 



238 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Auerbach. Through his instrumentahty in a large measure 
the celebrated Conference of Brussels, of which he was a 
member, was called together, presided over by the great 
French statesman and jurist, Cremieux, and it was to his un- 
tiring correspondence and efforts that the Berlin Congress, in 
1878, enacted the clause making it a condition of Roumania's 
becoming a sovereign kingdom that the civil and political 
rights of the Hebrews of that country should be recognized. 
Mr. Peixotto returned to the United States in 1876. He 
was cordially received everywhere. The services he had ren- 
dered formed the topic of general conversation. Mr. Peix- 
otto was requested to lecture in different parts of the Union. 
He addressed large assemblages, and exerted himself to 
promote the educational scheme started in the West. To 
further the design of the Union of American Hebrew Con- 
gregations, he made appeals wherever he set foot, and soon 
$12,000 were subscribed, mainly through his individual 
efforts toward the establishment of the American Hebrew 
College at Cincinnati, now a flourishing institution. Mr. 
Peixotto took part in the Presidential campaign of 1876, 
and with Carl Schurz, Garfield and Blaine, stumped Ohio, 
ardently supporting Mr. Hayes. In 1877 he was tendered 
the appointment of Consul-General, at St. Petersburg, Russia 
which he declined. President Hayes subsequently nomi- 
nated him as Consul at Lyons, and the Senate confirmed the 
appointment. This position he accepted and held under the 
successive administrations of Presidents Hayes, Garfield and 
Arthur. At Lyons, the second city of France, he displayed a 
degree of fidelity and intelligence rarely found in the consular 
service. Here Mr. Peixotto attracted wide attention in the 
diplomatic and commercial world by his reports to the State 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 239 

Department, which included investigations into the subjects 
of capital and labor, production of wine in France, tele- 
graphic service, the fisheries, the coal and iron yield, the silk 
industries of France and Europe, and the wheat and to- 
bacco crop. The excellence of these reports, both from 
a commercial and economical standpoint, was conceded by 
foreign governments as well as our own, and they rank as 
the most valuable of their kind in the national archives. In 
December, 1885, he returned to New York and resumed the 
practice of law. In July, 1886, he founded the " Menorah 
Monthly," which, in the short space of less than two years, 
by its high literary character, has risen to the first place 
among the magazines of the country, and to whose pages 
he has succeeded in drawing contributions from the most 
eminent scholars of America and Europe. Since his re- 
turn to his native city, Mr. Peixotto has also renewed 
his interest in literary, social and communal work. He 
is a Trustee of the Hebrew Technical Institute, of the 
New York Sanitary Aid Society, one of the founders of the 
Ohio Society, and an active member of several other promi- 
nent literary and benevolent organizations. Mr. Peixotto is 
justly regarded as a representative American Hebrew, his 
marked intellectual and moral force of character having made 
him a leader in most matters pertaining to the welfare of his 
co-religionists, both at home and abroad. 

George D. Madura Peixotto, eldest son of B. F. Peixotto, 
was born February i, 1859, in Cleveland, Ohio. His earliest 
youth was passed in America, but subsequently, when his 
father was appointed by President Grant to the Roumanian 
Mission, the boy was placed at school in Dresden. It was 
there he entered the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, from 



240 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

whence he graduated in 1877, receiving for his picture of 
" St Mary, the Egyptian," the silver medal of the Academy. 
His teachers at that time were the celebrated Belgian painter 
Ferdinand Pawels and Professor Leon Pohle of the Weimar 
school. Before leaving Dresden Mr. Peixotto painted .the 
portrait of Prof. Julius Hiibner, the Director of the Dresden 
gallery, where the picture now hangs. In 1878 Mr. Peixotto 
removed to Paris and began to study under the most cele- 
brated French painters, but preferred not to enter in any 
particular studio. He inclined to the severe teachings of 
Carolus Duran, Bonnatand Munckacsy, whose pupil he con- 
sidered himself, and he frequented the studio of Meissonier. 
About this time Peixotto painted the picture of " Cleo- 
patra," and also went to England to paint portraits of 
Cardinal Manning, Sir Moses Montefiore and the Countess 
d'Avigdor. The picture of Cardinal Manning elicited uni- 
versal praise from the press and from artists, and was among 
the many works Mr. Peixotto sent from time to time to the 
Salon, where it received a place of honor. Whilst in France 
Mr. Peixotto painted portraits of a number of Americans 
and Europeans. Among the former were Father Sylvester 
Malone, of Brooklyn, and Dr. A. P. Putnam, of Concord. 
The portrait of Professor Yeatman, editor of " Galignani," 
painted in 1885, was considered one of the best examples of 
American art at the Salon of 1886. Sir Moses Montefiore's 
portrait was on exhibition at the artist's studio in 1885, and 
in 1886 was sent to New York and Washington. Mr. Cor- 
coran purchased this marvelously executed work for the 
Corcoran Gallery and presented it as his last art gift to the 
collection. Mr. Peixotto returned to his native city, Cleve- 
land, in 1886, and there painted portraits of Bishop Gilmour 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 241 

and several other people of note ; he was then called to St. 
Louis, Mo., to execute a portrait of Dr. Eliot, the eminent 
Chancellor of the Washington University. This picture was 
pronounced the work of a master artist, the hands being no 
less remarkable for life-like character than the face. This is 
a feature in all Peixotto's portraits, as also his treatment of 
drapery, the harsh outlines peculiar to modern masculine 
costume being painted with unusual freedom and grace. 
The coloring is pure and clear, painted in a low harmonious 
key, and the handling is masterly. Mr. Peixotto's latest pro- 
duction, a portrait of Hon. Morrison R. Waite, Chief Justice 
of the United States, is accorded the highest encomiums by 
the press as well as by artists. Paul Rajon, the renowned 
French etcher, is about to make an etching of this portrait. 
Of the two portraits of Cardinal Manning an eminent British 
critic says : " One of them, a half length, represents the 
Cardinal in full pontifical vestments. The crozier is in his 
left hand, in his right he holds a copy of Thomas A. 
Kempis' ' Imitation of Christ,' while his archiepiscopal 
mitre stands on a table beside him. Mr. Peixotto has caught 
the noble and dignified expression of his Eminence in his 
most serious mood, and has produced a picture of rare and 
marvelous strength both in tone, coloring and character. 
The portrait is to be presented to St. Thomas' Seminary, at 
Hammersmith, a magnificent institution, which it is the 
pride of the Cardinal's life to have established. The second 
portrait is considered the better, bringing out the majestic 
and noble features of the great Cardinal in their happiest 
moral and intellectual expression. It is a powerful painting 
and deserves to rank among the grand old masters." 

Morris Phillips, editor of the " Home Journal," of New 



242 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

York, began life as a lawyer in the firm of Brown, Hall & 
Vanderpoel. Mr. Phillips began early to write, and the 
talent he displayed attracted the attention of G. P. Morris. 
At the age of nineteen voung Phillips was acting as sub-editor 
of the " Home Journal," and had secured the warm attach- 
ment of its chief. Aspiring to still higher rank in the pro- 
fession, he soon after embarked his whole means in the old 
" Knickerbocker Magazine," which, however, he abandoned 
after a year's trial, and returned to the " Home Journal," 
where he resumed his duties as acting editor which he held 
until the death of Mr. Morris. When N. P. Wilhs' name 
first appeared upon the imprint of the " Home Journal," the 
youthful editor and the old but graceful prose writer and 
poet soon clashed in their views respecting the proper con- 
duct of the journal, but Mr. Phillips' views prevailed. At 
the death of Mr. Willis, the remaining half-interest in the 
paper was purchased by Mr. Phillips, and soon afterwards 
the proprietorship passed into the hands of that gentleman 
and Mr. George Perry, who had been en gaged for some years 
upon its columns. The general character of the " Home 
Journal " was considerably modified when these gentlemen 
secured control. Mr. Phillips is a shrewd and practical man 
of business, and by his ability in this, rather than by his 
talent as a writer, strongly developed as the last is, has arisen 
to his present position. 

Warley Platzek, a prominent member of the Bar, was born 
in 1854. He was Assessor and Treasurer of Marion, S. C, in 
1 874 and 1875, studied law in the office of Judge Joachim- 
sen, and attended lectures at the New York University Law 
School. For five successive years he served on the Examin- 
ing Committee in the law department of the University, and 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 243 

has been engaged in the practice of the law in New York 
since 1875. In the order Kesher Shel Barzel\\% has attained 
great prominence, having been elevated to the office of 
Grand President, in February, 1883, never before having 
served in any subordinate capacity. He was a delegate to 
the Constitutional Supreme Lodge of the Order which con- 
vened at Cleveland, Ohio, in March, 1883, and was chosen 
President of the Convention. Mr. Platzek was elected Pres- 
ident of the Young Men's Hebrew Association during the 
same year, and has been frequently heard from the platform 
on such themes as " The Press," " Longfellow," " The Origin 
and Development of the Jewish Orders," "Israel" and 
" Islam." 

Simon W. Rosendale was born at Albany, N. Y., June 
23, 1 841. At an early age he was sent to the public schools, 
thence to the Albany Academy, where he graduated with 
honor. When sixteen years of age he entered the office of 
Courtney & Cassidy, then one of the most prominent legal 
firms in the State. Remaining with them until the fall of 
1859, ■'^''- Rosendale abandoned his law studies and entered 
the Barre (Vt.) Academy. On graduating, in 1861, he enter- 
ed the law office of Solomon F. Higgins and was soon after 
admitted to the Bar. In 1863 he was appointed Assistant 
District Attorney of Albany, and in 1868 was elected Re- 
corder of the city by an unprecedented majority, and for four 
years acquitted himself of his judicial duties with impartiality 
and ability. He was subsequently appointed legal adviser of 
the city government, but owing to his growing law practice 
resigned the office in 1882, and formed a partnership with 
Mr. Peckham, the surviving partner of the famous firm of 
Peckham & Tremaine, which continued until 1884, Mr. 



244 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Peckham having meanwhile been elected Justice of the 
Supreme Court. Mr. Rosendale then united his fortunes 
with Mr. Albert Hessberg, and the firm is now known as 
Rosendale & Hessberg. In April, 1884, Mr. Rosendale was 
appointed Corporation Counsel. Mr. Rosendale is a Direc- 
tor of the National Commercial Bank and Albany Railway 
Company, a Trustee of the National Savings Bank, and one 
of the Governors of the Albany Hospital. He has been also 
prominently identified for years with Hebrew charitable and 
fraternal organizations. He was for ten years President of 
the Court of Appeals of the Order B'nai-Berith, and tempor- 
ary presiding officer at its septennial general meeting in 
New York, in 1885. He has been a Trustee of the Congre- 
gation Anshe-Emeth for years, is a representative of the 
Albany Congregation, and a member of the Executive 
Board of the Union of Hebrew Congregations, and presided 
at the triennial meeting of the Union held in Chicago in 1882. 
He has been President of the Jewish Home Society since its 
organization. 

Julius Rosenthal, a leading member of the Chicago Bar, 
is a native of Germany, and was born about 1850. He came 
to the United States when a child, entered the public 
schools at Chicago, and after studying law and being admit- 
ted to the Bar was appointed Public Administrator, which 
office he occupied for several years. He subsequently 
became a partner of A. M. Penze, a prominent Chicago law- 
yer. Mr. Rosenthal ranks high as a lawyer, a citizen and a 
man of erudition. His law practice, which is lucrative, is 
specially devoted to real estate, wills and probate matters. 

Lewis Rosenthal was born at Baltimore, September 10, 
1856. He was educated at Columbia Grammar School, New 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 24S 

York, and at Dartmouth College, N. H., where he graduated 
in 1877. He then removed to Paris where he was for four 
years a member of " The Parisian Staff,'' being at the same 
time engaged as tutor to a son of Hon. Thomas F. 
Noyes, United States Minister to France. In 1882 he pub- 
lished "America and France; the influence of the United 
States in France in the Eighteenth Century." Subsequently 
he was a special contributor to various New York daily news- 
papers. Among his magazine articles are : " Poe in Paris," 
" Rosseau in Philadelphia," and " Bret Harte in Germany." 
He also wrote for the " North American Review" an article 
on " Our Services to the French Republic," and for '' The 
Theatre," a series of sketches on the Dramatic Critics of 
New York and the European capitals. 

Toby Rosenthal was born in Hessen, Germany, and came 
to this country in his infancy, settling in San Francisco, 
where he studied in the public schools, and at the same 
time received instruction from a Spanish painter. At the 
age of seventeen he was sent to Munich, entering the Royal 
Academy, where he remained two years. At the end of this 
time he spent three years as a pupil under Professor Raupp. 
Resuming his studies at the Royal Academy, he spent seven 
years more at that institution, where he was further in- 
structed by Piloty. While here he painted " Morning 
Prayers in the Family of Bach," which is now in the Leipsic 
Museum. His " Elaine," which was on exhibition at Phila- 
delphia in 1876, is an illustration of Tennyson's lines : " and 
the dead steered by the dumb went upward with the flood." 
" Love's Last Offering " and the head of Mrs. Greatorex are 
among his other works. 

Adolph L. Sanger is a native of Baton Rouge La., and 



246 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

was born October 8, 1842. At the age of eight years he 
came to New York, attended a private school and the Free 
Academy, now College of the City of New York, where he 
graduated with honors, and next entered Columbia College 
Law School, graduating in 1864. He had meanwhile studied 
law with Benedict & Boardman, at that time the recog- 
nized leading commercial lawyers in the city. In 1865 he 
established himself in practice in the ofifice of Myer S. Isaacs, 
associating with that gentleman soon thereafter, and remain- 
ing with him up to the present day. During these thirteen 
years he has been engaged in general practice and as counsel 
for numerous corporations, and has been very successful in 
many important litigations. In politics Mr. Sanger is a 
Democrat. In 1870 he was appointed by Governor Hoff- 
man one of the Commissioners of the United States De- 
posit Fund. In 1881 he was an unsuccessful candidate for 
Judge of the Marine Court. In 1885 Mr. Sanger was elected 
President of the Board of Aldermen of the city of New 
York, his plurality being about 25,000 votes. While occu- 
pying this honorable office, the first created under a new law 
providing for the election of its incumbent by a popular vote, 
it was his duty to receive the ofificers of the French frigate 
bringing to this country Bartholdi's " Statue of Liberty." In 
the same year he delivered an address on the unveiling of 
the statue of " The Pilgrim " in the New York Central Park, 
and performed a similar duty in accepting on behalf of the 
city of New York, the statue of the distinguished merchant, 
William E. Dodge. Mr. Sanger was a Presidential Elector 
of the State of New York in 1880 and 1884. In the Order 
of I. O. B. B. he held the ofifice of President of District 
No. I for two years, and has been for some years one of the 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 247 

Judges of the Court of Appeals of that Order. In 1876, as 
Chairman of the Centennial Committee of the Order, he de- 
livered an address at the unveiling of Ezekiel's statue of 
" Religious Liberty," at Philadelphia. Mr. Sanger has shown 
much persistency in his efforts for the establishment of a 
Public Library in the city of New York, and a few years 
since he originated and had introduced in the Legislature a 
bill incorporating such an institution. Mr. Sanger has been 
President of the Board of Delegates of American Israelites, 
and has been for several years Vice-President of the Union 
of American Hebrew Congregations. 

Count L. B. Schwabe, of Boston, was born in Hamburg, 
Germany, and in 1833 arrived in the United States. 
He was in former years extensively engaged in the 
importation and sale of oil paintings, and retired from 
business during the Civil War, after donating to the Art Mu- 
seum at Washington; D. C, a large collection of his oil 
paintings. Since then he has devoted his time almost wholly 
to charitable work, especially the amelioration of his co-re- 
ligionists. 

De Witt J. Seligman has been Commissioner of Education 
of the city of New York since 1884, by appointment of 
Mayor Edson, and re-appointed by Mayor Hewitt in 1887. 
He was born March 22, 1853. He was associated for some 
years in business with his father, James Seligman, the 
banker. After his marriage he attended a three years' course 
at Columbia College, where he studied law and Political 
Economy, his ambitious endeavors being rewarded by gain- 
ing the degrees of Ph. B. and L.L. B. In 1887 he founded 
the " Epoch," a prominent New York weekly journal. He 
is devoting much attention to the subject of manual training 



248 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

and is interested in its introduction into the public schools of 
New York. 

Edwin R. A. Seligman, was born in New York, April 25th, 
1861, and is a son of the late Joseph Seligman. He was edu- 
cated at Columbia Grammar School, and entered Columbia 
College at the age of fourteen, graduating second in his class 
in 1879. He studied Political Science for three years in 
Berlin, Heidelberg, Geneva, Rome and Paris, taking the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Returning to the United 
States he graduated from Columbia College Law School and 
School of Political Science in 1884. In 1885 he received the 
'appointment of Professor of Political Science. Mr. Seligman 
is one of the founders and editors of the " Political Science 
Quarterly," and is Treasurer of the American Economics 
Association. He has published works on the " English 
Guilds," " Christian Socialism," the " Railroad Problem," 
and " Taxation and Finance," the latter forming one of the 
nine volumes in the series of Systematic Political Science. 

Adolphus S. Solomons was born in New York, and was 
educated in the University of the State of New York. He 
began life as a store boy, and in 1859 he went to Washing- 
ton and formed the partnership of Phillip & Solomons, and 
conducted for nearly twenty-five years one of the largest book 
pubhshing and stationery establishments in the country. 
Though closely occupied in his business, Mr. Solomons 
found time in Washington to organize numerous charitable 
institutions, appearing frequently at the same time as a con- 
tributor to various newspapers under the nom de plume of 
"Semi-Occasional," the topics generally relating to the inter- 
ests of Judaism. When the District of Columbia was given 
a Territorial form of Government, President Grant tendered 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 249 

Mr. Solomons the office of Governor which he declined. 
He subsequently was elected to the Legislature of the Dis- 
trict. On the accession of President Garfield to office, 
he was offered the Collectorship of Georgetown, D. C., 
which he also declined. President Arthur appointed him 
a representative at the Congress of the Association of 
the Red Cross at Geneva in 1884, where he was chosen as 
one of the five Vice-Presidents, and at the present time he is 
Vice-President of the Association of the United States. He 
has been one of the most prominent and active members of 
various charitable organizations in the National Capital, and 
was for fifteen years a resident member of the Jewish Board 
of Delegates. Mr. Solomons is now President of the New 
York Council of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, and he 
was also a founder of the Sanitary Aid Society of New York. 
At the Sir Moses Montefiore centennial birthday celebra- 
tion in New York, 1884, Mr. Solomons suggested that the 
great event be permanently recorded by founding a Home 
for Incurables and was one of the Executive Council to un- 
dertake the enterprise. 

Simon H. Stern, of the firm of Stern & Myers, who are 
attorneys for some of the largest corporations in the city of 
New York, was born in Richmond, Va., October 13, 1847, 
and has resided in New York since early childhood. He was 
educated in the public schools of the latter city and in the 
well-known New York educational establishment of Dr. 
Quackenboss, studied law in Columbia College Law School, 
was admitted to the Bar in 1869, and was for twelve years 
engaged in practice on his own account. 

Simon Sterne, the eminent lawyer, political economist and 
reformer, was born at Philadelphia, July 23, 1839. After a 



250 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

course of study in the public schools, and under private tu- 
tors, he began the study of law in the office of John H. 
Markland of Philadelphia, and graduated in the Law Depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania in i860. In the 
same year he was admitted to the Bar in the city of New 
York. Early in his career Mr. Sterne paid special attention 
to the study of Political Economy and, in 1852 he was elected 
lecturer on that science in the Cooper Union. In 1864 he 
took part in organizing the American Free Trade League. 
The year following he became editor and proprietor of the 
"Social Science Review." In 1866 he visited Europe, taking 
letters of introduction to John Bright, John Stuart Mill and 
other leading statesmen, with whom his relations were es- 
pecially happy. In 1866, Mr. Sterne, in connection with 
David Dudley Field, organized the Personal Representation 
Society, having for its object the representation of minorities 
in boards of direction and political representative bodies, and 
was afterward its President. In 1870 he became a member 
of the famous " Committee of Seventy," was chosen as its 
Secretary and drafted its charter. The law making election 
days legal holidays was suggested by Mr. Sterne. He be- 
came a conspicuous member of the Bar Association, and was 
private counsel to Mayor Havemeyer during his term of 
ofBce. In 1879 Mr. Sterne was appointed by a Committee 
of the Legislature, the Chamber of Commerce and the 
Board of Trade and Transportation, as counsel, to investigate 
certain charges of abuses incident to railway management, 
the result of which was the drafting of a bill by Mr. Sterne 
for the appointment of a Board of Railroad Commissioners. 
Mr. Sterne was pitted, during the whole of the investigation, 
against the ablest lawyers that the railway interests could 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 25 1 

summon to their aid. In 1876 Mr. Sterne was appointed by 
Governor Tilden one of the Commission to devise a plan 
for the government of the cities of the State, giving two 
years work to the subject without compensation. The Adi- 
rondack bill having for its object the reclamation of the 
Adirondack wilderness for a park reserve for the people 
of the State, was drafted by Mr. Sterne. Mr. Sterne 
is a leading member of the Constitution Club, having for 
its objects opposition to monopoly and to maintain honest 
and just government, and, with the exception of the 
unpaid appointment on the Tilden City Government Com- 
mission, he has never held an office. In 1863 and 1864 he 
edited the " New York Commercial Advertiser." One of 
his principal literary efforts is a political work entitled 
" Constitutional History and Political Development in the 
United States ;" another is a volume on " Representative 
Government and Personal Representation." He also wrote 
the introduction to Mongredien's "Creation of Wealth," and 
the articles on " Monopolies," " Government of Cities," 
" Legislation " and " Railways " in Lalor's " Cyclopedia of 
Political Science." He has frequently lectured on the subject 
of monopolies and corporations. In 1884 he lectured on 
" Slipshod Legislation," which awakened widespread atten- 
tion. In 1885 he was invited by the Committee of Com- 
merce of the United States House of Representatives to 
give his views upon the necessity of interstate railway legis- 
lation, and the bill, which is now the basis of power of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, is the bill prepared and 
drafted by Mr. Sterne. Mr. Sterne was appointed by Presi- 
dent Cleveland to make a report on the relations of Govern- 
ments of Western Europe to the railways, which report was 



252 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

submitted to the President in 1886 after two successive visits 
to Europe. He is a diligent and painstaking worker in any 
cause in which he becomes interested, and is indefatigable 
in laboring for pure government, the welfare of his fellow- 
citizens, and the commercial advancement of the city of his 
adoption. 

Mayer Sulzberger, of Philadelphia, one of the most suc- 
cessful lawyers of that city, was born in Germany, and came 
to this country at an early age. Entering the office of 
Moses A. Dropsie, he studied law and was duly admitted to 
the Bar. He has now a larger clientage than any other 
Hebrew lawyer in Philadelphia. Mr. Sulzberger was for one 
year after the death of Isaac. Lesser the editor of the 
" Occident," and for many years prior to his death was a 
valuable assistant to the founder of that well-known periodi- 
cal. He has contributed largely to the Hebrew and secular 
press, and his services as lecturer have always been in de- 
mand. Mr. Sulzberger possesses a magnificent and rare 
private library, and has been connected with a number of 
Hebrew organizations, being now President of the Young 
Men's Hebrew Association of Philadelphia. 

Martin E. Waldstein, a prominent manufacturing chemist 
and a leading contributor to scientific journals, was born in the 
city of New York, October 18, 1854. He was educated in 
private institutions in this country and in Europe. He sub- 
sequently studied in the School of Mines of Columbia Col- 
lege, New York, and then returned to Europe where, after a 
two years' course at Heidelberg University, he received the 
degree of Ph. D. He is a brother of Charles Waldstein, the 
renowned archaeologist. 

Solomon Cohen Weill, was born in Charlotte, N. C, May 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 253 

18, 1864. He received a preliminary education at Wilming- 
ton, N. C, whence he removed to Cincinnati, in order to 
study for the Ministry in the Hebrew Union College. After 
receiving the Degree of Bachelor of Hebrew Literature, he 
abandoned the idea of entering the Ministry, and entered 
Hughes' High College in the same city where he graduated, 
receiving the highest average ever attained by any scholar in 
that institution. He then entered the University of North 
Carolina, at Chapel Hill, receiving while there a gold medal 
for proficiency in Greek, and graduating with the highest 
honors in June, 1885. Whilst preparing himself for the study 
of law he was invited by the faculty of the University to 
fill the chair of Professor of Greek. He accepted and occu- 
pied the post for over one year to the great satisfaction of 
the Faculty and Board of Trustees. He was then admitted 
to the practice of law, by the Supreme Court of the State in 
February, 1886, and is now a shining light of his profession, 
being associated at Wilmington with Hon. Charles M. Sted-, 
man, Lieutenant-Governor of the State. Mr. Weill was 
elected by the General Assembly of North Carolina, as a 
Trustee of the State University for a term of six years 
ending November, 1894. 

Simon Wolf, of Washington, D. C, was born at Hinz- 
weiler, Rhein Pfalz, Bavaria, October 28, 1836, and was em- 
ployed as clerk and cashier in the store of his uncles, Abra- 
ham and Elias Wolf, at Uhrichsille, Tuscarawas County, 
Ohio, succeeding them in the business in 1855. In 1859 
he sold out and commenced reading law in the office of 
Joseph C. Hance, at New Philadelphia, Ohio. He next took 
a course of lectures in the Law School at Cleveland, gradu- 
ating in the winter of 1860-61, and being admitted to the 



254 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Bar in Mount Vernon, Ohio. Mr. Wolf practiced in New Phil- 
adelphia until June 1862. He had been an Alternate Dele- 
gate to the Charleston-Baltimore Convention, but when the 
war broke out ceased to be a Democrat, and has ever since 
been a strict Republican. He volunteered his services in 
the Army, but was rejected because of imperfect sight. In 
June, 1862, he went to Washington. His first visit was to 
the great War Secretary, Edwin M. Stanton, to whom he 
had a letter of introduction. Mr. Wolf made known his 
desires to enter the Department when the Secretary 
observed : " If you are a man, stay out ; if you are not, I 
have no use for you." Mr. Wolf then joined forces with 
Captain A. Hart, who had resigned from the Army, and the 
law firm of Wolf & Hart continued until May, 1869. Mr. 
Wolf soon took a prominent part in all social and political 
matters, widened his circle of friends and became a recog- 
nized leader. He was appointed a Trustee of the Public 
Schools, organized the Washington Literary and Dramatic 
Association, was for nine years President of the Washington 
Schutzen Verein, and then made Honorary President and 
for the tenth time elected President ; was for years Pres- 
ident of the Schillerbund, a Literary Society of high order ; 
was Chairman of the Yellow Fever Fund, and raised, single 
handed, $10,000 for relief of the Chicago fire sufferers. For 
his services as Honorary President of the German-American 
Fair, in 1870, in aid of the German wounded soldiers, he was 
thanked by an autographic letter from the Emperor William. 
Mr. Wolf is now Chairman of the Committee on Charities of 
the Committee of One Hundred, Chairman of the Republic- 
an National League, and is a member of the Executive 
Committee of Twenty-One of the Exposition to be held in 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 255 

Washington, 1889-92. He is an Honorary member of the 
Washington Saengerbund and Light Infantry, and there is 
scarcely a church, synagogue or charity in which, or for 
which, he has not spoken in Washington, and always with 
credit. He has also lectured in all the leading cities of the 
Union, and always to crowded houses. He is a bold and 
fearless speaker, terse and epigramatic, eloquent and fervid. 
In 1869 Mr. Wolf was appointed by President Grant Re- 
corder of Deeds for the District of Columbia. He held the 
ofifice until May, 1878, when he resumed the practice of law, 
and in July, 1881, President Garfield appointed him Consul- 
General to Egypt. This was the last commission President 
Garfield signed. In May, 1822, Mr. Wolf retired from the 
ofifice, having in the interim rendered valuable and important 
service, and has since that time been engaged in his pro- 
fession. Mr. Wolf has been on terms of closest friendship 
with the leading men of the day, of both parties, including 
Lincoln, Stanton, Grant and Garfield. In 1867 Mr. Wolf 
became a member of the Order E" nai-Berith, of which order 
he has ever since been one of its prominent members, and 
was chosen President of the Conventions held in Chicago in 
1874 and Philadelphia in 1879. ^^ ^'^^ ^^^so served as Judge 
of the Court of Appeals of the order, and has lectured in the 
leading lodges of the order all over the country. He was 
twice President of his own District, No. 5, and has been the 
leader of every District Convention. The Orphan Asylum 
at Baltimore and that now being built at Atlanta, are both 
the result of his efforts. In 1879 Mr. Wolf was elected 
President of the Executive Committee for the United States 
of the Order Kesher Shel Barzel, in which capacity he se 
cured $10,000 for the endowment of the Montefiore Home, 



256 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

at Cleveland, Ohio. He is also a prominent Mason and has 
at every occasion, for twenty-five years, spoken at annual 
meetings and banquets. Mr. Wolf was President of the 
Union of American Israelites in 1876, and is now a member 
of the Executive Committee of the Council. He never loses 
an opportunity to vindicate the people of his race, of whom 
he is proud. His characteristics may be thus summed up : — 
in politics, a Republican ; in nationality, an American ; in 
progressive religion and humane philanthropy, a Hebrew. 

Frederick Wolffe, the well-known promoter of railway enter- 
prises, is a native of Switzerland, and was born in 1832. He 
has been a resident of this country since 1855. While residing 
at Mobile, Ala., during the Civil War, he was appointed Gen- 
eral Agent of the Confederate States for the purchase of sup- 
plies, and served as Captain of a company of volunteers. After 
the war he engaged in the cotton and commission business 
at Mobile. In 1877 he purchased the Alabama & Chatta- 
nooga Railroad for the Erlanger Syndicate, and as financial 
agent for the Syndicate, bought the Alabama & Chattanooga 
Railroad and several other railroads, and built, leased and re- 
organized and purchased, numerous other important lines. 
He has been engaged in the banking business at Montgomery, 
Meridian, Miss., and New York, and compromised and ex- 
changed with the State of Alabama, several millions of 
Alabama State bonds, held at London and Frankfort. In 
1886, Mr. Wolffe purchased the entire loan of $3,400,000 
Georgia State bonds, at four and a half per cent, a lower rate 
than the State had ever before paid, and placed the same 
successfully. 

Joseph Zeisler, M. D., of Chicago, was born at Bielitz, 
Austria, October 7, 1858. He studied at the University of 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 257 

Vienna, where he graduated with high honors in 1882, and 
while there served in the General Hospital. Having thor- 
oughly familiarized himself with the various branches of his 
profession, he determined to devote his special attention to 
the study of dermatology, and after serving for one year as 
a volunteer in the army and attaining the rank of First 
Lieutenant Surgeon, he sailed for America, arriving at 
Chicago in 1884, where he successfully established himself in 
practice. 

Professorships are held by Hebrews as follows : Cyrus 
Adler, at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; A. A. Ancona, 
University of California ; Joseph B. Grabfield, Boston School 
of Technology ; Richard H. Gottheil, Columbia College, New 
York ; Henry Fleishner, Yale College ; S. Wolf, College of 
the City of New York ; Abram S. Isaacs, University of the 
City of New York. 

Dr. Louis Elsberg, a graduate of Jefferson College, Phila- 
delphia, and at one time Resident Physician of Mount Sinai 
Hospital, New York, was the first to introduce the laryngo- 
scope and achieve distinction as a specialist in throat 
diseases. He also ranked high as a biologist, being in con- 
stant correspondence with such men as Haeckel, Herschel, 
Darwin and Huxley, who recognized his skill in that depart- 
ment. 

Adolph Sutro, of California, conceived the idea of opening 
up the great Comstock lode by means of a tunnel, which now 
bears his name. Another of his remarkable achievements 
was the erection, near Virginia City in 1852, of amalgamating 
works, which cost but $30,000 and yielded a profit of $10,000 
a month. Charles Waldstein, son of a New York optician, 
is the greatest living authority on Greek art and archeeology. 



258 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

He holds the position of Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum 
of the University of Cambridge, England. Leopold Eid- 
litz, of New York, is one of the ablest architects in the 
United States. Dankman Adler, of Chicago, enjoys an en- 
viable reputation in the same profession. Alfred R. Wolff, 
of New York, a mechanical engineer and author of the 
standard work on windmills, is a recognized authority in his 
specialty of steam engineering. Mendes Cohen, of Baltimore, 
has for many years ranked as one of the most skilful civil 
engineers in this country. He has been connected in a pro- 
fessional capacity with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and 
is now one of the Directors of the Americaij Society of Civil 
Engineers, in which, by his participation in the discussion of 
important papers, he has frequently given evidence of his 
scientific and scholarly attainments. Clemens Herschel, of 
the Holyoke Water and Power Company, is a recognized 
authority on hydraulic engineering. Miss Sallie Strasburg, 
of Cincinnati, one of the best dentists in the West, is a gradu- 
ate of a leading dental college, and has been awarded medals 
for essays on dental surgery and practical dentistry, out of a 
large class of competitors. Miss Josephine Walter, a gradu- 
ate of the Woman's College of the city of New York, occu- 
pied for some time the position of Resident Physician at 
Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, in charge of the 
children's department. 

Prominent among the musicians is Rafael Jossefy, an 
Hungarian. He has resided in the United States since 
1879. He is a pupil of Tausig and Lizst, and is unrivalled 
as a pianist. Wilhelm Gericke, of Boston, conductor of the 
Boston Symphony concerts, is a native of Austria. Of such 
concerts he is one of the most successful conductors in 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 259 

America. He is a man of excellent judgment in musical 
matters and a close student. Leopold Lichtenberg, of Bos- 
ton, ranks as one of the greatest solo violin virtuosos. He has 
met with much success, and is a thorough artist. He is a 
pupil of Wieniawski, and a New Yorker by birth. Michael 
Banner is about twenty-one years of age, a Californian 
by birth, and a first prize violin graduate of the Paris 
Conservatory of Music. In 1887 he met with great success 
in Berlin. Max Bendix, a native of Philadelphia, is first 
violinist and concert master of the Theodore Thomas 
Orchestra and a musician of remarkable qualities. S. E. 
Jacobsohn, of Chicago, is known as one of the most 
prominent violin teachers in America. Fannie Bloomfield, 
of Chicago, has resided in this country since childhood. 
She is regarded as one of the most talented pianists in the 
United States, and is a pupil of Leschetitzky of Vienna. 
She has played with marked success in all the leading cities. 
Louis Blumenberg, a native of Baltimore, is the leading 
solo violincellist in this country, and the 'cellist of the Men- 
delssohn Quintette Club of Boston, next to the Philharmonic 
of New York, the oldest musical organization in the United 
States. Carl Wolfsohn, of Chicago, a German by birth, has 
resided in that city for the past twenty years. He ranks 
high as a pianist, and is Conductor of the Beethoven Society 
of that city. He has done much for legitimate music in 
the West. Jacob Rosewald, formerly of Baltimore, and now 
of San Francisco, is Conductor of the Oratorio Society in 
that city. He is an accomplished violinist, and is the hus- 
band of Julia Rosewald, the soprano, who is a daughter of 
the celebrated Cantor Eichberg, of the Stuttgart Synagogue. 
Joseph Mosenthal, the well-known Organist and conductor 



26o THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

of the Mendelssohn Glee Club of New York, ranks high as a 
musician. Frederick Brandeis, of New York, is-an organist 
of note and equally well known on account of his meritor- 
ious work as a composer. 

Miss Emma Lazarus, one of the leading woman writers of 
the age, was born in 1849, ^.nd despite the fact that death 
came to her just as she had reached her prime, she had 
gained a place and made a mark in literature far above the 
achievements of many eminent lives well rounded by age. 
She was the daughter of Moses Lazarus, a well-known mer- 
chant of New York, where she was born in 1849, ^^'^ died 
November 19, 1887. At the age of seventeen she published 
a volume of poems, " Admetus," which created great interest 
in the circle of her family's friends and acquaintance, and 
led to flattering notice from persons eminent in fashionable 
society. In 1874 she produced "Alide," a prose romance 
founded on episodes in the early life of Goethe. Some 
translations from Heine that followed were even more suc- 
cessful in'making her known. In 1882 was begun the publi- 
cation of the work to which she had for some time addressed 
herself, upon the position, history, religion and wrongs of her 
people. The first book was called " Songs of the Semite," 
and opened with a five-act tragedy called " The Dance to 
Death," dealing with the stories of Jewish persecution in the 
Fifteenth Century. Essays that were published in the " Cen- 
tury" on "Russian Christianity vs. Modern Judaism " and 
" The Jewish Problem " were in the same direction. Her 
last important work was published in the " Century " in May, 
1887. It was a series of poems in prose entitled, "By the 
Waters of Babylon." The attention it excited and the 
admiration accorded to it were general here and across the 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 261 

Atlantic. Said a writer at the time of her death : " Such 
was her modesty of mind and desire to do her worl< 
without putting forward unduly her own personality, that 
one has a certain delicacy in attempting to describe a most 
exceptional and valuable figure in American letters. It was 
the refined, dignified, sympathetic and sanely enthusiastic 
character of the woman — the personal charm and force of 
her lofty nature — that made her literature what it was, and 
what, alas ! it would have been. There was no art to which 
she did not respond with subtle appreciation. Music, paint- 
ing, poetry, the drama — she felt keenly, intelligently, and 
generously the special charm of each. For moral ideas, she 
had the keenness of her race. And she had, too, that 
' genius for friendship ' which so few fully understand. 
That such a nature should have formed close ties of intellec- 
tual sympathy with men of the character of Emerson in 
America and Browning in England, is not a matter of sur- 
prise." 

Rafael J. De Cordova, for over thirty years prominent on 
the lecture platform in the United States, is a native of 
Kingston, Jamaica, and was born in December, 1824. His 
early life was devoted to mercantile pursuits, and he was for 
many years connected with Aymar & Co., one of the largest 
shipping houses in the city of New York, for whom he became 
managing clerk a few years after reaching this.country in 1850. 
In 1857 Mr. De Cordova was invited to deliver an address 
before a social organization at Yonkers, N. Y. He chose as 
his subject, " Money," and such was his success, that he 
determined to become a professional lecturer. He has trav- 
elled extensively through Europe and America, and this has 
given him abundant means of finding subjects in various 



262 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

parts of the world, for humorous description of character for 
which he has become famous. His repertoire is an exten- 
sive one. Among his subjects are : " Our New Clergyman," 
" Our First Baby," " That Dog Next Door," " The Dyspep- 
tic Club of East Pietown," " An Omnibus Ride down Broad- 
way," " Mrs. Fizzlebury's New Girl," etc. Mr. De Cordova's 
lectures are pregnant with mirth and humor, and his literary 
style ranks high. He is also the originator of a valuable 
code of signals for use by steamships and sailing vessels 
during fog or at night, or for prompt and immediate communi- 
cation in clear weather during the day without the delay 
attendant on the changing of signal flags. 

The greatest book and news empoiium in this country, is 
that established by the late August Brentano, a native of 
Austria, who embarked in the business with ten dollars bor- 
rowed money with which he started as a paper carrier. His 
establishment in Union Square, New York, has been for years 
the rendezvous of the litterateurs of the metropolis. E. H. 
Chapin, Dr. Hall, Gov. Andrew, of Massachusetts ; Sir Ed- 
ward Thornton, Lord Dufiferin and Wilkie Collins, have been 
a few of the patrons, the latter describing it as " an elysium 
for literary people." Three nephews of the founder, August, 
Arthur and Simon Brentano, now conduct the business. 

Benjamin E. Woolf, of Boston, dramatized " East Lynne," 
and " Mighty Dollar," and has written a score of farces and 
after-pieces, including a comic opera, entitled " Pounce and 
Company." Michael Angelp Woolf, an artist, is connected 
with several leading publications and a contributor to the 
National Academy. 

The Aronson brothers, Rudolph, the leader and composer, 
and Edward, the business manager, first came into promi- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 263 

nence as theatrical proprietors in New York City in 1880, 
when the Metropolitan Music Hall was dedicated. This 
building has since been known as " The Casino." The enter- 
prising Aronsons made a new and more successful start in 
building their present theatre, first called " The New Casino." 
From that moment these energetic gentlemen have been 
among the most successful and respected purveyors of light 
opera in America, and their carefully selected productions, 
their beautiful staging of them, and the remarkable excel- 
lence of their companies, in voices and in comedians, have 
become known all over the world. 

Daniel E. Bandmann, the actor, made his first appearance 
in the part of a girl, at a performance given by the Turn 
Verein, New York, in 1855,, when seventeen years old. He 
acquitted himself with such credit that the manager of the 
Stadt Theatre contracted with him for a nine months' engage- 
ment in various characters. In 1863, having acquired a 
knowledge of the English language, he appeared at Niblo's 
Garden in " Shylock," supported by John McCullough and a 
powerful company. Subsequently he appeared in " Narcisse," 
in the principal American cities and also in London for 300 
consecutive nights. While in the latter city he was visited 
by Henry Irving, who wished to be assigned a part in the 
play at a salary of £'j a week. Mr. Bandmann has four times 
circumnavigated the world, the results of his observa- 
tions being embodied in a volume entitled, "An Actor's 
Tour, or Seventy Thousand Miles with Shakespeare." 
He has recently acquired an extensive cattle ranch in 
Montana. 

Washington Harby, a Charlestonian, and a brother of 
Isaac Harby, was the author of a number of plays. Among 



264 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

the latter, " Nick of the Woods," a drama of the Western 
plains, was the most popular. 

H. B. Sommer, a Philadelphia merchant, has attained dis- 
tinction as the author of " Our Show," " Memoirs of Prince 
de Monego" and " Help Wanted." He has also contributed 
to some of the leading papers of the country and has 
appeared with success as a lecturer and as director of 
musical and dramatic performances. Mr. Sommer has been 
President of the Irving Literary Association and Young 
Men's Hebrew Association of Philadelphia. 

Maurice Grau is prominent as a theatrical manager. He 
is a native of Austria, and is thirty-six years old. He first 
introduced Salvini to an American audience in 1874. He 
also brought to this country Mmes. Aimee, Theo and Judic. 

Dr. Ernest Krackowizer was for many years a prominent 
physician in Brooklyn and New York. He took a conspicu- 
ous part in organizing the German Dispensary Society and 
the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, and was for some 
time attached to the Mount Sinai Hospital. His contribu- 
tions to medical literature were valuable. He died at Sing 
Sing, N. Y., in 1875, aged fifty-three years. 

Rose Eytinge was born in Philadelphia in 1835. In 1852 
she took part in a performance given by an amateur com- 
pany at Brooklyn. Shortly afterwards she joined a dramatic 
company and appeared with success in various cities, and in 
1862 played at the Olympic Theatre, New York. She then 
became a member of Edwin Booth's company, and in 1868- 
69 accepted an engagement with Wallack's company, ap- 
pearing as " Nancy Sykes," " Lady Gay Spanker " and " Bea- 
trice." She afterwards essayed the role of "Rose Michel." 
Miss Eytinge has been thrice married. Her first husband 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 265 

was David Barnes, a journalist of Albany, from whom she 
was divorced. She then married George H. Butler. Her 
third husband was Cyril Searle. 

J. Newton Gotthold is one of the best known " leading 
men " in the theatrical world of America. He has " starred " 
in heavy roles with success, and his services are frequently 
in demand to add strength to the cast of a new play, or to 
support a star in difficult roles, which require unusual force 
and stage experience. Mr. Gotthold's method is severe and 
a little labored, something after the manner of the old 
school ; and this is of great use to him in the characters 
which he is sometimes called upon to assume. In addition 
to his efficiency in several romantic parts, and in the " le- 
gitimate," he has made several distinct successes as the polite 
villain of several modern plays, his firm and varied art 
adapting him to such characters as well as those of a more 
sympathetic kind. Mr. Gotthold is a Virginian by birth. 

In journalism considerable progress is being made by the 
Hebrews who are conspicuously identified with the leading 
journals of the day. The " True American," published at 
Trenton, N. J., by members of the well-known Naar family, 
by whom it has been conducted for thirty-five years, is one 
of the leading newspapers of the country. David Naar, the 
first member of the family identified with its publication, was 
born in St. Thomas, W. I., November 6, 1800. He was edu- 
cated at Manhattanville, New York, and entered mercantile 
business with his father and brothers, being located on Front 
Street, New York, where they were burned out by the great 
fire of 1835. He then established himself on a farm near 
Elizabeth, N. J., where he attracted attention by his skill as 
an orator and thinker. In 1844, he was elected a member of 



266 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

the New Jersey Constitutional Convention and aided in the 
adoption of those features which guaranteed rehgious liberty 
to all people within the State. The same year he attracted 
the attention of James Buchanan and after the election of 
President Polk, was appointed United States Consul to St. 
Thomas. In 1848 he resigned his ofifice and returned home, 
when he was elected Mayor of Elizabeth. In 185 1, he was 
Clerk of the House of Assembly, and two years afterwards 
removed to Trenton to take charge of the " True American." 
By his ability and energy he strengthened the paper and it 
soon became recognized as the official mouthpiece of the 
party and an organ of much influence throughout the State. 
Mr. Naar was elected State Treasurer in 1864, and retired 
from the control of the " True American " in 1866. He died 
in 1880. 

For fifty years " Der Morgenstern," a German newspaper 
of considerable influence, was published by Moritz Loeb, 
at Doylestown, Penn. Mr. Loeb, who died in December, 
1887, at the age of seventy-five, was a brother of Dr. Henri 
Loeb, formerly Chief Rabbi of Belgium, and was on terms 
of intimacy with Henry Clay and other prominent Ameri- 
cans. President Lincoln tendered him the Consulship at 
Stuttgart, which he declined. 

Emanuel N. Carvalho was a member of the editorial 
staff of the " Turf, Field and Farm " for eighteen years. 
He was born in Charleston, S. C, in 1818, and hved in 
the West Indies and Baltimore before coming to New York 
in 1857. He early showed a genius for dramatic writing, 
and was the author of several plays and lectures. He 
was attached to the " New York Herald " for a while, and 
he was the first dramatic critic of the " Turf, Field and 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 267 

Farm." For fourteen years he gave his attention to turf 
matters, and, in addition to writing sketches, reports and 
editorials, he did much in the way of stud book compiHng. 
He died in 1883. 

The first German newspaper in New Orleans was estab- 
lished in the year 1841, by the late Joseph Cohn, a native of 
Hamburg, Germany, and was called " Der Deutsche Courier." 
It was published under this name until 1846, when it was 
changed to the " Deutsche Zeitung." 

Joseph and Albert Pulitzer's success in journalism is one 
of the marvels of the day. The reconstruction of the " New 
York World " by the former and the founding of the " New 
York Journal " by the latter has, to a certain extent, revo- 
lutionized the methods formerly employed in Arherican 
journalism. The Messrs. Pulitzer, however, are not to be 
classed as among the chosen people, their father being a 
Hebrewand their mother a Christian lady of Vienna. Joseph 
Pulitzer married a grand-niece of Jefferson Davis. This refer- 
ence to the distinguished journaHsts has been deemed proper 
in order to correct a popular misapprehension. At San Fran- 
cisco Charles and Michael DeYoung founded the " Chronicle," 
now, and for years, the leading newspaper on the Pacific 
Coast. Montague Marks edits the " Mirror," Morris Phillips 
the " Home Journal," and DeWitt J. Seligman the " Epoch," 
of New York. The " Jewelers' Weekly," of New York, an 
ably-conducted and influential publication, controlled by 
Messrs. Ullman & Rothschild, is a bright and handsome 
sheet with a large circulation, which has been secured by 
familiarity with the wants of the trade and liberal expendi- 
tures for securing news. It is widely quoted by the daily press. 

The " Musical Courier " of New York, owned and edited 



268 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

by Marc A. Blumenburg and Otto Floersheim, was founded 
in 1880 and has done great service for the cultivation of a 
taste for opera and classical music and the best features of 
the higher grade of musical entertainments. It has also 
aided in establishing Wagnerian music on a firmer and more 
extensive basis, and has been persistent in exposing as in- 
artistic what is termed the mutilated form of Italian opera in 
this country with the star system at its head. Every im- 
portant feature of the music trade in America is covered by 
the " Musical Courier," which is also the recognized organ 
among the manufacturers. 

Samuel Harby, a son of Isaac Harby, when a boy, left 
Charleston and settled in New Orleans, where he indulged.in 
his natural bent for literature and became connected with 
several prominent newspapers, finally becoming editor and 
part owner of the " New Orleans Bee," which remained a 
leading and prosperous journal up to the time of his death. 

Messrs. Max and Benjamin Hayman, of Indianapolis, Ind., 
are publishers and proprietors of the " Weekly Herald," 
in that city. Both are self-made men, Benjamin Hayman 
having been reared in the Cleveland Hebrew Orphan Asylum. 

Moritz EUinger was the founder and editor of the 
"Jewish Times " of New York, which was for ten years the 
leading exponent of Reform Judaism in America. He 
instituted the first lodge of the order B'nai-Beritk on Ger- 
man soil, and by his speeches in England, France and 
Germany assisted in effecting the union of German, English 
and French Hebrews in co-operation for the relief of Russian 
co-religionists. Mr. Ellinger is Corresponding Secretary of 
the Medico-Legal Society and a Fellow of the Academy of 
Sciences of New York. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 269 

The " Menorah," the only Jewish Monthly Magazine, and 
which is published in New York, was founded in July, 1886, 
by Benjamin F. Peixotto, by whom it is still edited. Though 
ostensibly the organ of the B'nai-Berith, the largest Jewish 
philanthropic body in the world, it is, in reality, a representr 
ative journal of the best thought and broadest and most 
humane principles of Jews and Judaism. It has succeeded 
in bringing on the same platform writers of the most diverse 
views, scholars and publicists, poets and philosophers, whose 
writings command the highest consideration for learning and 
genius. Among its contributors it numbers such eminent 
scholars and scientists as Dr. Morals, Dr. B. Felsenthal, Dr. 
K. Kohler, Dr. H. P. Mendes, Dr. Sonneschein, Dr. Emil G. 
Hirsch, Dr. Philippson, Dr. A. P. Putnam, Dr. A. Kingsley 
Glover ; Professors Gottheil, Jastrow and Mitchell ; Julius 
Bien, Isidor Bush, Alfred Morgan, R. J. De Cordova, Miriam 
Del Banco, etc. The " Menorah " is a magazine instructive 
and of absorbing interest, not only to Hebrews, but to all 
who desire to study the brilliant phases of Hebrew literature, 
science and art. The magazine is typographically perfect, 
beautifully printed on heavy toned paper. 

The " Hebrew Journal " was first published in New 
York in 1885, by Joseph Davis, the present editor and pub- 
lisher, and John J. Davis, since deceased. Mr. Davis is the 
oldest publisher of a Hebrew newspaper in the city of New 
York, he having been the publisher of the " Jewish Messen- 
ger," from the time of its establishment in 1857, "P to the 
year 1885, when he disposed of his interest and commenced 
the publication of the "Journal." While Mr. Davis belongs 
to the orthodox wing of Judaism, his paper avoids doctrinal 
arguments and invites discussion on all proper topics from 



270 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

any standpoint. Society matters are the principal features 
of the "Journal." 

The " American Israelite," one of the most influential 
and widely circulated Hebrew periodicals in the United 
States, was founded in 1854, at Cincinnati, by Rabbi Isaac 
M. Wise, who has edited it continuously since that date. 
Its original object was to advocate those reforms which its 
editor deemed necessaiy to bring the synagogue into har- 
mony with American institutions, but it gradually became 
the medium for the dissemination of the news of special 
interest to the Hebrews scattered in all parts of the country, 
as well as the vehicle of conveying information, as to their 
doings, to each other. The "American Israelite" did its 
share in building up all of the Hebrew-American charities, 
but its most prominent work was the part taken in found- 
ing the Union of American Hebrew Congregations. In 
recognition of this, when that body established its theo- 
logical seminary, the Hebrew Union College at Cincinnati, 
Dr. Wise was unanimously chosen President, and has been 
annually re-elected to the ofifice. The " Deborah," a com- 
panion paper to the " American Israelite," was founded in 
1855 by Dr. Wise, who still edits it. It is a Hebrew family 
paper, and is published in the German language. 

The "American Hebrew" was founded at New York in 
1879 by the American Hebrew Publishing Company, and is 
conducted by a Board of Editors, which includes many of the 
leading Jewish writers of the country. While the "American 
Hebrew" is one of the leading conservative organs of Juda- 
ism in America, its columns have been at all times open to 
the most liberal writers. The late Emma Lazarus was for 
some years a regular contril>utor to its, columns, and her 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 27 1 

tragedy, " The Dance to Death," made its first appearance 
therein. The organization of the Hebrew Technical Insti- 
tute was mainly due to the efforts of the "American 
Hebrew," which had for years agitated the subject of man- 
ual training, in which it was aided by Miss Lazarus in 
numerous articles. General literary matters are a feature in 
this journal which has won the admiration of the public and 
its contemporaries by its neatness and ability. 

The " Jewish Exponent," of Philadelphia, is a first-class 
and representative Hebrew weekly, published at Philadel- 
phia by Messrs. Henry S. Morals, Melvin G. Winstock and 
Charles Hoffman, editors, and Nathan Billstein, business 
manager. It is published by the Jewish Exponent Pub- 
lishing Company, a stock company with upwards of fifty 
stockholders. The first issue was on April 15, 1887. The 
editorial policy of the " Exponent " has been non- 
committal, though its leanings are plainly shown to be in 
favor of the preservation of Orthodoxy as against the ten- 
dencies of Reform, so far as the latter may imperil the 
ancient landmarks of Judaism. The " Exponent," from 
the very first issue, has displayed remarkable ability and 
conservatism, and its columns have been graced by accom- 
plished writers. Its successful development, in view of the 
misfortune surrounding the publication of previous ven- 
tures in Philadelphia, and the influence it has exerted 
during the short period of its existence, has been quite 
remarkable. 

The "Jewish Tidings," was founded in 1887, by Samuel 
M. Brickner and Louis Wiley, its present editors, and pub- 
lished at Rochester, N. Y. The " Tidings " has done much 
to advance Hebrew interests in its section, and has endeav- 



272 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

ored to contribute to the amelioration of the social and 
intellectual condition of the race in all portions of the 
United States. It has advocated reform, progress and jus- 
tice, and has sought the cultivation of a friendly feeling 
between Hebrew and Christian, the advancement of educa- 
tional interests among the Hebrews, the encouragement of 
literary talent and the promotion of charitable objects. Its 
columns bear testimony of candor, enterprise and ability. 
Its circulation throughout New York State and Pennsylvania 
gives evidence of a prosperous future. 

The " Hebrew Standard,'' of New York, was established 
in 1882 by J. P. Solomon, who is yet its chief editor. It is 
orthodox in its sentiment, and a faithful exponent of conserv- 
ative Judaism. It is the ofificial organ of most of the Jewish 
Benevolent Orders, to which much of its space is devoted, at 
the same time paying great attention to the current events 
in Jewish society and family life. Its editorial articles are 
well written and bear the stamp of scholarship and mature 
thought. 

The "Jewish Messenger" of New York, founded by the 
late Rev. S. M. Isaacs, in 1857, was for many years the organ 
of orthodox Judaism in this country. Myer S. and Isaac S. 
Isaacs, sons of the founder, were for a long period associate 
editors. Dr. Abram I. Isaacs is now sole editor. 

"The Hebrew," of San Francisco, was founded in 1863, 
and is still published by Philo Jacoby, its original 
founder. 

" The Hebrew Observer," is the oldest Hebrew paper 
on the Pacific Coast, and has been published by William 
Saalburg for the past twenty-five years. It is an ultra- • 
orthodox journal. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 273 

The " Jewish Progress," is a conservative reform weekly, 
pubhshed at San Francisco, and has a number of able 
writers. 

The "Jewish Spectator," of Memphis, is edited by Rev. 
Dr. Samfield. It is of the moderate reform school. 

The " Jewish Times," of San Francisco, is a reform weekly, 
of which Emanuel Katz is manager, and Rev. Jacob Voor- 
sanger, is editor. It is a brilliant, sparkling sheet, newsy 
and outspoken. 

"The Voice," of St. Louis, of which Rev. M. Spitz is 
editor, is a new weekly and successor of the defunct " Jewish 
Free Press." It is strongly orthodox. 

"The Occident," of Chicago, is an ultra-reform weekly 
published by Julius Silversmith. 

Among the publications devoted to Hebrew interests in 
former years, " The Occident," published by Isaac Leeser, 
at Philadelphia, was the most influential. In its first issue, 
which appeared in 1843, Mr. Leeser wrote : "We have now 
fairly commenced ; our frail bark is launched upon the 
waves; we have ardor and buoyancy of disposition ; little 
difficulties do not startle us ; we request, therefore, all 
those who may have doubted our ability or willingness 
to undertake the work, and who withheld their support 
on that account to come forward now and give us their 
encouragement. Public favor is the healthful breeze which 
is to waft our little vessel along on its tempestuous voy- 
age ; and the aid from above is the anchor upon which 
we rely to keep it from being wrecked upon a rocky 
shore." " The Occident" was-published uninterruptedly up 
to the death of its founder, in 1868, after which it was 
conducted by Mayer Sulzberger of Philadelphia for one 



274 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

year. Its publication was then discontinued. As the 
vehicle for the dissemination of the best Jewish thought, 
and the record of all interesting movements in the various 
communities, " The Occident " found its way into almost 
every Hebrew household, and was for many years the 
recognized organ of American Judaism. Its pages bear 
witness to Mr. Leeser's intelligence, unceasing industry and 
enthusiastic efforts in championing the interest of his co- 
religionists. 

Robert Lyon, an Englishman, who was born in 1810 and 
arrived in New York in 1844, began three years later the 
publication of the "Asmonean" and the "New York Mer- 
cantile Journal." 



IN THE PULPIT. 

THE first systematic effort for obtaining reliable statis- 
tics pertaining to the Hebrew population and the 
synagogues in the United States, was undertaken in the 
year 1876 under the auspices of the Board of Delegates of 
American Israelites and the Union of American Hebrew 
Congregations. The result showed 273 congregations with 
a total membership of 12,546, whose real estate holdings 
were estimated at $4,788,700. Property belonging to the 
public institutions under Hebrew control was then valued 
at $8,860,000, and scholars receiving religious instruction, 
82,886, under 652 teachers. The total Hebrew population, 
ascertained by this canvas, was 250,000. At the period named 
not a single Hebrew congregation existed in the following 
States and Territories : New Hampshire, Delaware, Nebraska, 
Montana Territory, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Dakota, 
Washington Territory and Wyoming. Up to 1830 the congre- 
gations in the United States did not exceed twelve. In 1850 
the number had increased to fifty-six. At the present time 
the number is not far from 400. Magnificent synagogues are 
found in all of the leading cities. In the city of New York the 
more costly synagogues number about thirty. Less elaborate 
places of worship are scattered over Manhattan Island to 
the number of 150. The American congregations are under 
the control of no synod or central organization. About 150 
of the larger congregations in the United States are members 



276 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

of the association known as the Union of American Hebrew 
Congregations, established in Cincinnati, in 1873, by repre- 
sentatives of thirty-four congregations, the primary object of 
which was to estabHsh a Hebrew Theological Institute, to 
preserve Judaism intact ; to bequeath it in its purity and 
sublimity to posterity, to Israel, united and fraternized ; to 
establish, sustain and govern a seat of learning for Jewish 
religion and literature ; to provide for and advance the stand- 
ard of Sabbath-schools for the instruction of the young in 
Israel's religion and history, and the Hebrew language ; to 
aid and encourage young congregations by such material and 
spiritual support as may be at the command of the Union, 
and to provide, sustain and manage such other institutions 
which the common welfare and progress of Judaism shall 
require — without, however, interfering in any manner what- 
soever with the affairs and management of any congregation. 
The duty of the Union is to keep a watchful eye on occur- 
rences at home and abroad, concerning the civil and religious 
rights of Israelites, and to call attention of the proper author- 
ities to the fact, should any violation of such rights occur, 
and to keep up communication with similar central Israelite 
bodies throughout the globe, through the Board of Delegates 
of Civil and Religious Rights, elected by the Council of the 
Union. The Hebrew Union College was formally opened in 
Cincinnati, October 3, 1875. The college was made entirely 
free, no fees of any kind were to be paid by students, no test 
except scholastic qualification, no test of sex, race, creed or 
age was stipulated ; it was left entirely free to all. Any 
student or graduate of the High School, having the adequate 
knowledge of Hebrew, could enter the Preparatory Depart- 
ment, and any student or graduate of the university or aca- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 277 

demical course could enter the Collegiate Department and 
graduate from the college with such degree, or degrees, which 
it confers. Henry Adler, of Cincinnati, contributed the 
munificent amount of $10,000 to the Sinking Fund of the 
College. The following gentlemen compose the Faculty of the 
College: Rev. Dr. Isaac M. Wise, President and Professor of 
Philosophy ; Rev. Dr. Moses Mielziner, Professor of Talmud, 
etc.; Rev. Dr. Henry Zirndorf, Professor of History, etc.; 
Rev. Sigmund Mannheimer, Preceptor of Hebrew, etc.; Rev. 
David Davidson, Preceptor of Biblical Literature ; Rev. Dr. 
Goldstein, Preceptor of Liturgy and Music ; Ephraim Feld- 
man. Assistant Preceptor of Talmud, etc. Bernhard Bett- 
man is President of the Board of Governors, Julius Freiberg, 
Vice-President and Jacob Ezekiel, Secretary. Rev. Dr. Isaac 
M. Wise, was elected President of the College, which started 
with seventeen students, of whom twelve were American 
born. In 1878 the Preparatory School of the Temple £mami- 
El, New York, was adopted as one of the schools of the 
Hebrew Union College, the present building of which was 
dedicated April 24, 1881. The graduates of the Hebrew 
Union College to-day, and who compose the first Rabbis 
receiving their degree in this country are as follows : Israel 
Aaron, Henry Berkowitz, Edward N. Calisch, Samuel 
Freuder, Louis Grossman, Max Heller, Moses Perez Jacob- 
son, Joseph Krauskopf, David Phillipson, Joseph Silverman, 
Tobias Schanfarber, Joseph Stolz and Isaac Rubenstein. 

The Jewish Ministers' Association of America was organ- 
ized in the city of New York on January 19, 1885, by 
the following gentlemen of New York and vicinity : 
From Albany, N. Y., Rev. Dr. M. Schlesinger; Balti- 
more, Rabbi D. Phillipson ; Boston, Rev. R. Lasker ; Brook- 



278 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

lyn, Rev. E. M. Chapman, and Rev. Dr. L. Wintner ; Rev. W. 
Sparger; Elmira, N. Y., Rev. A. Radin ; Newark,. N. J., 
Rev. J. Leucht; New York, Rev. Messrs. G. Gottheil, M. H. 
Harris, H. S. Jacobs, K. Kohler, F. de Sola- Mendes, H. 
Pereira Mendes, M. Maissner, A. Wise, J. W. Sophar ; New 
Haven, Conn., Rev. L. Kleeberg; Philadelphia, Rev. Drs. 
M. Jastrow, S. Morais ; Rochester, N. Y., Rev. Dr. M. 
Landsberg ; Syracuse, N. Y., Rev. Dr. A. Guttman. At the 
first meeting Rev. Dr. G. Gottheil was elected President ; 
Rev. Dr. M. Jastrow and Rev. H. S. Jacobs, Vice-Presidents ; 
Rev. Dr. F. de Sola Mefldes, Corresponding Secretary, and 
Rabbi D. Phillipson, Recording Secretary. The objects of 
the Association are " to promote brotherly feeling and har- 
mony among its members, to be mutually helpful by friendly 
counsels without fettering individual opinions, and to strive 
by friendly union and co-operation to advance and promote 
unity in Judaism without interference in the congregational 
autonomy." The Association now numbers sixty. The 
latest work of the Association is an attempt to stir up devo- 
tion in Jewish homes by the publication of a Jewish prayer- 
book, a manual of household devotion in English for old 
and young, sold at a popular price. The book has been 
written by Rev. Dr. F. de Sola Mendes, with the co-operation 
of Rev. Dr. Gottheil, of the Temple Emanu-El. 

Rev. Dr. Samuel Adler was born at Worms-on-the-Rhine, 
in 1810. His studies were pursued at Worms, Frankfort, 
Giessen and Bonn, and he early distinguished himself in 
various branches, being appointed, at the age of twenty-six, 
Rabbi of a congregation and Inspector of Jewish schools in 
his native city. He soon became well known throughout 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 279 

Germany as a bold and able champion of Jewish progress. 
In 1842 he was placed in charge of the Rabbinical District 
of Alzei, and, in 1844 was a member of the Synod of Rabbis. 
After declining an offer as Rabbi at Limberg, in Gallicia, he 
was called to New York, in 1856, as successor to Dr. Merz- 
bacher, of the Temple Emanu-El, where he remained for nine- 
teen years, and displayed profound learning, earnestness and 
eloquence, and exercised considerable influence in all meas- 
ures pertaining to reform Judaism. During his ministry he 
revised the ritual and nurtured and developed the Sunday- 
school of the Temple, retiring from active duty in 1875, 
when the congregation voted him a handsome life pension 
in recognition of his long and faithful services. 

Rev. E. N. Carvalho was born at London, England, 
November 13, 1771. He was the second son of S. N. Car- 
valho, an artisan of the same city. Owing to his father's 
limited means he received only a common school education, 
but by indefatigable industry and ambition rapidly acquired 
knowledge, becoming in a few years a classical scholar. At 
the age of eighteen he had mastered his father's profession, 
which was that of a coral, jet and amber worker, and was 
enabled to superintend the business. After his marriage, at 
the age of twenty, he established himself at Liverpool, but, 
desirous of living near his parents, he returned to London, 
where, in a few years, he was solicited by his friends to offer 
himself as a candidate for Minister of the Hebrew Congre- 
gation at Bridgetown in the Island of Barbadoes. Being 
duly elected, he embarked for that place in 1799. Prior to 
his departure, however, he had identified himself with a 
Democratic party favoring the American principles of gov- 
ernment, which action almost led to serious trouble. Dur- 



280 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

ing Mr. Carvalho's first four years' residence at Barbadoes 
he made himself acquainted with several Oriental languages. 
Owing to ill health he was compelled to leave the congrega- 
tion, with whom he had established a feeling of mutual 
regard and affection, and arrived in New York in 1806, 
where he taught the Spanish, Hebrew and Chaldean lan- 
guages. He then accepted a call to Charleston, S. C, 
and became Minister of the Congregation Beth-Elohim, re- 
maining there for several years. He was afterward elected 
Minister of the Congregation Mickve-Israel of Philadelphia. 
In that city he prepared the Key to the Hebrew Grammar, 
which was not yet published at the time of his death, March, 
28, 1817. 

Rev. Dr. David Einhorn was born in Bavaria in 18 19. 
After pursuing his studies at the Universities of Erlangen, 
Wiirtzburg and Munich he was connected with synagogues at 
Birkenfeld, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Pesth. While occu- 
pying the pulpit at Pesth, in 1848, the Emperor of Austria 
caused the closing of the synagogue on the plea that the 
advanced and liberal opinions of the members were the off- 
shoot of the prevailing revolutionary spirit. This hastened 
Dr. Einhorn's departure for America. He reached Balti- 
more in 1855, where he presided over the Congregation Har 
Sinai for seven years. Becoming soon interested in the 
political questions of the day, he expressed his sympathy 
with the Abolition party, and in consequence became unpop- 
ular with many of his flock. While in Baltimore he pub- 
lished a monthly magazine called " Sinai," devoted to the 
principles of Reform Judaism and the abolition of slavery. 
His outspoken opinions on the latter question caused him to 
seek safety by flight to Philadelphia, whence, after a brief 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 28 1 

stay, he was called to New York in 1866 as Rabbi of the 
Congregation Adas-Jesurun, which subsequently united with 
the Congregation Anshe-Chesed under the name Beth-El. 
Dr. Einhorn occupied the pulpit of this congregation until 
his retirement in July, 1879. ^^ ^^^^ ^o^"^ months after- 
ward. 

Rev. Dr. B. Felsenthal, of Chicago, was born at Munch- 
weiler, in Rhenish-Bavaria, 1822, and received an educa- 
tional training at the University of Munich. At the age of 
thirty-two he came to the United States, and assumed the 
pastorate of the Congregation Sinai, at Chicago, soon after 
its organization, remaining there three years. He then be- 
came Minister of the Congregation Zion, where he officiated 
for twenty-four years, a pension being voted on his retire- 
ment from active service. Dr. Felsenthal is noted for his 
profound scholarship, especially in Hebrew and German 
literature, and for his genial and manly traits, all of which 
have endeared him to a wide circle not only in the home of 
his adoption, but throughout the country. His literary 
works include "a Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Lan- 
guage," "Juedisches Schulwesen in Amerika," " Zwei 
Proselytenfrage im Judenthum," and a Hebrew reader. 

Rev. Dr. E. G. Hirsch, of Chicago, was born at Luxembourg, 
in 1851, and he is a son of Rabbi Samuel Hirsch, of Philadel- 
phia. He has resided in the United States since early child- 
hood. After a preparatory training under his father, he was 
sent to Berlin, where he received an University education, 
and graduated as Rabbi. His first appointment as Minister 
was at Louisville, whence he was called to the Sinai Temple 
at Chicago, where he now receives a salary of $12,000, the 
largest amount paid any Rabbi in the world. Dr. Hirsch is 



282 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

a Reformer of the most radical class, and is distinguished 
for his profound scholarship and eloquence. Among his 
published sermons and addresses are : " Longfellow ; a Mem- 
orial Discourse," " How shall we Bury our Dead?" "Med- 
iaeval Civilization," " Reformed Judaism," "Sir Moses Mon- 
tefiore," "Jesus of History and Jesus of Romance." 

Rev. Dr. Gustav Gottheil, of the Temple Emanu-El, at 
New York, was born at Posen, in 1827, where he pursued 
his theological studies, and later on was sent to the Univer- 
sity of Berlin, where he received further instruction under 
Zunz, Heimschneider and Holdheim, the eminent leader of 
Reform Judaism in Germany. After serving as Assistant 
Minister of the Reform Congregation at Berlin, he was called 
in i860 to the pulpit of the synagogue of British Jews in 
Manchester, England, where he remained many years. In 
1873 Dr. Gottheil was elected successor of the Rev. J. K. 
Gutheim, at the Temple Emanu-El, New York. On the 
retirement of Dr. Samuel Adler, as pastor emeritus of the 
Temple, Dr. Gottheil was re-elected for a term of five years, 
and has since occupied the pulpit of that synagogue, dis- 
playing during his incumbency much interest in the progress 
of its Sunday-school, taking a prominent part in all Hebrew 
movements of the day, and finding time at frequent intervals 
to contribute articles displaying great literary ability. 

Rev. Dr. Adolphus Huebsch, Ph. D., was born at St. Nic- 
olaus, Hungary, September 18, 1830. He was a descend- 
ant of the famous Jaffa family, whose geneology can be 
traced back into the Fifteenth Century. He received his first 
education in the house of his parents, Joachim and Julia 
Huebsch, and, in 1840, was sent to the College at Budapesth, 
where he graduated in 1845. Soon after a position as 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 283 

teacher was offered him which he accepted and retained until 
the political events of the year 1848 inflamed his patriotism, 
when he left his position and became a volunteer in Kos- 
suth's regiment, where he rose to the rank of major. After 
the disastrous battle at Vilagos he escorted Kossuth's mother 
and sister over the border, and then resumed his theological 
studies at Prague, where he received the degree of Ph. D., 
in 1 861. In that city he became the Rabbi of a leading 
congregation. In 1866 he was called to the pulpit of the 
Akawai^-CAeseel Congregation, at New York City, then a 
poor synagogue. He soon drew about him many wealthy 
Hebrews, who, after he had preached for them six years, 
built the present Temple on Lexington Avenue, at a cost 
of $295,000. The congregation is classed among the moder- 
ate reform Hebrews. Dr. Huebsch was an eminent scholar 
and the author of several works, among which are a trans- 
lation of a portion of the Syriac version of the old Testament 
into Hebrew, with a commentary ; the " Gems of the Orient,'' 
a compilation and translation of Arabic and Syriac proverbs 
into English ; a prayer-book, a hymn-book, and the ritual in 
use at the above mentioned Temple. As an orator. Dr. 
Huebsch had few equals among the Hebrew clergy ; his 
lectures were always eloquent and scholarly, and he fre- 
quently electrified his auditors. In 1871 he was elected Presi- 
dent of the Rabbinical Conference in Cincinnati. Among 
the Hebrew clergy, as well as those of other creeds, Dr. 
Huebsch was much beloved. He had acquired an excellent 
reputation as a lecturer upon theology and other subjects as 
well. His discourses have received the highest commen- 
dation from clergymen without distinction of creed. He 
also took part in organizing the Young Men's Hebrew Asso- 



284 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

ciation. Eighteen years of unceasing devotion to the cause 
of American Judaism had stamped his name in indelible 
characters upon its history, and when the melancholy news 
of his sudden death was announced on October 10, 1884, 
a gloom of sadness hung like a funeral pall over many He- 
brew homes where his name was known, for his profound 
scholarship and geniality. His home life was a very happy 
one. ■ His widow has published a memorial volume of her 
late husband, entitled " Memoirs of Rev. Dr. Adolphus 
Huebsch," which has found wide circulation. 

Rev. Samuel M. Isaac (deceased) was the son of a Dutch 
banker, and was born in 1804. He settled in London when 
ten years of age and reaching New York in 1839, took charge 
of the Congregation B'nai-Jeshurun, then worshiping in Elm 
Street. A schism in the congregation led to the formation 
of a new organization known as Shaaray-Tefila, of which he 
became Minister, retaining the position up to the time of 
his death, in 1870. He established the " Jewish Messenger" 
in 1857, in which he vigorously opposed the Reform move- 
ment, was active in all philanthropic work and frequently 
appeared as a public speaker. 

Rev. George Jacobs, for many years a popular and much 
beloved minister of Richmond, Va., and Philadelphia, was a 
native of Kingston, Jamaica, and was born in 1834. When 
twenty years old he settled in Richmond, where he was for 
some years engaged as a merchant and married a daughter 
of Jacob A. Levy, for many years President of the Congre- 
gation Betk-Slialome. Abandoning mercantile life he devoted 
much time to theological and Rabbinical studies and soon 
showed capacity as a Reader and Preacher. He occupied 
the pulpit of the Synagogue Beth-Shalome, at Richmond, for 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 285 

several years, and in 1869 accepted a call from the Congre- 
gation Betli-El-Emeth, at Philadelphia, which he occupied up 
to the time of his death, in 1886. Mr. Jacobs was the author 
of several Sunday-school books and was prominent in various 
benevolent organizations. 

Among the numerous occupants of the Hebrew pulpit in 
America who claim the West Indies as their birth-place none 
is better known than the Rev. Henry S. Jacobs, of the Syna- 
gogue B'nai-Jeskurun, of New York. Mr. Jacobs is a native 
of Kingston, Jamaica, and he was born in the year 1827. 
His Hebrew studies were pursued in his native city, first 
under the Rev. M. N. Nathan, and afterwards under Dr. 
Stern and Morenu Stenklar. In 1853 he came to the United 
States, and was elected Minister of the Portuguese Congre- 
gation Beth-Shalome, remaining there several years, and then 
removing to Charleston, S. C. He subsequently occupied 
the pulpit of synagogues at New Orleans, Augusta and 
Columbia, S. C. At New Orleans he remained for several 
years with the Congregation Dispersed of Judah, enjoying 
the acquaintances of all classes, and winning many friends 
especially among the prominent members of the Masonic 
Fraternity, in which he was a conspicuous officer. He occu- 
pied during his residence in New Orleans, the Chairmanship 
of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence of the Grand 
Lodge of the State. His energy and intelligence contribu- 
ted much to the prosperity of the Hebrew Sunday-school of 
his congregation, a department in which he has always 
shown much aptitude since boyhood. On leaving New 
Orleans Mr. Jacobs was for a time connected with the Syna- 
gogue ShearitJi-hrael, of New York, whence in 1876 he was 
called to his present position. 



286 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

The name of Rev. Dr. Marcus M. Jastrow, now of Phila- 
delphia, was well known long before he reached this country 
in 1866. Born at Ragasen, Posen, in 1829, he graduated at 
the Gymnasium of Posen at the age of twenty-three. Two 
years later he graduated as Ph.D. at Halle, and in 1857, 
after teaching at a religious school at Berlin, was appointed 
assistant preacher at Warsaw, where he remained five years. 
While at the height of his popularity he offended the 
authorities by the free expressions of his political opinions, 
favoring the Revolutionary party. This resulted in his 
arrest 'and imprisonment for three months in the citadel of 
Warsaw, where his health was seriously impaired. A de- 
cree of exile soon thereafter caused his return to Prussia, 
and he received a call to the Ministry of the congregation 
at Mannheim, which he accepted for a short time only, soon 
returning to Warsaw on learning that the decree had been 
revoked. A renewal of Revolutionary proceedings again 
led to his removal from Warsaw, and he took up his abode 
at Worms, Hesse-Darmstadt, where he served as Rabbi for 
three years. While here he was invited to come to the 
United States, and on reaching Philadelphia, in 1866, was 
elected Minister of the Congregation Rodef-Shalome. As 
an orator he has few superiors, as a classical scholar he ranks 
high, and as an author he is well known in both hemispheres, 
his best known works being a dictionary of the Talmud, a 
volume of Polish sermons entitled "Die Lage der Juden in 
Polen" and "Varzania Polskie und Vier Jahrhunderte aus 
der Geschichte der Juden!' 

Rev. Dr. Isidor Kalisch was born at Krotoschin, Prussia, 
November 15, 1816, and studied at the Universities of Ber- 
lin, Breslau and Prague. The war feeling throughout 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 287 

Prussia in 1842 aroused his ardor and enthusiasm and 
evoked from him a patriotic poem, entitled " Schlacht Gesang 
der Deutschen" which he dedicated to the Prince of Prussia, 
who, in an autograph letter, acknowledged its acceptance. 
The song became one of the most popular in Germany. 
Leaving Germany during the revolutionary fever he made his 
way to London and after a stay of seven months sailed for 
New York, reaching that city in 1849. The following year 
he received a call from the Congregation Tifireth-Israel of 
Cleveland, Ohio, to officiate as their minister, which he 
accepted, and later on he received a call from the Congrega- 
tion Ahabath-Achim, of Cincinnati. Here he remained one 
year, when he resigned to become Minister of the Congrega- 
tion B'nai-Jesurun of Milwaukee, Wis. After three years 
religious work in Milwaukee, Dr. Kalisch removed to Indian- 
apolis, Ind., as Rabbi of the congregation in that city. 
Two years later he accepted a call as Rabbi of the Congre- 
gation Beth-El at Detroit, Mich., where he resided for 
three years, during which time he published his German 
poems entitled " Toene des Morgen-Landes " (Sounds of the 
Orient) which were warmly received and highly commented 
upon. From Detroit he removed to Leavenworth, Kansas. 
While here he contributed interesting articles to the Jewish 
press, and also undertook the translation of Lessing's 
^^ Nathan der Weise" from the German into English prose. 
In 1868 Dr. Kalisch established an educational institute in 
New York, which, after a years' trial, was abandoned for 
lack of encouragement. In 1855 Dr. Kalisch succeeded in 
deciphering a Phoenician inscription found near Sidon, which 
was sent to him by Professor Gibbs of Yale College. The 
Syro-Egyptian Society of London accepted his translation as 



288 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

authoritative. In 1870 he received a call from the Congre- 
gation B' nai- Abraham of Newark, N. J., with whom he 
remained for two years, and then removed to Nashville, 
Tenn., to accept the position of Rabbi of the Congregation 
Ohavey-Scholom. In 1875 he returned to Newark and de- 
voted himself mainly to the lecture field and literary work. 
The mere titles alone of his various essays, monographs, trans- 
lations, disquisitions and controversies would occupy several 
pages. His close application to literary labors undermined 
his health, resulting in a stroke of apoplexy, from which he 
never recovered. He died on the nth of November, 1886. 

Rev. Dr. Kaufman Kohler was born in Fuerth, Bavaria, in 
1843. H^ was educated at Hassfort, Mayence, Altona, 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, and finally at the University of 
Munich and at Berlin. In 1869, Dr. Kohler was elected 
Minister of the Congregation Beth-El, at Detroit, Mich. 
In 1 87 1 he accepted a call from Congregation Sinai, of 
Chicago. In that city he inaugurated a series of Sunday 
lectures in addition to the regular Saturday service. In 1879, 
on the retirement of his father-in-law. Rev. Dr. David Ein- 
horn, he became his successor as Minister of Temple Beth-El 
New York, where he still occupies the pulpit. Dr. Kohler 
is a prolific writer and his contributions are always sure of 
a cordial reception. In 1868 he published a thesis entitled 
'■' Der Segen " (Jacob's Blessing), a contribution to Bible criti- 
cism, which secured for him the degree of Ph.D., and created 
a sensation at the time because of its radical tone. Among 
Dr. Kohler's numerous published lectures are : " The Wan- 
dering Jew," " The Song of Songs," " Backwards or For- 
wards," which contains an exposition of reformed Judaism 
as opposed to orthodoxy ; and several Sabbath-school text- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 289 

books. From 1884 to 1885 he was editor-in-chief of the 
"Sabbath Visitor," and in 1886 he published the "Jewish 
Reformer." He has been for many years a contributor to 
the Jewish press. Dr. Kohler was the projector of the Pitts- 
burg Convention of Reformed Jewish Ministers, which 
adopted a platform or declaration of principles for Reformed 
Judaism. Beginning in October, 1887, he inaugurated a 
series of Sunday lectures in his synagogue which were widely 
published in the secular press and have proven decidedly 
successful. 

Rev. Dr. Alexander Kohut was born in the Hungarian 
village of Febegyhiza in 1837. His parents were poor, and 
the village having no well-regulated schools, he was com- 
pelled to accept the hospitality of an uncle living at Kres- 
Keme'h. Here, at the age of eight, he learned the alphabet, 
and by hard study and perseverence completed a course in 
the gymnasium. Young Kohut then presented himself at 
the Breslau Theological Seminary, and under the tutorship 
of Professors Gratz and Frankel, made rapid progress in 
Oriental languages. His career in Breslau was a checkered 
one. Pride, on the part of the young student, compelled him 
to refuse the " free board " offered to worthy students, and 
poverty and hunger stared him in the face. At this climax 
he was favored by fortune by receiving 100 gulden, as pay- 
ment for a sermon delivered by him before a small country 
congregation on the New Year. In 1867 he was graduated 
from the Breslau Seminary. During his stay at Breslau, he 
officiated at times at Sarnovitz, and, after being graduated, 
he was called to the pulpit of Stuhlweissenberg where he re- 
mained for eight years. While here he was elected Director 
of Schools. From Stuhlweissenberg he went to Groswardein, 



290 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

where he remained three years. In 1884, after much de- 
liberation, and owing to the death of Dr. Adolph Huebsch, it 
was decided by the Congregation AhawatJi-Chesed, of New 
York, one of the largest and most influential congregations in 
America, to call Dr. Kohut to the vacancy. After much 
hesitation, and with a feeling of regret at leaving his native 
land where he was so well known, but filled with disgust at the 
display of anti-Semitism, and feeling that much awaited him 
in this country, he accepted the call, arriving in New 
York May 3, 1885. Before leaving Hungary, Dr. Kohut, 
through Premier Minister Tisza, was called to the Hungarian 
Parliament, an honor never before conferred on an Israelite. 
Dr. Kohut's high reputation as the author of " Aruch Com- 
pletum," and other works had already secured for him a host 
of admirers in the New World, and he was cordially welcome 
on reaching this country. During his two years' residence in 
America Dr. Kohut has become identified with many Amer- 
ican institutions, the Jewish Theological Seminary having re- 
ceived his special attention. His lectures in German on Satur- 
days are listened to by an audience of about i,8oCi His 
principal work, and the one by which he is best knowki! in the 
scientific world, is the " Aruch Completum," aTalmudic dic- 
tionary which has required twenty-two years of labof, and 
which he expects to complete in a year or two. This work 
is a Hebrew Talmudical encyclopedia based on the Talmu- 
dical Midrashical dictionary of the renowned R. Nathan ben 
Jechiel of the Eleventh Century, and the volumes thus far 
completed have been highly eulogized by M. Renan, Profs. 
Tranz, Delitzset and Mueller, Cardinal Magnaes, Bishop 
Ferdinand Dulansky, Dr. Zunz, Dr. Stern, Salomon Buber, 
the Prussian Minister of Education, the chief Rabbis of 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 29 1 

France, England and Germany, and many others. Among 
Dr. Kohut's other works are: "Angelologie and Demono- 
logie, and their relation to the Parsismus " (1863), which has 
been used by Dr. Spiegel, the greatest Persian scholar of this 
century as a basis for his research ; " Criticism on the Trans- 
lation of the Persian Bible by Josef Travis " (1878), "History 
of Judaism from Ezra to 1880" (Hungarian 1881), " Kohut 
on Ethics" (1885 English), treatises on Jewish Science in 
various perodicals, and Talmudic Studies (English 1886). 

Rev. Dr. Joseph Krauskopf, of the Congregation Keneseth- 
Israel of Philadelphia, was born in Prussia, emigrated when 
quite young, and was educated in Massachusetts and Cin- 
cinnati, graduating with degrees from the University of 
Cincinnati and from the Hebrew Union College at Cincin- 
nati. In 1883 he was chosen to the pulpit of the Congrega- 
tion B'nai-Jekudak of Kansas City, Missouri, where he 
remained until invited to Philadelphia. His age is twenty- 
nine. Dr. Krauskopf's works on " The Jews and Moors in 
Spain " and " Evolution and Judaism," have been widely 
read and favorably commented on by competent critics. 
He is also the author of " Koth Tanchumim," a Ritual for 
Funerals, etc. 

Rabbi H. Berkowitz, of the Congregation Shaari-Sho- 
mayim, of Mobile, Ala., was caUed to the pulpit of that 
synagogue in 1883. He was a student at the Hebrew Union 
College of Cincinnati, whence he graduated in the first class 
of American rabbis educated in this country. 

Rev. Isaac Leeser was born at Neuenkirchen in West- 
phalia, Prussia, in 1806. After a preliminary education at 
Miinster, he sailed for America in 1824, and settled at Rich- 
mond, Va., where he found employment in the store of his 



292 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

uncle Zalma Rehine. His spare moments were devoted to 
literary pursuits, and in the synagogue he assisted in impart- 
ing religious instruction to the Sabbath-school. While in 
Richmond he appeared for the first time as the champion of 
his co-religionists, in the columns of a newspaper of that city, 
in reply to certain aspersions on the people of his race which 
had been published in the " London Quarterly Review." 
After five years' residence in Richmond young Leeser was 
called to the pulpit of the Synagogue Mickve-Israel, of 
Philadelphia, where he inaugurated a system of English dis- 
courses in the synagogue, the first being delivered on June 
2, 1830. Literary labors continued to engage his attention, 
and during the same year he published a translation of 
Johlson's " Instruction in the Mosaic Religion." Three 
years later appeared his defense of the Jews in a volume 
entitled " The Jews and the Mosaic Law.'' About this time 
his labors were interrupted by sickness from the small-pox, 
and his brother, Jacob, who had been summoned to his bed- 
side, fell a victim to the disease. On being restored to 
health his literary work was resumed with unabated vigor, 
and there followed in rapid succession a series of sermons, a 
spelling-book, .contributions to the " Philadelphia Gazette " 
in defence of the Hebrews, entitled " The Claims of the 
Jews to an Equality of Rights," a catechism and a volume of 
discourses, and besides he edited Miss Aguilar's " Spirit of 
Judaism." In 1843 he began the publication of "The Occi- 
dent," and in 1845 he published the " Pentateuch " in Hebrew 
and English. Then followed an edition of the " Daily 
Prayers," an English translation of Schwarz's " Geography of 
Palestine," an edition of the Hebrew Bible (the joint produc- 
tion with Dr. Jaquette, a Christian clergyman of Philadelphia) 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 293 

and finally a Bible in the English language. He retired 
from the pulpit of the Congregation Mickve-Israelm 1850, 
but again resumed his ministerial labors ini857, when he was 
called to the Synagogue Beth-El, where he continued till his 
death in 1868. During this period he published " Dias' Let- 
ters," a controversial work in favor of Judaism, Mrs. Hester 
Rothschild's " Meditations and Prayers " and Miss Aguilar's 
" Jewish Faith and Spirit of Judaism." He also republished 
" The Inquisition and Judaism." Two years before his 
death he undertook the publication of all the discourses he 
had written, covering ten volumes of 400 pages each. 
Numerous other works were in course of preparation at the 
time of his death. Mr. Leeser's literary works, which were 
sufficiently voluminous to absorb the entire time and atten- 
tion of most men, did not interfere with his activity in other 
directions. In all public charitable and educational move- 
ments he was the leading spirit and rendered valuable serv- 
ice in every project looking to the advancement of Judaism. 
Few enterprises were undertaken without his counsel, and 
all commendable projects received his hearty support. The 
organization of a Hebrew College, Jewish Hospital, Foster 
Home, Union of Charities, Board of Delegates of American 
Israelites, Education Society, American Publication Society, 
and many other organizations was in a large measure due 
to his influence. Mr. Leeser's death occurred on February 
I, 1868. Mayer Sulzberger, Mr. Leeser's successor as editor 
of the " Occident " and one of his executors, says : " There 
have been greater Talmudists, there may have been more 
eloquent orators and more graceful writers ; but among them 
all there has been no greater genius, no better Jew and no 
purer man than Isaac Leeser." 



294 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Rev. Dr. Max Lilienthal was born in Munich, Bavaria, in 
1815. He graduated from the famous University of that 
city, taking the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, with a rank 
so high that the greatest inducements were held out to him to 
abjure his faith and enter the service of the State. He in- 
dignantly rejected the temptation, and left his native country 
for all time, accepting employment in Russia, under Em- 
peror Nicholas, as Superintendent of the Hebrew schools of 
the Empire, where his services were recognized as so valu- 
able, that the Emperor, on one occasion, presented him with 
a diamond ring from his own hand. After seven years' em- 
ployment, the Doctor, finding that it was proposed to use his 
influence with the Hebrew people to convert them to the 
Greek Church, hastily departed from Russia, and in 1844, 
emigrated to America, settling in New York City, where he 
was chosen Rabbi of three of the leading congregations. His 
advanced views, however, embroiled him with the more or- 
thodox of his parishioners, and, in 1850, he withdrew tempor- 
arily from ministerial duties and established a very success- 
ful educational institute that was universally recognized as the 
most popular of its kind in the whole country. Again becoming 
restless to champion from the pulpit the cause of Judaism, 
he accordingly, in 1855, accepted a call to Cincinnati, 
from the Congregation B' nai-Israel, with whom he re- 
mained for twenty-seven years, until his death, in 1882. 
Dr. Lilienthal occupied prominent positions in all the 
various charitable and educational commissions of the muni- 
cipality, but declined again and again the offer of very high 
political honors. He was President of the Medical College, 
and was the first Rabbi to make a constant practice of 
preaching from Christian pulpits, in one instance, even 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 295 

assuming entire charge of a Congregationalist parish during 
the enforced absence of its pastor. Doctor Lilienthal was a 
distinguished linguist. He did an immense amount of 
work in all departments of letters. He established and 
edited the quarterly " Hebrew Review," and the weekly 
" Sabbath School Visitor," and contributed regularly to the 
" Asmonean," the "Occident," the "Israelite" and the 
" Deborah "; published several volumes of addresses and 
sermons, wrote numerous dramas, published a volume of 
poems and a history of his travels in Russia, and wrote a 
book of Object Lessons, which is still extensively used in 
the public schools. Dr. Lilienthal was the founder and 
head of the American Rabbinical Association, and was one 
of the Professors of the Hebrew Union College ; his heart 
was aroused in every good cause, and his hands busy in 
furthering it. Judaism had no more fervent champion, 
American institutions no more devout admirer and support- 
er, and his death, which occurred in 1882, was mourned as a 
memorable catastrophe by every member of the wide com- 
munity in which he moved. 

The late Rev. Jacques J. Lyons was a native of Surinam, 
W. I., and settled in Richmond, Va., where he ofificiated as 
Minister of the Congregation Beth-Shalome for several years. 
On removing to New York, he was called to the pulpit of 
the Synagogue Shear ith-Israel, and at the end of two years 
was elected to the position for life, his term extending over 
a period of thirty-eight years in all. Mr. Lyons was one of 
the founders of Mount Sinai Hospital, and was for many 
years active in all Hebrew movements. At the time of his 
death, which many attributed to his arduous labors in com- 
batting the spread of the Reform movement which threat- 



296 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

ened a split in his congregation, he was engaged in the 
preparation of a History of the Hebrews of this country. 

Rev. Isaac P. Mendes, of Savannah, Ga., was born at Kings- 
ton, Jamaica, W. I., January 13, 1853. ^^ early childhood he 
manifested an inclination for the Ministry, and was sent to 
England to his uncle Rev. A. P. Mendes (recently of 
Newport), where he was educated, first at Northwick College, 
and then by his uncle and other learned Rabbis. He first 
officiated in 1870 in Bevis Marks, and afterwards received 
permission from the Board of Trustees to accept an invitation 
to preach in the branch synagogue during the absence of 
the regular Minister. In December, 1873, he was appointed 
Minister and Lecturer of the Congregation Beth-Shalome, at 
Richmond, Va. A few years later he was called to Savannah. 

Rev. Dr. Frederick de Sola Mendes was born in 1850 at 
Montego Bay, Jamaica,W. I., where his father, Rev. Abraham 
Pereira Mendes, was Minister of the Jewish congregation. Re- 
moving to London in 1858, he received instruction at North- 
wick College, an institution of which his father was founder 
and principal, and also at the School of University College, 
Gower Street. He matriculated at the London University 
in 1867, and graduated Bachelor of Arts, with honors in 
French, mental philosophy and physiology in 1869. In 
January, 1870, he was admitted at the University of Breslau, 
Prussia, and the Jewish Theological Seminary of that city, 
receiving the Trustees' scholarship at the latter institution 
the following year. In 1872 he graduated as Doctor of 
Philosophy at the University of Jena. Returning to Lon- 
don in the fall of the same year, he was appointed Preacher at 
the great St. Helen's synagogue there. In October, 1873, a 
committee from New York, appointed by the Congregation 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 297 

Sltaaray-Tcfilla, to select a Preacher as assistant to the aged 
pastor, Rev. Samuel M. Isaacs, induced Dr. Mendes to pro- 
ceed thither. In January, 1874, he was elected Assistant 
Minister, being at the same time tendered the Preachership in 
the Congregation Shearith-Israel in the same city. In 1 877 he 
was elected Minister of the Congregation Shaaray-Tefilla, 
Rev. S. M. Isaacs retiring from all duty. Dr. Mendes' tastes 
are scientific, rather than archaeological, and he varies the 
routine of pastoral and educational work ^ith research in 
electricity, chemistry and photography. Possessing a great 
love for nature, he has for some years owned and worked a 
farm of 130 acres in northern New Jersey, near Morristown, 
and utilizes it as a delightful summer residence. His practical 
experience there is turned to account in caring for the 
"Alliance" colony of Russian Jews, near Vineland, N. J., in 
which he takes interest, and serves as Secretary of the Board 
of Trustees of the colony who have it in charge for the Lon- 
don Mansion House Committee. He is likewise Secretary 
of the Jewish Ministers' Association of which he is a founder. 
From 1879 t° 1885, he was a chief editor of the " American 
Hebrew," a weekly journal founded by him and his personal 
friends. Having brought it to an acknowledged position in 
the community. Dr. Mendes resigned its editorial control 
into hands less occupied with public aflairs. He is the 
author of several successful school-books : the " Child's First 
Bible," now in its fourteenth thousand; " Outlines of Jewish 
History," (1886) : "Synagogue and School," (1887): also of 
"A Hebrew's Reply to the Missionaries" (1876) "Jewish 
Family Papers," translated from the German of Herzberg 
(1874), "Life of Manasseh ben Israel," translated from Kay- 
serling (1874) ; " a Talmudical Hand-lexicon" (first part only 



298 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

printed) besides numerous contributions to the current 
Jewish and Christian religious press. Dr. Mendes is editor 
and chief contributor to the " Jewish Home Prayer-book," 
now being issued by the Jewish Ministers' Association. 

Rev. Dr. Henry Pereira Mendes, of the ancient Spanish 
and Portuguese Congregation ShearitJi-Israel, of New York, 
was born in England. He was educated at the University 
College, London, and gained a " first-class" in the year 1870. 
Prior to this, in ffis school education, he carried off for several 
consecutive years, the first prizes in Hebrew and Scriptural 
subjects. His first distinction was in 1863, when he won the 
" Windle " prize of his class for Scripture, beating his com- 
petitors who obtained marks for New Testament, which he 
did not. Determining to follow the ministry as a profession, 
in due time his studies were turned in that direction ; he 
studied for the sacred calling under private tuition, and in 
the fall of 1873, ofificiated for the first time in the old Bevis 
Marks synagogue. Early in 1874, Haham Artom, the eccle- 
siastical chief or Chief Rabbi of the Spanish and Portuguese 
Jews of England, placed before him the choice of a position, 
either in St. Thomas, W. I., where there was a vacancy, or 
in Manchester, Eng., where a new congregation was just 
formed. He chose the latter, and in May of that year he 
assisted in the consecration of the synagogue with Dr. Artom 
and Rev. D. Piza. He officiated on the following Sabbath 
and on the Pentecost Holy days that followed almost im- 
mediately, and on the next day was formally elected Minister. 
He at once organized a choir, started classes for Hebrew and 
other instruction and formed a young men's society. In 1877 
he was invited by the Trustees of the Congregation Shearitlt- 
Israel, to this country. Pending the fall congregational 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 299 

meeting, he was appointed Preacher. But in July of that 
year, the Rev. J. J. Lyons being incapacitated as Reader by 
sickness. Dr. Mendes, by request, assumed the duties of 
Reader. Mr. Lyons died in the following month, and in 
October Dr. Mendes was elected at the congregational meet- 
ing as Preacher and First Reader, an unsought for and unex- 
pected combination, which was heightened by subsequent 
congregational action, marking their satisfaction very sub- 
stantially. In the winter of that year Dr. Mendes com- 
menced classes for ladies, for the study of Hebrew language 
and Jewish history. These classes have been continued 
every year, others being added for young men, boys and 
children, together with special courses of Lectures on Litera- 
ture or History. In 1884 Dr. Mendes graduated as Doctor 
of Medicine in the University of the City of New York, find- 
ing time to devote his attention to the necessary studies, not- 
withstanding his engrossing ministerial duties. In communal 
matters he has always taken an active part. In 1880, he 
aided in promoting the foundation of the Training School 
for Nurses, an institution identified in its initiation with the 
name of an esteemed lady member of his congregation. In 
1884 he moved the Trustees of his synagogue to invite the 
united action of the Jewish community of this city to erect 
an appropriate mark of the esteem in which Sir Moses Monte- 
fiore was held. The result was the establishment of the 
Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids. In 1886 he was one 
of the prime movers in the establishment of the Jewish 
Seminary in this city of which he acted as Secretary for some 
time, and has since continued to act as Secretary of the 
Advisory Board. He is also Secretary of the New York 
Ministers' Association and of the New York branch of the 



300 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Alliance Universelle the head-quarters of which are in Paris 
(France). In literary work Dr. Mendes is known as the author 
of sketches of " Post-BibHcal History," " Grandpa Salma's 
Stories," "Aunt Rivca's Stories," published in the "Ameri- 
can Hebrew "; " Crustaceous Papers," and "Ay-de-mi '' series 
("Jewish Messenger"); " The Position of Jewish Woman in 
Bible and Rabbinic Times "; " The Sphere of Congregational 
Work "; " Why am I a Jew " (" North American Review "); 
"The Lifting of the Veil" (" Menorah Monthly") and 
"Jewish Lyrics for Sunday-schools." 

Rev. Mayer Messing, of the congregation of Indianapolis, 
Ind., arrived in that city in 1867, when twenty-four years 
of age, and has ever since occupied the pulpit of that syna- 
gogue. He was born in Germany, and had ofiRciated at Gross 
Glogan, Mecklenburg, before reaching this country. He 
could speak in English when he reached Indianapolis, but 
his English is now almost classical in its purity. Soon after 
his arrival, the congregation, which had always shown ortho- 
dox tendencies, took a decided step forward, and it now 
ranks among the progressive reform congregations. Dr. 
Messing has always encouraged the progressive spirit of his 
congregation rather than appearing in the role of a leader. 
He is active in works of charity and mercy and is a great fa- 
vorite in social circles. He has been for twenty years the 
Secretary of the Hebrew Ladies' Relief Society, is a fine 
Hebrew scholar, and possesses a valuable library. He is the 
principal and best known Rabbi in Indiana, and his good 
ofKces are always in demand not only in his own city but 
within a radius of seventy-five miles. 

Rev. Dr. Morris J. Raphall was born at Stockholm, 
Sweden, in 1798, and died in the city of New York, June 23, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 301 

1868. He received an education at Copenhagen and studied 
four years at the University of Giessen. Removing to Eng- 
land in 1834, he published " The Hebrew Review, or Maga- 
zine of Rabbinical Literature," the first Jewish periodical 
ever published in Great Britain. In 1840, he acted as Secre- 
tary to the Chief Rabbi of England, and in 1841, was ap- 
pointed Rabbi and Preacher of a congregation at Bimingham. 
On his departure from that city for New York, in 1849, the 
Mayor and other leading citizens united in an address thank- 
ing him for his efforts in behalf of public education. In New 
York, Dr. Raphall was appointed to the pulpit of the Con- 
gregation B'nai Jesurun. His works, which showed much 
ability, include " Devotional Exercises for the Daughters of 
Israel," " Post-Biblical History of the Jews," " The Path to, 
Iinmortality " and the " Bible View of Slavery." 

Rev. Dr. Solomon H. Sonneschein is a native of Turoz 
St. Martin, in Hungary. His early education was under the 
care of his father, who was Chief Rabbi of the district and a 
well-known Talmudical teacher. For centuries past his 
family have numbered some of the most distinguished 
divines in Poland, Moravia and Hungary, including Nathan 
Sporo (1585-1633) and Marcus Benet (i 758-1 829). Dr. 
Sonneschein graduated from the Seminary of the late Mor- 
avian Chief Rabbi, Abraham Platzek, in 1863. The follow- 
ing year he was elected Rabbi at Varasdin (Croatia). In 
1 866, he accepted a call as Rabbi and Preacher at Prague, as 
successor of the late Dr. A. Huebsch. While there he edited 
a Homiletic monthly. In 1868, Dr. Sonneschein came to 
New York as Rabbi and Preacher for a leading congregation, 
whose conservative tendencies, however, soon induced him 
to find a more congenial field for his radical religious views. 



302 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

and he accepted a call to the pulpit of the Temple Gates of 
Truth, at St. Louis. Here he labored for seventeen years 
the congregation meanwhile increasing to such an extent as 
to become too bulky and unwieldy. Dr. Sonneschein's prom- 
inent participation in the Pittsburg Conference, in 1885, and 
his outspoken championship of the doctrines and principles 
enunciated by the Conference, were severely criticized by 
many of his congregation, and for the purpose of restoring 
tranquility he resigned his charge in April, 1886. The strife 
between his enemies and his adherents, which followed, was 
long and bitter and resulted in a split of the congregation 
and the formation, on October 11, 1886, of a new congrega- 
tion upon the most advanced reform principles, with Dr. 
Sonneschein as Rabbi and Preacher, the present membership 
of which is over 200. Dr. Sonneschein's journalistic career 
extends over a period of twenty-four years. He has been 
editor of "Die Wahrheit" and "Jewish Tribune," of St. 
Louis, " Die Deborah," of Cincinnati, and the " Hombletische 
Monatschrift," of Prague. He has also contributed to the 
" Menorah," " Die Deborah," " American Israelite " and 
other publications. Dr. Sonneschein has been twice elected 
one of the three Vice-Presidents of the National Conference 
of Charities and Correction, and has been constant in his 
endeavors to conciliate the church and the synagogue. 

After an active career of almost half a century in the 
pulpit, the Rev. Dr. Samuel Hirsch, one of the leaders of the 
extreme Radical Reform wing of Judaism, retired from 
active service in 1887, after occupying for twenty-two year3 
the pulpit of Congregation Keneseth-Israel of Philadelphia. 
Dr. Hirsch was born at Thalfinger, Rhenish-Prussia, June 8, 
1815. After a Rabbinical training at Metz he studied at 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 303 

the Universities of Berlin, Leipsic and Bonn, receiving at 
the second-named institution the degree of Doctor of Phil- 
osophy. His first ministerial ofifice was at Dessau in 1838, 
and so creditably did he fulfill his duties that five years later 
he received the appointment of Chief Rabbi of Luxembourg, 
in which capacity he served twenty-three years. His repu- 
tation having reached the New World, the Congregation 
Keneseth-Israel, of Philadelphia, solicited his services as suc- 
cessor to Rev. Dr. David Einhorn, and in 1866 he was made 
Rabbi of that congregation. During his long career in the 
ministry Dr. Hirsch, both in Europe and America, has been 
active by pen and voice in inculcating the most advanced 
views of the Reform party, going so far as to advocate the 
abolition of certain ceremonial features which are regarded 
by the Orthodox wing as the very corner-stones of Judaism. 
Dr. Hirsch is the author of numerous works in German, in- 
cluding a catechism and a series of articles entitled, 
" Religious Philosophy of the Jews " and " What is Juda- 
ism? " 

Rev. Dr. Benjamin Szold, who was called to the pulpit of 
the Synagogue Oheb-Shalome, of Baltimore, in 1859, ^'^'^ ^^^ 
since been elected for life, was born at Nemishkurt, Hungary, 
in 1B30. He studied at Breslau University from 1854 until 
1859, when he was called to Baltimore. His religious views 
are described as conservative, such innovations as he has intro- 
duced being due to the claims of the age and the country of 
his adoption. With the aid of the Rev. Drs. M. Jastrow, of 
Philadelphia, and H. Hochheimer, of Baltimore, Dr. Szold 
arranged a ritual for the public worship in the synagogue, 
which is now used by over thirty congregations. He is the 
author of a commemorative biography, an address published 



304 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

on the hundredth anniversary of the death of Moses Men- 
delssohn, and also of various text-books for Sabbath-schools. 
Two years since he published the' result of ten years' investi- 
gation upon the Book of Job, in the form of a Hebrew com- 
mentary, which was very favorably received by competent 
critics. He made use of this, esteemed the most difficult of 
Biblical books, to prove the efficiency of his method of treat- 
ing the Hebrew language by which he has been enabled to 
explain poetically and rationally every line of Job, and 
(in MS.) of the Psalms and prophetical writings without 
having recourse to a single emendation. Dr. Szold is held 
in affection by his congregation, and is highly esteemed by 
the community at large. 

Dr. Leopold Wintner, who belongs to the progressive 
school in American Judaism, has been, since 1878, the Rabbi 
of the Congregation Beth-Elohim, at Brooklyn, the largest 
and most prominent in that city. He was born at Kort- 
velyes, a village in Hungary, about fifty-two years ago. He 
received Biblical and Talmudical instruction from his father. 
Rabbi Pinhas, who was a Talmudical scholar of renown, and, 
when thirteen years old, he could read well and understand 
the Biblical writings in the original Hebrew, and parts of the 
Talmud with its commentaries. His rabbinical training he 
received in different Talmudical-theological schools of Press- 
burg, Alt-Ofen, and other places in his native country, and 
received rabbinical testimonials and diplomas from celebrated 
rabbinical authorities. He studied at the Uftiversity of 
Vienna, Austria, and graduated as Ph. D., from the Uni- 
versity of Tubingen, Germany. In 1863, he came to Amer- 
ica, was teacher for a number of years in educational in- 
stitutions in Mobile and Louigville, and then received a call 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 305 

from the congregation of Jackson, Miss., as minister and as 
teacher of the school. Subsequently he occupied positions 
as Rabbi in St. Paul and Detroit (1871-1876), and visited 
Europe in 1876, where he remained for two years, taking 
special courses in the University of Jena, Germany. He 
returned to the United States in 1878, and has since occupied 
his present position. 

Rev. Dr. Aaron Wise was born in Hungary on May 2, 
1845. His father was Dr. Joseph Wise, chief Rabbi of Erlau, 
Hungary. He pursued his rabbinical studies at various sem- 
inaries and received his rabbinical degrees at the Royal Jew- 
ish Seminary of Eisenstat. He studied philosophy at 
Leipzig and Berlin where he received the degree of Ph. D. 
After returning to his native land, Dr. Wise was appointed 
Chief Director of the public schools of Erlau. Some years 
later he was editor of various periodicals. Soon after his ar- 
rival in this country, in 1873, Dr. Wise was invited to occupy 
the pulpit of the Synagogue Beth-Elohim, of Brooklyn. At 
the dedication of the Clinton Street Synagogue, on April 
15, 1875, he was invited to officiate and produced such a 
favorable impression that he was soon afterwards elected 
as Rabbi of that congregation. Dr. Wise is a member 
of the Deutsche Morgenlaendische Gelehrten-Gesellschaft of 
Leipzig and Halle, and of the Board of Ministers' Association 
of New York. Together with the celebrated Orientalist, 
Dr. Bernard Fisher, Dr. Wise revised " Buxtorf's Lexicon 
of Leipzig.'' He edited the " Jewish Herald " and wrote 
the religious school book Betk-Ahron, now used in his con- 
gregation. Dr. Wise is one of the founders and at present a 
member of the Advisory Board of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary. He has now in course of preparation a work in 



306 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

the English language entitled " Palm Leaves, or Women in 
the Bible." Dr. Wise is very popular with the Hungarian 
colony in New York, and is favorably known for his chari- 
table work, especially among the emigrants, both Christians 
and Hebrews being the recipients of his bounty. 

Isaac M.Wise, of Cincinnati, was born in 1819. He arrived 
at New York in 1846, and the same year took charge of the 
Congregation BetJt-El, at Albany, N. Y. In 1850 he was 
appointed to the pulpit of the Congregation Anshe-Emeth, 
remaining with them four years and establishing during his 
stay there the first Hebrew-English day-school and various 
literary and benevolent societies and introducing choir, organ 
and family pews. In the meanwhile he received a call from 
the Reform Congregation of Charleston, S- C, which he 
declined, and in 1854 was appointed Minister of the Congre- 
gation B'nai-Jesurun, at Cincinnati. Dr. Wise carried the 
Reform idea to that city, and preached and lectured in all 
the larger cities of the country. In Cincinnati he has been 
connected with many societies, lodges and scholastic institu- 
tions, and from 1872 to 1882, was examiner in the public 
schools. He was also a member of the University Board and 
took a prominent part in founding the Union of American 
Hebrew Congregations and Hebrew Union College of which 
he is now President, and Professor of Theology and Philoso- 
phy. In 1854, Dr. Wise published a " History of the 
Israelitish Nation," and established the "American Israelite," 
and the year following "Die Deborah." In 1856 appeared 
his " Minhag America," to which was added one year later, 
" Hymns, Psalms and Prayers in English and German." 
Another work, " Essence of Judaism," was published in 1857 
and rewritten in 1872, under the title of " Judaism its Doc- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 307 

trines and Duties." Then followed " Christianity," " The 
Origin of Christianity," " Jesus Himself," " The Martyrdom 
of Jesus," and " Lectures on the Origin of Christianity." In 
1876 appeared " The Cosmic God," a fundamental philoso- 
phy, and four years later " History of the Hebrews' Second 
Commonwealth." His last publication in book form was 
"Judaism and Christianity, their Agreements and Disagree- 
ments," which appeared in 1883, and he is now engaged on a 
work entitled, " The Theology of Judaism." Dr. Wise is the 
author of numerous novels and poems in English and Ger- 
man, and has delivered a large number of lectures, sermons 
and addresses in many portions of the country. In reviewing 
his career, he thus tersely estimates his public services : " I 
have written much, worked much and been more lauded and 
more abused than any other man of my age." 

Rev. James K. Gutheim was born in Prussia in 181 7, and 
at the age of twenty-eight reached this country, and was 
chosen minister of the Congregation E'nai-Jesurun of Cin- 
cinnati, where he continued in office for three years, and 
utilized his spare moments in studying law and teaching. 
From Cincinnati he went to New Orleans, where he served 
in the pulpit of three congregations. He officiated for a 
brief period at Montgomery, Ala., and from 1866 to 1868 
was assistant Rabbi of the Temple Emanu-El at New York. 
After vacating this position he returned to New Orleans, 
where he remained until his death in 1886. Dr. Gutheim's 
philanthropy, integrity and amiability had endeared him not 
only to the Hebrew population but to all classes of citizens, 
and his death was the occasion of such manifestations of 
profound sorrow as are seldom witnessed. State and municipal 
authorities uniting, with persons of all rank and creeds, in tes- 



308 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

tifying their appreciation of the loss sustained by his removal, 
while the State Senate adjourned as a mark of respect on the 
day of his funeral. Dr. Gutheim was the author of numerous 
essays and addresses. He translated into English the fourth 
volume of Graetz's " History of the Jews," and contributed 
to the " Sabbath Visitor," a metric translation of psalms. 
He showed deep interest in all charitable and educational 
affairs, and was at one time President of the New Orleans 
Board of Education. 



INSTITUTIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS. 



THE efforts made to elevate the moral, intellectual and 
physical condition of the American Hebrews is at- 
tested by the generosity with which charitable and philan- 
thropic institutions have been founded, by the race, in all por- 
tions of the United States. With the increase in popula- 
tion and wealth, Orphan Asylums, Hospitals, Homes for 
the Aged and Infirm, Free Schools and similar institu- 
tions have sprung up in all parts of the country. 
The extent and unsectarian character of the Hebrew 
charities is illustrated by their work in connection with the 
Hospital Saturday and Sunday Association of New York. 
Though the patrons of this association are permitted to des- 
ignate their gifts in the general collection in accordance 
with their denominational associations or preferences, the 
Hebrews persistently abstain from availing themselves of 
this privilege. Leo N. Levi, of Galveston, Texas, estimates 
that the Hebrews of the United States expend annually 
$1,300,000 in strictly Hebrew charities and half as much 
again in general charities, making a grand total outlay of 
nearly $2,000,000 per annum. Proportionate expenditures 
for charitable purposes by the people at large would foot up 
$400,000,000 per annum. 

Jacob S. Solis, of Mount Pleasant, Westchester County, 
N. Y., first conceived the idea of establishing in this country 
an asylum for the reception and education of the Jewish youth 



3IO THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

of both sexes, to be located near the Hudson River in West- 
chester County. With that object in view he prepared and 
issued a circular in 1829, soliciting members and contribu- 
tions. His sudden demise on December 29th of that year 
put a stop to the fruition of his hopes for the establishment 
of an asylum. Mr. Solis was born in the city of London, 
England, on August 4, 1780, and at an early age came to 
this country. Having occasion to proceed to New Orleans 
on business, and finding, on inquiry, that there was no 
Hebrew place of worship in that city, he sought out his 
co-religionists and suggested the propriety and necessity of 
combining and building a synagogue. A meeting was held 
and it was resolved that funds should be collected for build- 
ing an appropriate place of worship. Mr. Solis took charge 
as chairman of the building committee, a proper site was 
purchased, and the structure was commenced and completed. 
The Congregation Shaaray-Chesed (Gates of Mercy), was 
incorporated March 25, 1828, by Morris Jacobs, Aaron 
Daniels, Isaac Philips, Souza, Senr., Plotz, J. S. Solis and 
Bernard Lejeune, and others The best energies of the life 
of Mr. Solis were occupied in practical usefulness for the 
amelioration of the condition of the poor and in contribu- 
ting to the elevation of the Jewish character. 

The opening of the first Hebrew Orphan Asylum in the 
United States was not accomplished until thirty years after 
Mr. Solis had first agitated the subject, when the institution 
was brought into existence under the following circumstances : 
The Hebrew Benevolent Society of New York was organized 
on April 8, 1822, with a fund amounting to about $300, the un- 
expended balance of a collection which had been obtained for 
the benefit of a Hebrew, a former soldier in the Revolution- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 311 

ary War, who had been brought to the New York City Hos- 
pital in a critical condition in the year 1820. He was a stran- 
ger in the city. John I. Hart and Joseph Davies undertook 
to solicit subscriptions for the unfortunate man who died 
soon after. With the $300 remaining on hand, the following 
gentlemen determined to organize the society : Daniel Jack- 
son, Charles D. Hart, Joseph Jackson, Joseph Davies, John 
H. Hart, Abraham Collins, Rowland Davies, Simon Meyers, 
Abraham Mitchell, Charles I. Hart, Joseph Samuel. Mr. 
Jackson was elected President and Mr. Hart, Secretary. The 
society was incorporated in 1832, and in 1859 ^ consolida- 
tion was effected with the German Hebrew Benevolent 
Society. Measures were at once instituted to establish an 
Orphan Asylum, the funds of both associations at this time 
being $25,000. In i860 an asylum was opened in Lamartine 
Place, on West Twenty-ninth Street, and in 1862 a building 
was erected at Third Avenue and Seventy-seventh Street, 
at a cost of $45,000, the ground being leased to the society 
by the city for a term of ninety-nine years. In 1883 the 
present magnificent and commodious structure overlooking 
the Hudson was erected at a cost of $750,000. The Asylum 
covers two blocks on Tenth Avenue, from 136th to 138th 
Street. The building is unsurpassed in its sanitary arrange- 
ments, solidity and comfort. Specially noteworthy are the 
dormitories and dining-rooms, and little chapel with colored 
glass windows and lamps, fashioned after those in use in 
places of worship during the Middle Ages. Over 2,000 
members contribute to the suppport of the institution with 
its 500 inmates. The annual expenses for the last fiscal 
year were $85,000, and receipts $138,000. The assets of the 
society are, $170,000 exclusive of the grounds and building. 



312 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

and the society has outstanding bonds to the amount of 
$334,000 on the ground and building, at three per cent. 
The entire expense of clothing the orphan children is defray- 
ed by the Ladies' Sewing Society, an independent organi- 
zation attached to the Asylum and numbering 1,200 mem- 
bers. Jesse Seligman has been for fifteen years President of 
the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society, and 
contributed liberally to its support. Myer Stern, his prede- 
cessor, has been for many years the Secretary. 

The Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, was incorporated 
in 1852 by Sampson Simson, Samuel M. Isaacs, John I. 
Hart, Benjamin Nathan, John M. Davies, Henry Hendricks, 
Theodore I. Seixas, Isaac Phillips and John D. Phillips. 
Sampson Simson was chosen first President, John I. Hart, 
Vice-President ; Benjamin Nathan, Secretary, and Henry 
Hendricks, Treasurer. Previous to 1871 the corporation 
was known as the Jews' Hospital. The first hospital build- 
ing was located in West Twenty-eighth Street upon a lot 
donated by the late Sampson Simson, and the Trustees also 
received from Judah Touro a bequest of $20,000. The 
locality of the first hospital was admirably adapted to its 
uses, but yielding to the changes which occur in all our large 
cities, succumbed to the demands of trade and the necessities 
of an increasing population. The Twenty-eighth Street 
building proving inadequate to meet the demands, the 
city authorities, with characteristic liberality, granted a 
lease for ninety-nine years of twelve lots situated on the east 
side of Lexington Avenue, bounded by Sixty-sixth and 
Sixty-seventh Streets, upon which the present building was 
erected at a cost of $300,000. While the hospital was origi- 
nated by Hebrews and supported by people of that persuasion, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 313 

yet the benefits of the institution are freely extended to all 
of every religion or nationality. The total number of 
patients treated since the opening of the hospital is 31,000. 
According to the last annual report over ninety-one per cent, 
of patients were treated gratuitously. The hospital is 
supported by 3,564 patrons and members. The bonds and 
mortgages held by the Hospital for the permanent fund 
aggregate $201,000. Among the numerous legacies and 
bequests to this institution since its organization are the fol- 
lowing: Miss Sarah Burr, $30,000 ; Michael Reese, $25,000; 
Judah Touro, $20,000 ; Benjamin Nathan, Joseph Fatman, 
Simeon Abrahams, D. S. Abrahams and Julius Hallgarten, 
$10,000 each. The present officers and directors are : 
Hyman Blum, President ; Isaac Wallach, Vice-President ; 
Samuel M. Schafer, Treasurer ; De Witt J. Seligman, Hon- 
orary Secretary ; Henry Gitterman, Solomon Sommerich, 
Isaac Blumenthal, Louis Stix, Mayer Lehman, L. M. Horn- 
thai, Louis Gans, Simon Rothschild, Solomon Loeb, S. L. 
Fatman, William Vogel, Elias Asiel, Adolph Herrmann, 
Anthony Wallach, Henry Goldman, Joseph L. Scherer, 
Assistant Secretary ; Theodore Hadel, Superintendent. 

The Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids in the city of 
New York, was founded by representatives of different 
lodges and congregations who in the spring of 1884, held a 
meeting for the purpose of agreeing upon some method for 
perpetuating the centennial anniversary of the birth of the 
distinguished philanthropist whose name it bears. At this 
meeting it was determined to build a home for the relief of 
such Hebrews who by reason of the nature of their disease 
are unable to procure medical treatment in the hospitals. 
On March 29, 1884, a benefit performance of " lolanthe," at 



314 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

the Academy of Music netted $1,400. With this nucleus 
steps were then taken to raise an additional sum, Messrs. 
Jacob H. Schiff and Jesse Seligman being elected as trustees 
of the fund. At a meeting of the patrons held on June 2, 
1884, Messrs. Jacob H. Schiff, Henry S. Allen, Adolphus S. 
Solomons, Isaac Eppinger, Myer S. Isaacs, Marcus Ber- 
liner, Louis Gans, Adolph L. Sanger, Judah H. Solomon, 
Isaac N. Seligman, Henry Strasburger and Siegmund N. Leh- 
man, were elected a temporary Board of Directors. Subse- 
quently Henry S. Allen, was elected President, Louis Gans, 
First Vice-President ; Adolphus S. Solomons, Second Vice- 
President ; Jacob H. Schiff, Treasurer ; and Adolph L. Sanger, 
Secretary. Soon afterwards Mr. Schiff tendered his resignation 
as Treasurer and Trustee, accompanying his letter of resig- 
nation by a donation of $2,500. On October 26, 1884, the 
Home at Eighty-fourth Street and Avenue A was formally 
dedicated. At the first annual meeting held immediately 
after the ceremonies the following Officers and Board of Trus- 
tees was chosen: HenryS. Allen, President; Louis Gans, First 
Vice-President ; Adolphus S. Solomons, Second Vice-Pres- 
ident; Louis S. Wolf, Treasurer; Frank Russak, Secretary; 
Levi Bamberger, Marcus Berliner, Samuel H.Eckman, Isaac 
Eppinger, Myer S. Isaacs, Siegmund N. Lehman, Julius J. 
Lyons, M. Mendel, Adolph L. Sanger, Henry Solomon, 
Judah H. Solomon, Isaac Stern, Louis Strasburger, Isidor 
Straus, Joseph Waxelbaum. The membership at this time 
was 350, and the accommodation of the building was con- 
fined to thirty persons. In the spring of 1887, a fair was 
held for the purpose of securing funds with which to erect a 
more commodious home, by which means $158,090.11 was 
secured, with which sum a building to accommodate 100 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 315 

patients is now being erected on the Boulevard between 
138th and 139th Streets. The present Officers and Direc- 
tors are : President, Jacob H. Schiff ; Vice-Presidents, Louis 
Gans and Adolphus S. Solomons ; Treasurer, Isidor Straus ; 
Secretary, Julius J. Lyons; Directors, Henry S. Allen, 
Jacob H. Lowenstine, Isaac Eppinger, Adolph L. Sanger, 
Judah H. Solomon, Louis Strasburger, Sigmund M. Leh- . 
man, Lewis S. Wolff, Joseph Waxelbaum, Levi Bamberger, 
Samuel H. Eckman, M. W. Mendel, Henry Solomon, 
Lyman G. Bloomingdale, Siegmund Neustadt, Marcus 
Kohner. 

The Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society, of New York, 
was founded by Mrs. Priscilla J. Joachimsen, wife of the 
Hon. Philip J. Joachimsen, on September 6, 1879. Since 
its organization about 1,150 destitute children have been fed, 
clothed, lodged and educated. It has an average of about 550 
children constantly under its care. The asylum is located on 
Washington Heights and occupies ten full city lots. The 
building, formerly the " Union Home and School for Children 
of Our Volunteers," is a solid brick structure, four stories in 
height and varying in width, averaging eighty-five feet front 
and no feet deep. The branch of this Institution, for girls, 
is located on the corner of Avenue A and Eighty-seventh 
Street. Hon. Elbridge T. Gerry, President of the Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, in speaking of this 
Institution has said that it is " a credit alike to those con- 
cerned in its management, and to the great religious denom- 
ination whose children it so faithfully and effectually cares 
for." As soon as the ages of the boys permit, employment in 
trades and honorable occupations by which they can earn 
their support is found for them. The girls are taught all 



3l6 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

branches of needlework, cooking and housekeeping. Speci- 
mens of their work will challenge comparison with the ac- 
complishments taught in private institutions or industrial 
schools. The amount expended annually for the mainten- 
ance and support of its inmates is about $65,000. 

The Home for Aged and Infirm at Yonkers, N. Y., was 
projected about five years after the organization of the Order 
of B'nai-Berith by members of that order, who formed the 
E nai-Berith Benevolent Society. Nine acres of ground 
were then purchased in Yonkers, on an elegant site overlook- 
ing the Hudson, at a cost of about $35,000, and steps were 
taken for the erection of a building, which was completed at 
a cost of $125,000. The sum of $15,000 was also expended 
for furniture and other fixtures. Joseph Fox was Chairman 
of the Building Committee, and amongst the first Board of 
Governors were Joseph Loth, Dr. S. Waterman, M. S. Hy- 
man, David Wile, H. S. Herrman, S. Latz, M. Minzesheimer, 
Julius Bien and S. Hamburger. Joseph Fox was the first 
President of the Board and remained in ofifice four years. 
He was succeeded by Dr. S. Waterman. Moses S. Hyman, 
the youngest member of the Board, was elected President in 
1888. The number of inmates at the present time (1888) are 
fifty-six. Only members of the Order, their wives or widows, 
are admitted. These must have attained the age of sixty 
years, or be suffering from infirmity. The entire support of 
the institution, the cost of which is about $15,000 annually, is 
derived from the annual dues of the members, no donations 
being accepted. Kitchen utensils, linen and all household 
articles are provided by a Ladies' Auxiliary Society, 
composed of about 1,200 members, of which Mrs. M. 
Heyman is President. The society is composed only of 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 317 

the mothers, wives, sisters and daughters of members of the 
order. 

The Hebrew Technical Institute of New York City, was 
founded in 1884, its object being the fitting of the Hebrew 
youth for industrial callings, many of the Hebrew emigrants 
at that time being unable to earn an honorable livelihood. 
Liberal contributions were made by the Hebrew Orphan 
Asylum Society, the United Hebrew Charities and Hebrew 
Free School Association, as well as by private individuals. 
Two floors were fixed up in a building in Crosby Street with 
appliances for instruction in wood-working, mechanical 
drawing, modelling in clay and the English branches. The 
school took at once a favorable hold upon the public, and 
the number of scholars rapidly increased. At the close of 
the year 1886 the first class of twenty, of the average age of 
fifteen, were ready to enter active life, and were given em- 
ployment in various lines of work. At an exhibition of in- 
dustrial work, held in April, 1886, at which a large number of 
schools was represented, the pupils of this institute were 
awarded fourteen prizes, being the largest number awarded 
any school, and the stimulus thus aroused led to a public 
meeting, which was held in the Temple Emanu-El, by which 
general interest was awakened and a membership society was 
started. By means of liberal subscriptions the buildings Nos. 
34 and 36 Stuyvesant Street were purchased at a cost of 
$45,000, and $10,000 additional was expended for altera- 
tions, the premises being occupied March i, 1887. The 
course of instruction includes metal-working, wood-work- 
ing, wood-carving, modelling in clay, free hand draw- 
ing, mechanical drawing, physics and the English 
branches. The school is a technical school and gives in- 



3l8 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

struction in the principles which underlie the leading trades. 
Pupils are taught the use of tools and are not confined to 
any particular branch until they acquire this general know- 
ledge. The number of pupils at date (February, 1888) is 
ninety, and the number of teachers, seven. The manage- 
ment of the school is vested in a Board of Directors, com- 
posed of the most prominent Hebrews of the city. J. H. 
Hoffman has been the President since its organization. The 
expenses are defrayed by 132 patrons and 350 members. 

The formation of the Aguilar Free Library, of New Yorn 
City, was suggested in 1886 by a numberof gentlemen promi- 
nently connected with the Young Men's Hebrew Association 
and Hebrew Free School Association who wished to organize 
a free circulating library in order to enable the good work, for- 
merlyaccomplished by the Young Men's Hebrew Association 
among the Russian emigrants, to be vigorously pushed. The 
former owned a library of upwards of 8,000 volumes, and the 
latter 3,000 volumes. The plan was suggested to Jacob H. 
Schifl, Esq., the founder of the Hebrew Free School Library, 
who became so satisfied with the feasibility of the proposed 
plan, that he agreed to contribute $10,000 towards the new 
library if the plan were carried into effect. The Aguilar Free 
Library Society was then fully incorporated under the laws 
of the State of New York, with Samuel Greenbaum, Presi- 
dent ; V. Henry Rothschild, Vice-President ; Nathan Herr- 
mann, Treasurer ; and Louis B. Schram, Secretary. Before 
the close of the year 1887, the circulation of the library had 
reached fully 90,000 for the year then closing, and the sum 
of $23,000 had been raised by private subscription toward 
the real estate fund. In November, 18S7, the society pur- 
chased No. 206 East Broadway for Vr.z sum of $27,500, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 319 

with a clear equity of $20,000 in the real estate. The 
library has three branches, one in the rooms of the Young 
Men's Hebrew Association, corner Fifty-eighth Street and 
Lexington Avenue, one at No. 206 East Broadway, where 
the Hebrew Free School has also a branch, and one at No. 
625 Fifth Street. The library is absolutely non-sectarian. 
The erection of a large building in the neighborhood of 
East Broadway, at a cost of about $125,000, is at present 
contemplated. 

The first practical step towards the organization of the 
Maimonides Library Association was taken in October, 1850, 
when a ball was given by the members of various New York 
lodges of the order B'nai-Berith, for the benefit of the pro- 
jected institution. During the succeeding twelve months the 
various lodges took active measures for furthering the project 
and on October 22, 185 1, the Library was opened. The 
Association was maintained as an independent organization 
although membership was limited to such members of the 
order who contributed annual subscriptions. In 1879 ^^he 
Association was merged with the District Grand Lodge, 
No. I, as an integral part of the district, each member being 
taxed a small amount for its maintenance, and entitled to a 
reader's card for the home use of books. At that time there 
were 5,200 volumes in the library and 580 readers. The 
volumes now number 30,000 and the annual circulation 
is nearly 50,000 volumes. Ever since the first organiza- 
tion of the Intellectual Advancement Committee, William 
A. Gans has been an active member of it and the leading 
spirit in developing the welfare of the Library. In 1883, 
Max Cohen was appointed Librarian, and he still continues 
in charge. He is an active member of the New York 



320 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Library Club, whose discussions are usually enlivened by 
his participation. He frequently lectures on subjects relating 
to Hebrew or general literature, and is the leading editorial 
writer for the " American Hebrew." 

The Hebrew Free School Association of New York was 
founded in June, 1864, and originated with gentlemen who 
found that on the east side of the city Christian missionaries 
were seeking to convert Hebrew children. Accordingly 
Rev. S. M. Isaacs, Hezekiah Kohn, Barnet L. Solomon, 
Moses S. Cohen, Nathan Sonnenberg, David Davies, Simon 
Rossman, Solomon Hyman and others, organized the He- 
brew Free School Association, and the modest beginning of 
an important movement took shape in the building pur- 
chased on Avenue C, near Fourth Street. Barnet L. Solo- 
mon was the first President of the Society, followed by 
Moses S. Cohen and Abraham Oettinger. M. S. Isaacs, the 
present President, has held the position seven years. In 
1879 t^^ pupils numbered 1,129, ^"^^ the first industrial 
school for girls was established with fifty pupils in sewing. 
In 1 88 1, the first of the present administration, two indus- 
trial classes and the kindergarten were opened and also a class 
for teaching the Russian emigrants the English language. 
The school-house, No. 624 Fifth Street, was purchased 
and adapted to its new purpose. The Society cordially co- 
operated with the Young Men's Hebrew Association in the 
new sphere of activity among the emigrants, and is now 
recognized as a factor in Jewish communal work. Already 
the work of the Society suggested the creation of an indus- 
trial school for boys, and when the Hebrew Technical Insti- 
tute was founded, the contribution and the delegates of the 
Hebrew Free School Association were of signal service. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 32 1 

The pupils now (1888) number 2,700. There are thirty-one 
teachers, of whom twelve were formerly pupils. The 
Society has $70,000 of assets, two good school buildings, 
Nos. 206 East Broadway, 195 Division Street and 624 Fifth 
Street, and its management is successful in all respects. 
The branches of instruction are the Bible, religion, Hebrew, 
reading, spelling and grammar, translation of the Pentateuch, 
Psalms and prayers. The kindergarten is directed by a 
Ladies' Committee, and is admirably conducted. The 
Industrial Schools for girls (opened by a committee of 
ladies) train nearly 400 in plain and fancy sewing, needle- 
work and the beginnings of dress-making. A normal 
class for Hebrew and religious teachers has been recently 
established. Six Rabbis act as an Advisory Board. Serv- 
ing as directors and on the committees are ladies and 
gentlemen well known in the community. Besides the 
East Broadway and Fifth Street schools, there are daily 
classes in School No. 3, located in East Fifty-second 
Street. 

The Hebrew Mutual Benefit Society, of New York, was 
chartered in 1846. It has accumulated a capital of nearly 
$40,000 and gives to a member free burial and all funeral 
expenses for himself and family ; weekly benefits in case of 
sickness and free medical attendance, and an annuity to the 
widows of its deceased members, as also support during the 
first week of mourning. It has about 300 members, and it 
numbers amongst them some of the best Hebrews in the 
city. The late Aaron Van Praag held the office of Pres- 
ident for over twenty-five years. It has what is called an 
indigent fund, which was started many years ago, the first 
contribution to it being $5,000, bequeathed by Judah Touro. 



322 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Since its organization the Society has paid out in benefits 
to its members over a quarter of a miUion dollars. Its mem- 
bers adhere strictly to the funeral rites of the orthodox 
Hebrews. It has its own burial ground at Washington 
Cemetery, in Kings County. 

The Jewish Theological Seminary, of New York, was 
established in 1887. The ofificers are: Joseph Blumenthal, 
of New York, President ; Dr. A. Friedenwald, of Baltimore, 
Vice-President ; Newman Cowen, of New York, Treasurer ; 
Joseph E. Newburger, of New York, Secretary ; Trustees, 
Dr. S. Solis Cohen and S. M. Hyneman, of Philadelphia, 
Tucker David, J. M. Emanuel, Isaac Fles, Sender Jerma- 
lowski, Nathan Levin, J. Edgar Philips, D. M. Piza, and 
Isidor Rosenthal, of New York. The Advisory Board of 
Ministers consists of Rev. S. Morals, of Philadelphia, Presi- 
dent ; Rev. Drs. A. Kohut, H. S. Jacobs, F. de Sola Mendes, 
A. Wise, H. P. Mendes and B. Drachman, of New York, 
M. Jastrow, of Philadelphia, A. P. 'Mendes, of Newport, 
R. I., and H. W. Schneeberger, of Baltimore. Dr. S. 
Morals is President of the Faculty, and Dr. B. Drachman, 
Preceptor of the Preparatory Class. The object of the 
Association is declared to be the endowment and mainten- 
ance in the city of New York of an institution of Jewish 
learning, where youths desirous of becoming teachers in 
Israel may be fully and thoroughly educated under such 
auspicies as will inspire a love for the language and literature 
of their race, and a spirit of fidelity and devotion to the laws 
of their religion : that the mission of the Jew as a teacher of 
highest morality, and an exemplar of brotherly love to all 
the children of the One Universal Father, may by their 
influence be furthered and perpetuated. There are at pres- 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 323 

ent twelve pupils in attendance in the preparatory class, and 
six in the junior class. 

Among other New York charitable institutions and asso- 
ciations are the following: United Hebrew Charities; Insti- 
tution for the Improved Instruction of Deaf Mutes; Hebrew 
Benevolent Fuel Association ; Sanitary Aid Association ; 
Ladies' Deborah Nursery and Child's Protectory ; Ladies' 
Lying-in Relief Society ; Bikur Cholim Society ; Home for 
Aged and Infirm ; Young Ladies' Charitable Aid Society ; 
Louis Downtown School ; Young Men's Hebrew Associa- 
tion. The Purim Association was organized in 1861 by the 
following gentlemen : Myer S. Isaacs, Adolph L. Sanger, 
Moses H. Moses, Herman Stettheimer, Bernard Lemann, 
Lionel Davies, Louis G. Schiffer, A. Henry Schutz and Sol. 
Weil. The association, though one of the smallest in the 
city, is one of the most influential. Its annual Charity Balls, 
for the benefit of the Hebrew institutions, yields about 
$20,000. 

The Jewish Widows and Orphans Home of New Orleans 
was organized in 1855 with M. M. Simpson as President. 
The membership of the Home Association is 600. The He- 
brew Orphan Asylum, of Baltimore, cares for seventy in- 
mates. The membership is about 600. The Home for 
Aged and Indigent Israelites, at Albany, N. Y., the Michael 
Reese Hospital, at Chicago, Montefiore Home and Aid So- 
ciety, at Boston, and Orphan Asylum and Hospitals, at At- 
lanta, Ga. and Newark, N. J., and other cities, bear witness 
to the philanthropic work in progress in all directions. 

The Hebrew Education Society of Philadelphia was char- 
tered April 7, 1849, ^°'' ^^^ purpose of opening schools where 
might be taught the elementary branches of education, 



324 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

together with the sciences and modern and ancient languages, 
always in combination with instruction in Hebrew language, 
literature and religion, also to establish a superior seminary 
of learning, the faculty to be empowered to furnish to gradu- 
ates and others the usual degree of Bachelor of Arts, Master 
of Arts and Doctor of Law and Divinity as the same is ex- 
ercised by other colleges established in Pennsylvania. The 
first meeting, looking to the organization, was held on March 
7, 1847, and the organization was effected on July 16, 1848, 
Solomon Solis being elected President ; Simon Elfelt, Vice- 
President ; Abraham Hart, Treasurer ; Z. A. Davis, Secre- 
tary, and Simon M. Klasser, Assistant Secretary. Maimon- 
ides College was opened October, 1867, the faculty being 
composed of Rev. Isaac Leeser, Provost ; Rev. Dr. Sabato 
Morais, Rev. Dr. Jastrow and Rev. Dr. Bettelheim and re- 
mained in existence until about January i, 1874. The 
school of the Education Society, giving instruction in He- 
brew and secular branches, was opened in the hall of the 
Phoenix Hose Company on Zane Street on Monday, April 
7, 185 1. The first teachers employed were Mr. Michael M. 
Allen and Miss Evaline Bomeisler. The Society removed to 
its present building October 3, 1854. The instruction in 
Hebrew and secular branches was continued until 1878, 
when instruction was confined to Hebrew alone. Schools 
were opened in various sections of the city. In September, 
1883, an Industrial School was started in Lark Street, where 
cigar making and carpentering were taught, and in 1886 a 
second Industrial School was opened in the Society's hall on 
Seventh Street. The Society is the custodian of the Leeser 
Library, the greater portion of which was bequeathed to 
Maimonides College by the late Rev. Isaac Leeser. The 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 325 

officers of the Society are : Isaac Rosskam, President ; Isi- 
dore Coons, Vice-President ; Levi Mayer, Treasurer ; David 
Sulzberger, Secretary. Board of Officers: Simon B. Fleisher, 
Louis E. Levy, Aaron Lichten, Philip Lewin, Joseph Fels, 
Louis Eschner, Jacob Muhr, George Wiener, E. L. Roths- 
child, Mark Schwartz, Isaac Sailer, Simon Fleisher. 

Solomon Soils, one of the founders and first President of 
the Education Society, was born at Wilmington, Del., on 
March 13, 1819. He passed the greater part of his life in 
the city of Philadelphia. Truly pious, without ostentation, 
he was distinguished for his philanthropy and greatly 
esteemed in all the relations of son, husband, father and 
brother. He was a valued and sincere friend, whom to 
know was to love and revere. His contributions to the 
religious press were ahvays anticipated with pleasure by the 
public, and their well chosen and high literary character 
thoroughly appreciated. An essay on " Education " devel- 
oped the efforts of a ripe scholar, and his selection as a 
friend and adviser by the Rev. Isaac Leeser not only reflected 
good judgment, but was fully appreciated on both sides. 
Mr. Solis was deservedly complimented as the best qualified 
of the large membership to occupy the important and most 
responsible position of President, which he occupied at the 
time of his death on June 22, 1854. 

To Miss Rebecca Gratz, of Philadelphia, belongs the honor 
of founding the first Hebrew Sunday-school in the United 
States in 1838. It was at first conducted under the auspices 
of the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society. Miss Gratz 
served as Superintendent until 1864. Her successor was 
Miss Louisa B. Hart. The Sunday-school started with fifty 
pupils. In 1888 the number exceeded 1,000. 



326 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

The Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum of Phila- 
delphia, was also projected by that noble daughter of Israel, 
Miss Rebecca Gratz, and was called into existence on Sun- 
day, February 4, 1855, at a public meeting held at the 
synagogue of the Congregation Mickve-Israel, when the fol- 
lowing Board of Managers were elected. Mrs. Anna Allen, 
Mrs. William Florance, Mrs. D. Samuels, Miss Louisa Gratz, 
Miss. E. Bomeisler, Miss Rebecca Gratz, Mrs. Abraham 
Hart, Mrs. I. L. Florance, Miss Emily Phillips, Mrs. E. J. 
Eytinge, Miss Rachel Pisoa, Mrs. I. L. Moss, Mrs. Leon 
Berg, Mrs. G. D. Rosengarten, Mrs. Henry Cohen, Mrs. A. 
Finzi, Mrs. B. Leiber, Mrs. Henry Newhouse, Mrs. L 
Frankel, Mrs. Sol. Gans, Mrs. L Binswanger, Mrs. S. M. Ash, 
Mrs. H. Simpson, Mrs. S. Morals, Mrs. B. Blum, Mrs. Joseph 
Rosenbaum, Mrs. L. J. Leberman and Mrs. Louisa B. Hart 
Mrs. Anna Allen was elected President, Mrs. D. Samuel, 
Vice-President, Mrs. Louisa Gratz, Treasurer, and Mrs. E. 
Bomeisler, Secretary. The society was duly incorporated 
May 1, 1855. A home for the reception of children was opened 
the same month at No. 799 North Eleventh Street, and after- 
wards in North Seventh and North Fifteenth Streets. 
Mrs. Allen held the ofifice as President, until her resignation 
in 1867. In June, 1881, the removal of the Home took place 
to Mill Street, Germantown, the dedication of the new 
building taking place the same month. The number of 
children in the Home at the present time is sixty-two. Rev. 
S. M. Fleishman and his wife are the Superintendent and 
Matron. After attaining their thirteenth year the children 
are either indentured or otherwise placed to learn a trade or 
follow other useful pursuits. The present officers of the 
Home are : Isidor Binswanger, President ; Mason Hirsch, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 327 

Vice-President; Piiilip Lewin, Treasurer and Benjamin F. 
Teller, Secretary. The institution is a credit to the Hebrews 
of Philadelphia, and nothing is spared which can add to the 
comfort and advancement of the inmates. 

The history of the Jewish Hospital of Philadelphia pre- 
sents a striking evidence of the alacrity with which the He- 
brews of that city are prepared to alleviate the sufferings of 
their co-religionists. The late Abraham Sulzberger, at a 
meeting of Grand Lodge, District No. 3, of the order of 
B'nai-BeriiA, held in August, 1864, suggested the necessity 
for founding a hospital in Philadelphia, and offered a resolu- 
tion " to take immediate steps to procure the co-operation of 
all Jewish societies and individuals" to that end. The order 
proving not numerically strong enough to complete the work, 
a public meeting of the Hebrews of the city was held on Feb- 
ruary 19, 1865, at which the Jewish Hospital Association was 
organized, with Alfred T. Jones as first President. The Hos- 
pital was opened on Haverford Road and Fisher Avenue, 
the opening taking place August 6, 1866, and the dedica- 
tion in May, 1867. The accommodations proving inadequate, 
the erection of a new hospital building was commenced 
on Olney Road, near Old York Road, where a commodious 
and handsome structure was erected, the dedication taking 
place September 14, 1873. Attached to the Hospital is the 
Mathilde Adler Loeb Dispensary, the building having been 
presented to the Hospital Association in 1878 by the late 
Abraham Adler and by Hannah Adler, parents of the lady 
to whose memory it is dedicated, in conjunction with August 
B. Loeb, her husband. Provision has been for its proper 
maintenance by the donors. The Hospital and Dispensary 
are open " for the relief of the sick and wounded, without 



328 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

regard to creed, color or nationality," a declaration that is 
literally fulfilled, it being a well-known fact that the Hospital 
has frequently opened its doors to non-Hebrews who were 
refused treatment by other institutions. Three hundred and 
eighty-three patients were treated in the Hospital during the 
year 1887, ^"d over 1,100 in the dispensary. During the 
same year there were thirty inmates of the home. The ex- 
penses of the institution during the last fiscal year were 
$88,256.60 and the cost of maintenance over $15,000. The 
Hospital and Home are model institutions, carefully and 
ably managed, and with the projected additions will make 
this already admirable charity as complete and well equipped 
as any in Philadelphia. The officers of the Hospital Asso- 
ciation are : Wm. B. Hackenburg, President ; Abraham 
Goldsmith, Vice-President ; August B. Loeb, Treasurer ; 
Simon A. Stern, Recording Secretary and Simon Pfaelzer, 
Corresponding Secretary, who with twelve Directors consti- 
tute the Board of Officers. 

The Young Men's Hebrew Association of Philadelphia, 
. was called into existence to meet the recognized demands 
for a society which should, apart from congregational influ- 
ence "promote a higher culture among the Jewish young men 
and unite them in a liberal organization which shall tend to 
their moral, intellectual and social improvement." The asso- 
ciation was permanently organized. May 12, 1875. It has 
founded a well selected library of over 1,600 volumes, and 
has in its reading-rooms the best collection of Jewish jour- 
nals to be found in any one place in America. The associa- 
tion maintains annually a lecture course for the benefit of its 
members, and the social feature of its declared purposes is 
carried out by the formal and informal entertainments given 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 329 

under its auspices. The associate organization is made up 
of those members of the association who are under twenty- 
one years of age, and at its meetings debates and Hterary 
exercises are carried on by the members. The association 
has now in all its branches about 600 members. Mayer Sulz- 
berger is the present President of the association. 

The Sir Moses Montefiore Home for Aged and Infirm 
Israelites, at Cleveland, Ohio, had its inception about 
eighteen years ago when District Grand Lodge No. 2 of the 
Order Kesher Shel Barzel enacted a law taxing each of its 
members fifty cents per annum. In i88i a building was 
purchased for $25,000, and in February, 1882, the Aged and 
Infirm Israelites' Home of District No. 4, as it was then 
called, was duly dedicated. In the year 1884, at a meeting 
of the Supreme Lodge of the Order Kesher Shel Barzel, it 
was resolved that the Home be endowed by the Order with 
a donation of $10,000, provided District Grand Lodge No. 4 
assent to changing the name of the institution to that of 
" The Sir Moses Montefiore Home for Aged and Infirm 
Israelites," and provided further, that District Grand Lodges 
Nos. I and 3 have the right to admit a limited number of its 
members or widows of members under certain conditions. 
This proposition was accepted. The institution has been 
signally successful in the dispensation of charity as well as 
in financial management. The inmates consist of thirty-five 
persons, whose ages range from sixty-five to ninety years. 

The Jewish Orphan Asylum at Cleveland, Ohio, was 
founded under the auspices of the Order E nai-Berith. In 
the year 1 863 District Grand Lodge No. 2 of the Order re- 
solved that a fund should be secured with which to initiate 
some project of usefulness outside the Order to be determ- 



330 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

ined later on, for which purpose the members in the jurisdic- 
tion-should pay an annual contribution of one dollar. This 
suggestion was approved by the subordinate lodges in the 
jurisdiction, and in 1867 the sum of $10,000 had been 
secured. At the annual meeting of the Grand Lodge held 
at Milwaukee in that year, the establishing of an Orphan 
Asylum was decided upon, and Cleveland was selected as 
the most desirable city. On July 14, 1868, the inauguration 
of the Asylum building took place by the Grand Lodge 
officers. The membership of the Lodges in the district at 
this time numbered 2,500. The Orphan Asylum is now 
managed by twelve Trustees from the Grand Lodge districts 
in connection with thirty Directors annually chosen from 
the various lodges, societies and yearly subscribers. The 
number of orphans at the Asylum on July I, 1887, was 310. 

The Jewish Orphan Asylum at Rochester, New York, 
owes its existence to the Rev. Dr. M. Landsberg, of Roches- 
ter, and the late Rev. Dr. S. Falk, of Buffalo, who were the 
leaders in the organization of the Jewish Orphan Asylum 
Association of Western New York, by whom the institution 
is maintained. In November, 1877, an Orphan Asylum 
Society was started at Rochester, and later on similar 
organizations were effected at Syracuse and Buffalo, the 
object being the accumulation of a fund for the erection of 
an Orphan Asylum. The movement in these cities received 
the hearty support and encouragement of the majority of 
co-religionists in that section, and on February 23, 1879, ^ 
convention was held at Rochester, of delegates from the 
three cities who organized the Asylum Association with 
Moses Hays as first President. In the month of November 
following it was resolved to accept orphans under the charge 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 33 1 

of the Association, and in February, 1880, the first three 
children were adopted and placed in the care of a private 
family. In the year 1884, a suitable building was purchased 
and twenty-one orphans are now cared for therein. The 
expenses are defrayed by the Association with a membership 
of 500. The sinking fund of the Association consists of 
about $60,000 derived from donations from the three cities. 

The Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home Society 
of San Francisco, was founded in 1871, when a number of 
gentlemen held a preliminary meeting with a view of organ- 
izing a society to care for such orphan children as might 
become a charge on the public and private benevolent 
institutions. The Society was incorporated on July 25th, 
of that year with twenty-six members and the following 
Board of Trustees : A. Block, P. Berwin, I. F. Bloch, Joseph 
Brandenstein, E. Cohen, Alfred P. Elfelt, H. Greenberg, 
C. Meyer, M. Morgenthau, L. Sachs, William Steinhardt, 
S. Sweet, E. Wertheimer, Isaac Wormser and S. W. Levy. 
S. W. Levy has been President of the Society since 1873. 
The Society has a capital of over $200,000 bearing interest, 
grounds and buildings thereon valued at $100,000, and cares 
for 100 children. It contributes $300 per month to the 
Eureka Benevolent Association for the benefit of the aged 
people who are incapable of earning a livelihood. 

Of the numerous influential Hebrew orders special mention 
must be made of the B'nai-Berith, Kesker Shel Barsel, Sons 
of Benjamin and Free Sons of Israel. 

The Order of B'nai-Berith, the foremost, and in fact the 
parent of the Jewish fraternal organizations in America, was 
founded in 1843, ^"^ Henry Jones is considered its chief 
founder. Its chief aim was and is the union of Israelites for 



332 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

the purpose of furthering education and elevating the morals 
and aspirations of the race. It combines therewith material 
benefits which are made possible by the union of great num- 
bers, and it was the first society of its kind which introduced 
the payment of a fixed sum of money to the families of de- 
ceased members. From the parent lodge have sprung 
nearly 400 lodges, of which twenty are situated in Germany, 
to which the order was extended in the year 1880. It is 
governed by an Executive Committee composed of one 
member from each of its eight District Grand Lodges, and 
at its head are placed a President and Secretary, who wield 
the supreme executive power during the recesses between 
the regular sessions. Julius Bien has for the last eighteen 
years been placed, by the unanimous vote of the brotherhood, 
again and again in the distinguished position of Chief Exec- 
utive officer, and he is ably seconded and supported by the 
Secretary, M. Thalmessinger. To their efforts is due the ex^ 
tension of the order to Europe and to Cairo, Egypt, where a 
lodge has been, established as an entering wedge to the Orient. 
In the beginning the introduction to lodges was accom- 
panied by an elaborate ceremonial, which has been abolished. 
The ritual in use is a simple statement, couched in lofty, 
poetic language, of the aims which the brotherhood pursues, 
and its proceedings are regulated by a well-digested consti- 
tution, which has ever since served to all kindred organiza- 
tions. Its annual expenditures for endowments, sick bene- 
fits and assistance to the needy, reach nearly a million dollars, 
and it counts amongst its members some of the most repre- 
sentative Israelites of the country. The total membership 
of the order is about 25,000. 

The Kesher Shel Barzel i^xoxs. Band) was founded in 1868, 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 333 

by J. S. Blackman, a teacher of Hebrew, who at present 
resides in CaHfornia. Its field of operations was principally 
confined to the Polish element and among the lower working 
classes, and up to the year 1871, numbered about eight 
lodges in New York City, and four in California with a 
membership of not over 1,000. After the election of J. P. 
Solomon, of New York, as Grand President, the membership 
rose to 103 lodges and 5,800 members. As constituted at 
present the Kesher Shel Barsel consists of a Supreme Lodge, 
of which Hon. Simon Wolf, of Washington, is the Grand 
President and Alfred T. Jones, of Philadelphia, Grand 
Secretary, and five District Grand Lodges, with a member- 
ship of 12,000. During its existence the order has paid to 
widows and orphans, alone, $700,000. 

The Order Sons of Benjamin was instituted May i, 
1878, the founder being William Heller, a New York mer- 
chant. The present membership, which extends throughout 
all sections of the country, is 10,000 males, and 4,000 females, 
with 123 lodges. The Order provides an endowment of $1,000 
on the death of each male member, and $500 on the death of 
each female. The Order owns a burial plot and has paid 
out since its organization the sum of $450,000 to heirs of de- 
ceased members. Mr. Heller, the founder was for eight 
years Grand Master of the Order. 

The Independent Order Free Sons of Israel with a member- 
ship of 13,000, is located in every State in the Union and 
was organized in the city of New York, in 1848. The United 
States Supreme Lodge is the highest authority of the order. 
Under the endowment system of the order, the sum of $1,000 
is paid to the heirs of deceased members. During the forty 
years of its existence, the Order has paid out to such benefi- 



334 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

ciaries the sum of $1,391,000 and has, in addition, contri- 
buted for charitable purposes, including sick benefits and 
relief to indigent members, the sum of $1,160,000. At this 
time (1888) the Order is composed of in lodges and boasts 
of a reserve fund of $173,000. Of the 13,000 members of the 
order, 9,000 are members of lodges located in District No. i, 
whose headquarters are at New York City. Of the in 
lodges in the order eighty-three work in the English language 
and twenty-eight in German. There are besides eleven ladies' 
lodges. 



ADDENDA. 



HISTORICAL. 

THE oldest Hebrew Congregation in Brooklyn is the 
Temple Beth-Elohim, in the " Eastern District," 
which was organized about 1854 with fifteen members, who 
worshipped in a small room in a building on the north side. 
The initiation fee was $3.00 and the monthly dues fifty 
cents. Mr. Barnard was the first Hazan. Having increased 
in membership, the congregation bought a building at the 
corner of Eighth and South First Streets, which was recon- 
structed and occupied as a synagogue until 1876, when it 
was sold. The present Temple on Keap Street, near Broad- 
way, which is one of the finest religious edifices in the City 
of Churches, was dedicated in 1876, and is the largest syna- 
gogue in the city. The ministers in former years were : 
J. Eisemans, Revs. Gotthold and Rubin, Rev. Dr. Gross- 
man, Rev. Dr. I. Schwab. Rev. Dr. L. Wintner is the 
present Rabbi. 

NORWALK, CONN. 

Toward the close of the Seventeenth Century Ralph 
Isaacs settled at Norwalk, Conn. In 1725 he married Mary 
Rumsey. At this time he was a Christian, but tradition 



336 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

says he was in early life a Hebrew. He is believed to have 
been connected with the Church of England, and was made 
the first Warden of St. Paul's Episcopal Church in 1736. His 
descendants, with scarcely an exception, have been active 
members of that Society. The sixth generation from 
Ralph Isaacs are still living upon the grounds he purchased 
for his son Benjamin at Norwalk. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

The following were among the first arrivals of Hebrews 
at San Francisco from 1849 to 1852 : Jacob Scholle, WiUiam 
Scholle, Michael Reese, Isaac Friedlander, Louis Schloss, 
Louis Gerstle, Isidor Wormser, Simon Wormser, Henry 
Newhouser, M. Bauerfreud, Siegmund T. Meyer, Louis 
Cohen, B. Jacobs, L. Jacobs, Simon W. Glazier, Isaac 
Glazier, A. Hollub, Michael Castle, Frederick Castle, Henry 
Neustadter, Louis Sachs, Martin Sachs, Martin Heller, 
Moses Heller, Henry Seligman, Jesse Seligman, Abraham 
Seligman, Rudolph Wyman, William Steinhardt, Augustus 
S. Tobias, Alfred I. Tobias, Henry Greenburger, Leopold, 
Greenburger, David Bachman, Leopold Bachman, Albert 
Priest, Nathan Bachman, Henry Cohn, Herman Greenebaum, 
Jacob Greenebaum, Philip Schloss, Frederick Schloss, Simon 
Lazar, Ely Lazar, Alex. Lazar, Ulrich Simon, Alex. Wiel, 
H. Tichner, Jacob Meyer, M. Morganthau, David Stern, 
Levi Straus, William Meyer, J. Triest, M. Livingston, M. 
Hydenfelt, Benjamin Triest, L. Goldstein, Joseph Heller, 
Leopold Cohn, Moses Rosenbaum, Joseph Brandenstein, 
Samuel Marks, Charles Pohlman, C. Mayer, Louis Klein, L. 
Elkus, Jonas Adler, B. Dinkelspiel, E. Oppenheim, John 
Alexander, Charles Schmidt, Max Morgenthal, Louis Rein. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 337 

Stein, Nathan Rhine, A. Fleishaker, Sigmund Herman, 
Samuel Meyer, Jonas Meyer, David Kohn, Marcus Kohn, 
Abraham Block, Simon Fuerth, Jacob Hecht, Samuel W. 
Rosenstock, Simon Hecht, Joseph Hoffman, Samuel Hoff- 
man, Haas Brothers, Adelsdorfer Brothers, Moses Weil, 
David Weil, L. White, H. Selig, Joseph Godchaux, L. Rich, 
Joseph Aaron, J. Uhlfelder, L. Kronthal, Hellman Brothers, 
L. Lyon, B. Davidson, Julius May, L. Stein, Simons 
Brothers, N. Koshland, Nathan Asiel. 

PHILADELPHIA. 

Members of the Congregation Mickve-Israel, of Philadel- 
phia, in 1782 : Isaiah Bush, Abraham Barrias, Abraham Von 
Etting, Mayer Solomon, Mayer M. Cohen, Solomon Cohen, 
Isaac Da Costa, Samuel Da Costa, Mayer Darkliam, Samuel 
De Lucena, Bernard Gratz, Michael Gratz, Moses Gomez, 
Daniel Gomez, Philip Moses, Samuel Hays, Jacob Hart, 
Manuel Josephson, Barnubel S. Judah, Isaac Judah, Israel 
Jacobs, Abraham Levy, Hagima Levy, Isaac H. Levy, 
Solomon Levy, Ezekiel Levy, Jacob Levy, Henry Marks, 
Isaac Moses, Solomon Marache, Moses H. Myers, Abraham 
Henriquez, Joseph Solomon, Haym Solomon, Isaac Da 
Costa, Jr., Isaac Madeira, Joseph Madeira, Solomon Marks, 
Eleazar Sey, Isaac Moses, Sr., Zodak Dornistad, Simon 
Nathan, Lyon Nathan, Moses Nathan, Moses Judah, Joseph 
Abandanon, Andrew Levy, Jonas Phillips, Coshman Polock, 
Gershom M. Seixas, Benjamin Seixas, Mordecai Sheftal, 
Sheftal Sheftal, Benjamin Nones, Naphtali Phillips, Levy 
Solomons, Isaac Abrahams, Myer Hart and son, Judah Aaron, 
Solomon Aaron, Isaac Cardoza, Manuel Myers, David Bush,. 
Reuben Etting, Solomon Etting, Moses Jacobs, Moses 



338 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Nathan, Jacob Cohen, Solomon M. Myers, Ephraim Hart, 
Henry Noah, Levy Phillips, Abraham Seixas, Samuel Alex- 
ander, Barendt Spitzer, Moses B. Franks, Joseph. Simons, 
Michael Marks, Jacob Mordecai, Mordecai M. Mordecai, 
Jacob Myers, Asher Myers, Moses A. Myers, Abraham 
Saspartes, Judah Myers, Joseph A. Myers, Mordecai Levy, 
Michael Hart, Naim Van Ishac, Naphtali Hart, Lazarus 
Barnet, Joseph Henry, Colonoms Van Shelemoh, Samuel 
Israel, Joseph Carpelies, Moses Homberg, Marcus Elkin, 
Samuel Lazarus, Philip Russell. 

NEW ORLEANS. 

Officers and Members of the Congregation Shaaray-Chesed, 
of New Orleans in 1828: Morris Jacobs, President; Aaron 
Daniels, Vice-President ; A. Plotz, Junior Warden ; A. 
Green, Junior Warden ; A. Philips, Junior Warden ; Isaac 
Philips, Treasurer ; A. Audler, Secretary ; Jacob S. SoHs, 
Bernard Lejeune, Jacob Myers, L. S. Levy, David Lewis, 
Moses J. Hart, Ralph Jacobs, A. P. Levy, Myers J. Ellis, 
J. La Salle, Solomon Hunt, L. H. Jones, Joseph Solomon, 
E. Stern, Abs. Goldsmith, Nathan Hart, A. H. De Jong, 
A. S. Emmony, Samuel Jacobs, Marx Myers, Levy Prince, 
Solomon Perth, Lewis Kokernot, Marton P. Levy, Charles 
Myers, Aaron Kirkham, Abr. Block, Doct. Z. Florance. 

BALTIMORE. 

In 1856 Mrs. S. N. Carvalho, then residing in the city of 
Baltimore, consulted with several of her personal friends, 
who consented to join her in an erfort to establish a Sunday- 
school where all children of Hebrew parents should receive 
instruction in the principles of conservative Judaism. Mrs. 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 339 

Carvalho had been in former years a teacher in the Sunday- 
school of Miss Rebecca Gratz at Philadelphia. A meeting 
was held at the residence of Mrs. Carvalho, where an 
association was formed, a constitution and by-laws adopted 
and officers elected. Committees were appointed to provide 
the necessary funds for the purchase of books, and a large 
hall was leased as a school-room. The following were the 
officers for the first year : Mrs. S. N. Carvalho, President ; 
Mrs. Josephine Etting, First Vice-President ; Mrs. Gutman, 
Second Vice-President ; Directresses, Mrs. Israel I. Cohen, 
Mrs. Catharine Cohen, Mrs. Stern, Mrs. Margaret Cohen, 
Miss Julia Carvalho, Treasurer ; Miss Rachel Cohen, Secre- 
tary ; Edward Cohen, Corresponding Secretary. A large 
volunteer corps of capable teachers presented themselves on 
the day of opening. The pupils numbered about fifty girls 
and boys. Within three months the number had increased 
to several hundred. 

IN THE ARMY AND NAVY. 

Albert, the second son of Major Raphael Moses, of Geor- 
gia, changed his surname to Luria to preserve the family 
name, which had been transmitted from the time when his 
ancestors left Spain on account of the Inquisition, and when 
nineteen years old was appointed Lieutenant in a North 
Carolina regiment. He was killed at Seven Pines in June, 
1862, while rallying his company, having seized the colors 
falling from the hands of the dying color-bearer. An inci- 
dent of this officer's bravery is worth recording. At the en- 
gagement at Sewell's Point, near Norfolk, in May, 1861, an 
eight-inch shell, with fuse still burning, fell into the com- 



340 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

pany's gun-pit, and young Albert, without a moment's hesi- 
tation, seized it in his arms and put it in a tub of water, 
quenched the fuse and saved his own and comrades' Hves. 
The company, in recognition of his heroism, had the shell 
engraved with a history of the incident and sent it 
to his parents. It now stands upon a pillar over his grave 
at the " Esquiline," near Columbus, Ga., as a fitting monu- 
ment. 

The Confederate soldiers' plot in the Hebrew Cemetery at 
Richmond, Va., is surrounded by an iron fence representing 
stacks of muskets, swords, military caps and implements of 
war, the whole forming a design at once unique and sub- 
stantial. Within the enclosure and close by rest the remains 
of the following soldiers, who fell in battle at Richmond and 
Petersburg and surrounding country: Captain M. Marcus, 
1 5th Georgia ; A. Robinson, 1 5th Georgia ; S. Oury, i6th Mis- 
sissippi; M. Bachrach, Lynchburg, Va.; Corporal G. Eisman, 
1 2th Mississippi; E. B. Miller; H. Jacobs, South Carolina; 
S. Weiss, Georgia ; Isaac Seldner, 6th Virginia Infantry ; 
Lieutenant L. S. Lipman, 5th Louisiana; Lieutenant W. M. 
Wolf, Hagood's South Carolina Brigade ; A. Heyman, 
Georgia ; Julius Zark, 7th Louisiana ; A. Lehman, South 
Carolina ; M. -Aaron, North Carolina ; Jacob A. Cohen, loth 
Louisiana ; Henry Cohen, South Carolina ; I. Frank, 
Georgia; S. Bachrach, Lynchburg, Va.; Jonathan Sheur, 
Louisiana; Samuel Bear, Georgia; I. Cohen, Hampton's 
South Carolina Legion; T. Foltz, i6th Mississippi; Henry 
Gersberg, Salem, Va.; M. Levy, Mississippi ; I. Rosenberg, 
Georgia; Henry Adler, 46th Virginia; E. J. Sampson, 4th 
Texas; J. Wolf, North Carolina; J. Hessberg, Caroline 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 341 

County, Va.; Isaac J. Levy, Richmond Light Infantry Blues. 
Marx Myers, Richmond Grays ; Gustavus Kann, i6th Mis- 
sissippi ; Henry Smith, killed in battle near Fayette 
C. H., Va. 

BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Felix Adler, one of the most eloquent orators in America, 
and the founder of the New York Society for Ethical Culture, 
is the son of Rabbi Samuel Adler, pastor emeritus of the 
Temple Emanu-El. He graduated from Columbia College 
in 1870, and was then sent to Europe with a view of prepar- 
ing for the ministry. For this purpose he entered Berlin 
and Heidelberg Universities, where he obtained the degree 
of Ph. D. After his return to the United States he received 
the appointment of Professor of Hebrew and Oriental Liter- 
ature at Cornell University, and upon his retirement from 
the position in 1876, he established the Society for Ethical 
Culture. In 1877 he published a series of discourses delivered 
before this Society under the name of " Creed and Deed." 
He has manifested interest in the welfare of the workingmen, 
tenement house reform and the kindergarten system. He is 
also an advocate of cremation and is an officer of some of 
the associations having in view the introduction of that 
method of disposing of the dead. 

Leon Hyneman, a distinguished Free Mason, was the 
publisher of ■' Ancient York and London Grand Lodges," 
" Hyneman's Review," " The Masonic Library," " World's 
Masonic Register," and the weekly " Masonic Mirror and 
Keystone." He died at New York City in 1880, aged seventy- 
four years. His sister, Rebecca, was a well-known contributor 
to periodical literature. 



342 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

Isaac Frank, of New York, was one of the founders of the 
railroad ticket-brokerage business, which has grown to very 
large proportions throughout the United States. He is the 
son of Marcus Frank, who settled at Syracuse, N. Y., and in 
1870 moved to Tififin, Ohio, where in 1874 the son inaugur- 
ated his present business. Mr. Frank has branch offices 
in all the large cities of the Union, and is assisted 
in his work by his brothers, Jacob and Moses, and other 
relatives. 

ASSOCIATIONS AND INSTITUTIONS. 

The Board of Delegates of American Israelites, organized 
in 1859, w^s foi" nineteen years an influential organization, 
and had for its object co-operation in directing government 
aid to the rescue of oppressed co-religionists from danger 
and persecution, and the elevation of the social condition of 
Hebrews in countries where the laws discriminated against 
them. The Board was organized soon after the abduction 
of Edgar Mortaro, by the Papal authorities. Co-operation 
with \^Q Alliance Israelite Universelle, and correspondence 
with various Jewish organizations in Europe was maintained 
during the nineteen years existence of the Board, whereby 
the rights of Hebrews abroad were secured by means of 
liberal contributions at home, and suffering and destitution in 
various countries was alleviated. The-persecution of Hebrews 
in the Danubian Principalities from 1866 to 1878, received 
the earnest attention of the Board. The State Department 
at Washington was asked in 1867 to institute inquiries 
regarding the cruel and inhuman laws and practices directed 
against the Hebrews of Servia, and in 1870 the Board sug- 
gested to the Department the appointment at Bucharest of a 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 343 

"capable consul imbued with American sympathies, and 
willing to co-operate with the European Consuls in measures 
for the relief of the unhappy Israelites," in that country. In 
accordance with this suggestion Hon. Benjamin F. Peixotto, 
was designated by President Grant as Consul at Bucharest. 
His presence proved the means of checking the excesses in 
that country. The representation of Jewish organizations 
at Berlin for the purpose of submitting a statement of the 
Jewish question to the Congress of the Great Powers in 1878 
was suggested by the Board of Delegates. The care of 
poor emigrants from Russia and Roumania, and the regu- 
lation of the movement whereby objectionable persons 
should be excluded was the subject of discussion by the 
Board, and resulted in the adoption of wholesome regulations. 
At home the usefulness of the Board has been attested 
on numerous occasions. In 1861, the Board of Delegates ad- 
dressed a memorial to Congress, protesting against the act 
passed by that body providing that chaplains appointed in 
the Volunteer Service must be " a regular ordained minister 
of some Christian denomination," on the grounds of its un- 
constitutionality. The result was the passage of an amend- 
atory act substituting the word " Religious " for " Christian." 
In 1862, the Board secured a revocation of General Grant's 
order expelling " Jews as a class " from within the Depart- 
ment of Tennessee. In 1864, the Board memorialized the 
United States Senate in protest of the action of the Presby- 
terian Conference at Pittsburg, Penn., praying for an amend- 
ment to the Constitution of the United States recognizing 
Christianity as the religion of the land. In North Carolina, 
in 1866, a proposition to embody in the new Constitution a 
a provision denying the right to hold office to any person 



344 THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 

who should question the " divine authority of the Old and 
New Testament," called forth a vigorous protest from the 
Board which resulted in the rejection of the objectionable 
clause. A similar fate was shared by the bill offered in Con- 
gress the same year requiring citizens qualifying as members 
of the Constitutional Convention to be sworn on the " Holy 
Evangelists." The formation of the Union of American He- 
brew Congregations in 1878, was followed by the dissolution 
of the Board of Delegates whose functions have since been 
delegated to a standing committee of the Union designated 
as " The Board of Delegates on Civil and Religious Rights." 
The first ofificers of the Board were : Henry I. Hart, of New 
York, President ; Rev. Isaac Leeser, of Philadelphia, Vice- 
President ; Gerson N. Hermann, of New Vork, Treasurer; 
Myer S. Isaacs, of New York, Secretary. 

With the large arrival of Russian refugees commencing 
a few years since, there arose a demand for a new public 
place of amusement in the city of New York. Accordingly, 
in 1884, a Russian-Hebrew Opera Company, with Moses 
Silberman as manager and Joseph Lateiner as composer, 
opened an establishment in Turner Halle on East Fourth 
Street. In the course of a few months they removed to 
Nos. 113 and 11 3-^ Bowery, where they secured a ten years' 
lease. Here they have been presenting for the past three 
years a number of musical plays by exclusively Hebrew- 
Russian artists of repute from Odessa, St. Petersburg, Mos- 
cow and Roumania. The stars comprising a portion of the 
troupe are Messrs. Abraham Schengold, M. Spiva-Kovski, 
Mc Heine, Mrs. Moses Silberman and Mrs. S. Borodkin. 
The most successful plays thus far produced are " Orpheus," 



THE HEBREWS IN AMERICA. 345 

which constituted the initiatory performance on May 23, 
1884, " David Ben Jesse," " Bar Cochba," and " Joseph and 
His Brothers." In this establishment the Hebrew-German 
dialect is employed. The entire cast, as well as various 
staffs of employees, artistic, business and mechanical, are of 
the Hebrew persuasion. The " Oriental," by which name 
this theatre is known, has accommodation for 1,000 patrons. 
The price of admission ranges from 25 cents to $1.00. 



Page 



INDEX. 





22d line, 


ERRATA. 


read 




24, 


for Hyam, 


Haym. 


27- 


24th " 


" Ludwig, 


ti 


Leo. 


124, 


nth " 


" Levy, 


It 


Levi. 


i7i> 


1 2th " 


" $750,000, 


It 


$250,000 


201, 


I2th " 


" 1882, 


ti 


1822. 


255, 


13th " 


" 1822, 


" 


1882. 


258, 


26th " 


" Jossefy, 


it 


Joseffy. 


284, 


nth " 


" Isaac, 


tt 


Isaacs. 



Any other typographical errors as to dates will be corrected in 
second edition if sent to author. 



Dacr, ocniiiaru ivx., 104. 
Baltimore, 

" Early Settlers, 93. 

" First Sunday-school, 338. 

" Later Settlers, 100. 

" Merchants, 168. 
Bamberger, Bloom & Co., 145. 
Banco, Miriam, Del, 208. 
Bandman, Dan'l E., 263. 
Barnert, Nathan, 164. 
Barnett, Jonas, I35. 
Baruch, Simon, 197. 
Bauer, M., 183. 
Bendall, Dr. Herman, 182. 
Benjamin, Judah P., 177-178. 
Bettman, David, 161, 
Bettman, Jefferson, ig8. 
Bettman, Bernhard, 170. 



Cahn, Mayer, 183. 
Cantor, Jacob A., 189. 
Cardoza, Michael H., 203. 
Carvalho, E. N., 266-279. 
Carvalho, David Nunes, 96. 
Carvalho, Solomon N., 203. 
Carvalho, Mrs. S. N,, 338. 
Chicago, 105. 
Charleston, 53. 

" Ministers, 57. 

Cincinnati, 100. 

" Synagogue, 102. 

Cleveland, 104. 

" Institutions, 329. 

Cohen, David M., 133. 
Cohen, Edward, 149. 
Cohen, Emanuel, 204. 



INDEX. 



Abraham, Victor, 183. 
Abraham, Joseph, 101-102, 

ctors and Dramatists, 262-265. 
Adler, Dankman, 258. 
.' iler, Felix, 341. 
Adler, Max, 165 
Adler, Samuel, 278. 
Albany, N. Y., lib. 
Allen, Mrs. Anna, 77. 
Altman, Benj., 158. 
Aronson, the Brothers, 262. 
Arnold, Abraham B., 196. 
Associations, 309- 
Aub, Joseph, 197. 
Augusta, Ga,, 113. 

B 



Berkowitz, H., 291. 
Bien, Julius, 199. 
Binswanger, Isidore, 200. 
Bloom, Adam E., 184. 
Bloom, Nathan, 145. 
Bloomingdale Bros., 158. 
Blum, Leon & Hyman, i6g. 
Blumenberg, Leopold, 131. 
Blumenburg, M. A.. 268. 
Blumenthal, Jos., 1S9. 
Blumenthal, Mark, 201. 
Blumenstiel, Alex., 227. 
B'nai-Berith, Order of, 331. 
Board of Delegates, 342. 
Brentano, August, 262. 
Brooklyn, First Synagogue, 335. 
Buffalo, N. Y.,119. 
Bush, Col. Solomon, 126. 
Bush, Isidor, 201. 



Baar, Herman, 197. 
Baer, Bernhard M., 184. 
Baltimore, 

" Early Settlers, 93. 

" First Sunday-school, 338. 

" Later Settlers, 100. 

" Merchants, 168. 
Bamberger, Bloom & Co., 145. 
Banco, Miriam, Del, 208. 
Bandman, Dan'l E., 263. 
Barnert, Nathan, 164. 
Barnett, Jonas, 135. 
Baruch, Simon, 197. 
Bauer, M., 183. 
Bendall, Dr. Herman, 182. 
Benjamin, Judah P., 177-178. 
Bettman, David, 161, 
Bettman, Jefferson, 198. 
Bettman, Bernhard, 170. 



Cahn, Mayer, 183. 
Cantor, Jacob A., 189. 
Cardoza, Michael H. , 203. 
Carvalho, E. N., 266-279. 
Carvalho, David Nunes, 96. 
Carvalho, Solomon N., 203. 
Carvalho, Mrs. S. N,, 338. 
Chicago, 105. 
Charleston, 53. 

" Ministers, 57. 

Cincinnati, 100. 

" Synagogue, 102. 

Cleveland, 104. 

" Institutions, 329. 

Coljen, David M., 133. 
Cohen, Edward, 149. 
Cohen, Emanuel, 204. 



3SO 



INDEX. 



M 

Mack, M. J., 170. 
Marshall, Louis, 22g. 
Marx, Henry C, 25. 
Mayer, Constant, 22g. 
Mayer, Marcus R., 250. 
Mayer, S. I., 165. 
Mayer, Strouse & Co., 165. 
Memphis, Tenn., 122. 
Mendes, F. de Sola, 2g6. 
Mendes, Henry P., 298. 
Mendes, Isaac P., 296. 
Menken, N. D,, 172. 
Menken & Co., 171. 
Messing, Mayer, 300. 
Michelson, Albert A., 132. 
Minis, the family of, 49. 
Mitchell, Abraham, 127. 
Mobile, III. 
Moise, Penima, 59. 
Moore, J. S„ 232. 
Morals, Henry S., 231. 
Morals, Sabato, 230. 
Morange, Benj. and family, 26. 
Morange, Henry M., 26. 
Mordecai, Major A., 129-133. 
Morris, Nelson, 166. 
Morse, Godfrey, 233. 
Morse, Leopold, 1 88. 
Moses, Adolph, 233. 
Moses, Franklin J., 179-180. 
Moses, Joshua, 128. 
Moses, Israel, 128. 
Moses, Isaac, 70, 71-128. 
Moses, Joseph, 129. 
Moses, M. L., 182. 
Moses, Myer, 127. 
Moses, Raphael J., 180. 
Mosler, Henry, 234. 
Muck, Henry, 183. 
Muhr, H. and sons, 154. 
Musicians, 258-260. 
Myers, Mordecai, 127. 
Myers, Nathan, 234. 
Myers, S. F., 153. 
Myers, Theo. W., 194, 



Nones, Solomon B., 174. 
Nones, family of, 135. 
Newark, N. J., 122. 

" merchants, 163. 
New Haven, Conn., 121. 
Newman, Leopold C., 129. 
New Orleans, 8g. 

" " Institutions, 323. 

" " Congrega'n, 1828, 338. 

Newport, 33-34- 
New York, 

Aguilar Free Library, 318. 

Bankers, 139-140. 

Butchers, 156-157. 

Capital leading lines, 157. 

Cemetery, 43. 

Cigar manufacturers, 156. 

Clothing Trade, 151. 

Early Settlers, 3. 

First Congregation, 18. 

Hebrew Free School, 320. 

Hebrew Theatre, 344. 

Home for Aged, 316. 

Institutions, 323. 

Jewish Theol. Sem., 322. 

Jewelry merchants, 153. 

Maimonides Library ,319. 

Merchants, last century, 17. 

Montefiore Home, 313-314. 

Mt. Sinai Hospital, 312. 

Mutual Benefit Society, 321 . 

Orphan Asylum, 310-312. 

Real Estate Holders, 157. 

Sheltering G'rd'n Sc, 315. 

Stock Ex., members, 140. 

Technical Institute, 317. 

Temple Emanu-El, 27. 

Tobacco merchants, 1 54. 

Various trades, 152. 



Office holders, 184-185. 
Oppenheimer, Seligman, 153. 
Otterbourg, Marcus, 185. 



N 



Naar, David, 265. 
Noah, Mordecai, M., 26-174. 
Nones, Abraham B., 174. 
Nones, Major Benj., 126. 
Nones, Joseph B., 135. 



Peixotto, Benj. F., 235-269. 
Peixotto, Dr. D. L. M.,22. 
Peixotto, Geo. D. M., 239. 
Philadelphia. 

'• Congrega'n in 1782, 337. 



INDEX. 



3SI 



Philadelphia, Early Settlers, 62. 

'' Former Merchants, 75. 

" rnstitutions, 323-329, 

Phillips, Emanuel J., 135. 
Phillips, Henry M., 175. 
PhilHps, Isaac, 180. 
Phillips, Morris, 241. 
Phillips, the family, 75. 
Pike, Samuel N., 146. 
Pittsburg, 109 
Plaut, L. S. &Co., 163. 
Platzek, Warley, 242. 
Portland, Oregon, 115. 
Press, the Hebrew, 269-274. 
Proskauer, Adolph, 138. 
Pulitzer, Joseph and Albert, 267. 



R. 

Ranger, Morris, 147. 
Raphall, Morris J., 300-301. 
Rayner, Isidore, 188. 
Reinstine, Alex, 183. 
Richmond, Va., 83-86. 

Former citizens, 87-88. 
■' Ministers at, 84. 

Theatre Fire, 86. 
Rochester, N. Y., 117. 

" " Institutions, 330. 

Riviera, Jacob R., 36. 
Rosendale, S. W., 243. 
Rosenthal, Julius, 244. 
Rosenthal, Lewis, 244. 
Rosenthal, Toby, 245. 
Rosnosky, Isaac, 183. 



Schloss, Philip, 182. 

Scholle Bros., 145. 

Schwab Chas., 167. 

Schwabe, L. B., 247. 

Schweitzer, Bernhard, 182. 

Seasongood, Lewis, 143-145. 

Seixas, Rev. G. M., 16-19, 

Seligman Brothers, 141. 

Seligman. DeWitt J., 247. 

Seligman, Edwin R. A., 248. 

SeHgman, Joseph, 174. 

Selz, Schwab & Co., 166. 

Sheftall, the family, 49-50, 

Shoninger, Bernard, 164. 

Shroder, Jacob, 195. 

Simon, Edward & Co., 162. 

Simon, Joseph, 184- 

Simon, Joseph and family, 78-8*. 

Soils, Jacobs., 309. 

Soils, Solomon, 325. 

Sons of Benjamin, Order of, 333. 

Sonneschein, Solomon H., 301-302. 

Soldiers' Cemetery, 340. 

Solomons, A. S., 248. 

Sommer, H. B., 264. 

Steckler, Alfred, 195. 

Sterne, Simon, 249. 

Stern Brothers, 160. 

Stern, Simon H., 249. 

Stettheimer, Joseph, 161. 

Strasburg, Sallie, 258. 

Strasburger, Louis, 154. 

Straus, L., & Sons, 160. 

Straus, Oscar S., 186-187. 

Strouse, Abr., 165. 

Sulzberger, Mayer, 252. 

Sutro, Adolph, 257. 

Szold, Benjamin, 303. 



St. Louis, 106, 108. 
Salomon, Ezekiel, 92. 
Salomon, Haym M., 24. 
Salomon, Haym, 66-70. 
Salomon, R. G., 162-3. 
San Francisco, 114. 

" " Early Settlers, 336. 

" " Merchants, 168. 

" " Institutions, 331. 

Sanger, Adolph L., 245. 
Savannah, 45. 

Synagogue, 48, 50, 51-52. 
" Merchants, 167. 
Scheftel, Adolph, 148. 
Schiff, Jacob H., 148. 



Thalraessinger, M., 150. 
Tim, Wallerstein & Co., 168. 
Touro, Rev. Isaac, and family, 39. 
Touro, Judah, 90-92. 



W. 



Waldstein, Charles, 257. 
Waldstein, Martin E., 252. 
Walter, Philip, 184. 
Walter, Miss Josephine, 258. 



352 



INDEX. 



Washington, D. C, 124. 
Wasserman, Philip, 183. 
Weil, Joseph, 146. 
Weil, Max, 146. 
Weil, Paul, 182. 
Weil, Samuel, 182. 
Weill, Solomon C, 252. 
West Point graduates, 133. 
Wilmington, N. C, 113. 
Wintner, Leopold, 304. 
Wolf, Simon, 253. 
Wolff, Alfred R., 258. 
Woolf, M, A. 262. 
Wolffe, Frederick, 256. 
Woolf, Benj. E., 263. 



Wise, Aaron, 305. 

Wise, Isaac M., 270, 306-307. 

Wormser Brothers, 143. 



Yulee, David L., 180. 
Z 



Zeisler, Joseph, 256. 
Zunder, Maier, 183. 



i